Media Theory - Audience Representation Narrative Genre

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<ul><li> 1. AUDIENCE THEORY</li></ul><p> 2. John HartleyHis best-selling book, Reading Television publishedinin 1978 andco-authored with John Fiske, was thefirst to analyse television from a cultural perspective,and is considered a defining publication in the field.This work also established Hartley as a pioneer andinternational leader in contemporary television andcultural studies. 3. The Hartley ClassificationThere are 7 socially grouped categories when it comes toidentifying audience: Self ambitions or interests of the audience Gender Age Group Class different social classes e.g. working, upper etc. Ethnicity Family Nation 4. Hartley also suggests that institutions produce:Invisible fictions of the audience which allow theinstitutions to get a sense of who they must enter into relations withIn other words, they must know their audience to be able to target them effectively. 5. David Morley Reception Theory 6. The Nationwide Project Morley is primarily known as being one of theprincipal researchers at the Centre forContemporary Cultural Studies in Birmingham The Nationwide Project was a research task whichlooked at the BBCs current affairs showNationwide in order to study the encoding-decodingmodel The primary aim was to analyse theprogrammesdistinctive ideological themes and theparticular ways in which Nationwide addressed theviewer 7. The Nationwide Project Morley conducted qualitative research with awide range of participants from differentbackgrounds, observing their responses to aclip from the show Of the three readings (dominant, oppositional,negotiated), management groups produceddominant readings, students negotiatedreadings and trade union groups producedoppositional readings 8. Conclusion Morley concluded that decoding cannot betraced solely to socioeconomic position, asmembers of the same sample produceddifferent readings However, the results tend to correlate withthe concept that an audience memberssocial position structures theirunderstanding and decoding of televisionprogrammes 9. The idea of audience ischanging Julian McDougall (2009) suggests that inthe online age it is getting harder toconceive a media audience as a stable,identifiable group. Many argue that anaudience is just a hypothetical group ofpeople imagined for the sole purposehaving a target for a media product. 10. IenAng IenAng, a leading professor ofCultural Studies believes audiencesonly exist as an imaginary entity, anabstraction, constructed from thevantage point of the institution, inthe interest of the institution. She follows the belief that are nottruly reflective of peoples viewsand serve only to aid producers 11. Julian McDougall (2009) He is often controversial, McDougall explores issues ineducation, and calls on educators to abandonprejudices and engage with what students are alreadyactually doing with new media forms. He advocates ashift away from students viewing cultural products astexts to a view where even video games need analysis,explanation and research. In this way, he is very muchan advocate of exploring new and less traditional formsof literacy, as well as analysing the relationshipbetween new media and postmodern theories He believes it is harder to perceive a media audience asa stable, identifiable group in the online age. However, audiences still make sense of and givemeaning to products. 12. Julian McDougall Often provocative and controversial, McDougall explores issues in education,and calls on educators to abandon their prejudices and engage with whatstudents are already actually doing with new media forms. Building on workfrom David Buckingham, Steven Johnson and David Gauntlett, he advocatesa shift away from students viewing cultural products as texts to a view whereeven video games need analysis, explanation and research.In this way, he is very much an advocate of exploring new and less traditionalforms of literacy, as well as analysing the relationship between new mediaand postmodern theories,Audiences Julian McDougall (2009) suggests that in the online age it is gettingharder to conceive a media audience as a stable, identifiable group. However audiences still clearly make sense and give meaning to culturalproducts. An audience can be described as a temporary collective (McQuail, 1972). Keyterms: Mass / Niche &amp; Mainstream / Alternative 13. John Hartley institutions are obliged to speak not only about anaudience, but crucially, for them, to talk to one aswell; they need not only to represent audiences butto enter in to relation with them Also suggests institutions should produce invisiblefictions of the audience which allow the institutionsto get a sense of who they must enter into relationswith Therefore, the institutions must know theiraudience, in order to target them effectively. 