Measuring Corruption the potential of quantitative surveys

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Regional Conference on Fighting Corruption in Education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 24-25 November, BratislavaJacques Hallak & Muriel Poisson

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<ul><li> 1. RegionalConference: FightingCorruptioninEducation inEasternEuropeandCentralAsia Bratislava,2425November2011 Measuringcorruption:thepotentialsofquantitativesurveys JacquesHallak andMurielPoissonIIEPUNESCO2 Monitoringcorruptpractices Combiningdifferentapproaches:Objective:publicexpendituretrackingsurveys(PETS)andquantitativeservicedeliverysurveys(QSDS)Subjective:perceptionofservicedelivery(reportcards) )Hallak &amp;PoissonIIEPUNESCO1</li></ul> <p> 2. 3Fact finding versusperceptionI.FactfindingObjectivedata(MoE/Institutions) Organizational (management,central&amp;locallevel) PETS Humanresources (ghostteachers,absenteeism,recruitment)II.Perception Financing (financialstatementsofanactivity/entity,budget,fundSubjectivedataraising) (Teachers/Student) (T h /S d ) Procurement (tendering) Participatory assessmentHallak &amp;PoissonIIEPUNESCO4 1.DefinitionofPublicExpenditureTrackingSurveys(PETS) Objective: j Tolocateandmeasureleakagesandidentifycausesto proposeremedies InitiatedinUgandain1996 Sincethen,severaldozensofPETSimplemented worldwide:Albania,Cambodia,Ghana,Macedonia, Mongolia,Namibia,PapuaNewGuinea,Peru,Tanzania, Zambia,etc.Hallak &amp;PoissonIIEPUNESCO2 3. 5 PETS:leakageofnonwagefunds PETS:leakageofnon Country Year Fund Sample Leakage Peru2001 Utilities10030% Vietnam 2005 Nonwage 4prov. 1319% Zambia2001 Discr.grt 18276% Source:WorldBank.Hallak &amp;Poisson IIEPUNESCO 62.DefinitionofQuantitative2.DefinitionofQuantitativeServiceDeliverySurveys(QSDS) Objectives: Toexaminetheefficiencyofpublicspendingineducation; e.g.availabilityoftextbooksperpupilintheclassroom Toanalyzethevariousdimensionsofservicedeliveryon thefrontline(schools);e.g.numberofteachinghoursper week ImplementedinBangladesh,Ecuador,India,Indonesia, Peru,etc.,oftenincombinationwithaPETSHallak &amp;Poisson IIEPUNESCO 3 4. 7 QSDS:correlationofteacher absenteeismin5countries 1 Nber ofcountries Corr.+Corr.Age 2 0 SalariesEducationlevel 2 0Schooldirector 2 0Supervision 0 3 ControlanddisciplineInvolvment inPTA 1 2Infrastructurequality1 4 Workingconditions Isolation 1 1Multigradeclasses1 1Localrecruitment 0 0 Intrinsicmotivation Tenure0 0Continuoustraining 1 1 Contractualstatus Teachercontract20 (sur4) 1Bangladesh,Ecuador,India,Indonesia,PeruHallak &amp;PoissonIIEPUNESCO83.Definitionofreportcards Objectives:Toprovidequantitativefeedbackonuserperceptionsandknowledgeonthequality,adequacyandefficiencyofpublicservicesToexactpublicaccountabilitythroughtheextensivemediacoverageandcivilsocietyadvocacythataccompaniestheprocessImplementedincountriesworldwide(LatinAmerica,USA,Bangladesh,etc.)Hallak &amp;PoissonIIEPUNESCO4 5. Reportcard:comparativestudy 9 byPREALHallak &amp;Poisson IIEPUNESCO 104.Keyissues:Whocandoit? RolesofMOEofficialsandofentitiesinchargeof datacollection Universities,researchcentres? Nationalinstituteofstatistics? NGOs? Localorinternationalconsultants? Capacitybuildingobjectives? Whodoestheanalysis?Hallak &amp;Poisson IIEPUNESCO 5 6. 11 Conclusion Togetareliablediagnosisofsupply,needtocombine differenttypesofsurveys: PETS QSDS Reportcards Perceptionsurveys Others Needtocombinetheresultsofvarioussurveys y (households,tests,etc.)Hallak &amp;PoissonIIEPUNESCO6 </p>

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