14. However Audiences still make sense and givemeaning to cultural products. Audiences are necessary for media productsto work as without a a demographic to aimat (however niche or mainstream) it wouldnot be received by anyone. 15. Hypodermic Needle Theory The Hypodermic Needle Theory, alsoknown as the Magic Bullet Theory, was thefirst major theory concerning the effect ofthe mass media on society. Originating inthe 1920s, the theory was based on thepremise of an all-powerful media withuniform and direct effects on the viewer oraudience. (i.e. information is injected intoaudiences) 16. Blumler and Katz Uses and Gratifications Theory The Gratifications Theory assumes we activelyseek out media to satisfy individual needs. Theuses and gratifications theory looks to answerthree questions: What to do people do with the media? What are their underlying motives for usingsaid media? What are the pros cons of this this individualmedia use? 17. Uses and GratificationsThe Blumler and Katz theory is the understanding of what the audience does for the media not what the media does for the audience. It is the integration that the audience does for the media that helps sales, for example buying of the product.The uses and gratifications theory follows a simple model, the audience takes anactive role on their media choice, which by seeking out the media, a personfulfils the need to be informed:(1) Diversion - Escape from routine and problems; emotional release. Escapism.(2) Personal Relationships - Social utility of information in conversation;substitution of media for companionship.(3) Personal Identity or Individual Psychology - Value reinforcement orreassurance; self-understanding, reality exploration. (4) Surveillance - Information about factors which might affect one, or will helpone do or accomplish something. 18. Reception Theory Presentation Transcript 1. David Phillips Reception theory 2. Reception Theory Understanding the early theory of receptionof text. 3. Some early thoughts Reception theory is a version of readerresponse literary theory that emphasizes the readers reception of aliterary text. 4. In essence, the meaning of a text is not inherent within the textitself, but is created within the relationship between the text and thereader. 5. What do we interpret from a message Stuart Hall stressed therole of social positioning in the interpretation of mass media texts bydifferent social groups. In a model deriving from Frank Parkinsmeaning systems, Hall suggested three hypothetical interpretativecodes or positions for the reader of a text. 19. 6. Reception models Dominant (or hegemonic) reading: the reader fullyshares the texts code and accepts and reproduces the preferred reading(a reading which may not have been the result of any consciousintention on the part of the author(s)) - in such a stance the code seemsnatural and transparent;Negotiated reading: the reader partly shares the texts code and broadlyaccepts the preferred reading, but sometimes resists and modifies it ina way which reflects their own position, experiences and interests(local and personal conditions may be seen as exceptions to thegeneral rule) - this position involves contradictions;Oppositional (counter-hegemonic) reading: the reader, whose socialsituation places them in a directly oppositional relation to thedominant code, understands the preferred reading but does not sharethe texts code and rejects this reading, bringing to bear an alternativeframe of reference (radical, feminist etc.) (e.g. when watching atelevision broadcast produced on behalf of a political party theynormally vote against). 20. 7. Uses and Gratification The basic theme of Uses and Gratifications is the idea that people use the media to get specific gratifications. This is in opposition to the Hypodermic Needle model that claims consumers have no say in how the media influences them. 8. Uses and Gratification - people play and active role.... Jay G. Blumler and Elihu Katz devised their uses and gratifications model in 1974 to highlight five areas of gratification in media texts for audiences. These include: Escape Some media texts allow the user to escape from reality. Social interaction People create personal relationships with the characters in a media text. Identify People often identify a part of themselves in a media text, either through character or circumstance. Inform and educate the audience gain an understanding of the world around them by consuming a media text, for example print and broadcast news. Entertain - consumed purely for entertainment purposes, meaning that text need not have any other gratifications. 21. 9. Shared experience the basis for this hypothesis, that it is the sharing ofsubjective experience that is the fundamental element that underliesattachment drive and behavior, requires an examination of the verybasis and context of our living experience. 10. The role of role models Fashion Celebrity WoM AssociationSense of group and belonging Makes reception easy in social context 11. Evidence of the influence of mass media A single story haslittle effect Need for context Need for repetition All publicity is goodpublicity? Is this how propaganda works? David Fan says a free pressis a defense against but not complete.By Matthew Allard 22. REPRESENTATION THEORY 23. Representation How the media shows us things aboutsociety through careful mediation ofre-presenting a shared view of the world 24. Stuart HallIn our modern world our life is saturated withvisual representations 25. What do these images signify? Consider: Colour Symbolism 26. What do these images signify?Consider:ClothingPropsGesture 27. What do these images signify?Consider:CostumePropsDifferences in clothing andpositioning 28. How to apply theory in your writing and use the theorists Assume your reader knows about thetheory/theorist Dont explain the theory; use it A Todorovian analysis would argue... Steve Neales statements that Genre is made upof repetition and change could be useful herebecause... Barthes notion of action codes provides auseful way of understanding the film in that... 29. Ferdinand de Saussure -Semiotics Meaning is constructed through the interpretation ofsigns. Signifier = the physical/visual object i.e. A knife Signified = the meaning it creates i.e. Threat, aggression, violence/self-defence and protection Representations are created through signs which signifymeaning. Like the knife, signs can have more than onemeaning leading to a polysemic reading of signs 30. Look over your images again Can you apply Saussures semiotics topolysemic representations of the visualsigns in the frames? 31. List the characters in your films Who are they? What roles do they have in the narrative? 32. Richard Dyer Stereotypes Stereotype (first used as a term by WalterLippmann in 1956) Has come to be defined as a negativerepresentation or over-simplification of acategory of people in a group Dyer explains that stereotypes reinforceideas of differences between people whichare natural i.e. Criminals are representedas low-lifes, untrustworthy... 33. Counter argument Tessa Perkins (1979) Stereotypes are not always negative Are not always about minority groups Stereotypes are not always false Apply this to your characters in your films E.g. What social group(s) do your charactersbelong to? How is this made clear? What age group do your characters belong to(e.g. Nervous, unsure teenagers...) 34. Counter Argument David Gauntlett and Martin Barker Identities are not given but are constructedand negotiated (Gauntlett) Martin Barker condemned stereotypes formis-representing the real world byreinforcing false stereotypes 35. Baudrillard Postmodern theorist Argues that representations no longer refer to reality or real things The representation has become more real to us than the reality i.e.The representation of mob bosses as Italian Mafia men instilledthrough The Godfather, Goodfellas, The Sopranos This is re-presentation of reality is termed a simulacrum a copy ofreality For Baudrillard, these images have become hyperreal have norelationship to the real. CSI and Silent Witness as examples of forensicscience investigations that through their popularity seem to typify ourperception of what that reality is like 36. Your characters Pick one of the characters from either your film oranother groups. Create a profile about them Motivation Who they represent What they represent Where did you get your inspirations for your characters?From reality or from media representations on film andtelevision? Are they, therefore, arguably a simulacrum of reality? 37. NARRATIVE THEORY 38. Insert narrative ingredients game 39. Theorists you need to know (and love) Tzvetan Todorov (Structure of narrative) Vladimir Propp (Characters in narratives) Roland Barthes (Codes of narratives) Claude Levi-Strauss (Binary oppositions) 40. Plot vs. Narrative Plot = the chronological events of a story.E.g. The story of Titanic begins whenpeople board a really big boat and it endswith the peaceful death of the old lady(Rose). Narrative = the organisation of this story.E.g. The film of Titanic begins in thepresent with the old lady relaying her storybefore the film has prolonged flashbacks tothe past 41. Types of Narrative Structure 42. StructurePlace these narrative events inorder: Detective investigates Crime conceived Crime discovered Detective identifies crime Crime committed Crime planned 43. StructureThe plot of this story: Crime conceived Crime planned Crime committed Crime discovered Detective identifies crime Detective investigates 44. ProppStudied Russian folktales and created a list of distinguishable character typologies (categories) including: The hero (sent on a quest) The villain (struggles against hero) The princess/prize (what the heroseeks in completing the quest) The donor (gives vital informationor object to hero) The helper (aids in the quest) 45. Applying Propp to The ShiningJackDannyWendyMr Grady Dick 46. Applying Propp to Memento ?LeonardMurdererLeonards Wife 47. Propps eight character r...</p>