medieval western europe a quest for order. periodizationperiodization early middle ages: 500 –...
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Medieval Western EuropeA Quest for Order
PeriodizationEarly Middle Ages: 500 1000
High Middle Ages: 1000 1250
Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
Western Europe. In the Middle AgesThe Medieval WorldConversion of Clovis links German barbarians with Christianity (496)Problem of Order after collapse of RomeCompeting interests: single empirereconstitution of Rome; Christendom under papacy; unforeseen third optionDynastic States.
Europe in the 6c
Souces of the Medieval World Memory of the Old Roman EmpireMemory of Greco-Roman CivilizationEmergence of the Institutional ChurchGermanic CultureBeginnings of Europe:St. Remi baptizes Clovis
The Medieval Catholic Church filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. monasticism: St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peters Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
A Medieval Monks Day
A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium
PapacyUnder Church fathers, early heresy is overcomenature of Jesus.Triumph of St. Augustines world view (354-430) Civitas DeiLeo I (440-61) and Gregory the Great (590-604) elevate position of papacynew converts accept papal supremacy.Is Pope superior to Kings?
Papacy-2Gelasian TheoryInvestiture ControvesyInnocent III (1198-1216)Gothic ArchitectureScholasticism
Romanesque Architectural Style Rounded Arches. Barrel vaults. Thick walls. Darker, simplistic interiors. Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
Gothic Architectural StyleReplaced Romanesque Pointed arches. High, narrow vaults. Thinner walls. Flying buttresses. Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors. Stained-glass windows.Flying Buttresses
So Why Doesnt the Papacy PrevailCorruptionBabylonian Captivity of the Papacy (1305-1377)Great Schism (1378-1415)Failure of Conciliar Movement (1422-1450)Success of Dynastic States
A Quest for a New RomeCollapse of the Merovingian DynastyLes Rois FainantsComing of the CarolingiansCharles Martel; Donation of PepinCharlemagneCrowned 800 as H. R. E.Treaty of Verdun--843
Charlemagne: 742 to 814
Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
The Carolingian Renaissance
Charlemagnes Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843
Fedualism-Manorialism: Response to Collapse of Carolingian OrderDecentralized governmental systemslocal nobles defacto rulers--feudalismReciprocityLocalized economies tied to self sufficient manors--manorialism
FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
The Medieval Manor
Life on the Medieval ManorSerfs at work
Feudal Socio/Political Order
Emergence of Dynastic StatesSuccess in Western Europeforerunners of England, France, and SpainInterference of Papacy deterred evolution of more-or-less unitary states in the Italian Penensula and the Germanies until the 19th century.
Alfred the Great (871-899)King of Wessex who wielded power over all of HeptarchyDefeated Vikings (Danes) Issued a Code of Laws for all the realmBegan the English NavyCommissioned the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (measure of stability)
The Rise of European Monarchies: England
William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry)
William IKing of England (1066-1087)Introduced Norman Feudalism into Englandemphasized power of King (Salisbury Oath)Domesday Survey
Great Council created out of WitanCuria Regis establishedMuch central authority compared to earlier governmental arrangements in England
Evolution of Englands Political System Henry I: Williams son. set up a court system. Exchequer dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury.
Magna Carta, 1215 King John I Runnymeade Great Charter Law was superior to the king/King could be compelled to obey the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily.
The Beginnings of the British Parliament Both tool of nobles and tool of crown: 1295Model Parliament under Edward III (1272-1307)included all classes of representativesNobles, plus Burgesses (towns) and Knights of the Shire (Counties). by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords nobles & clergy. House of Commons knights and burgesses.
Wars of the RosesLong View1399-1485Contingencymight not have been necessary if Henry V had lived a long time.ContingencyRichard IIIs image and usurpation gave Tudors a chance to press the Lancastrian claim.Henry VII not only had to prevail at Bosworth Field, he and his descendants had to create mythologies and interests that supported a nascent nationalism.Dynastic State as alternative to feudal-based Civil War.
Long View: Wars of the Roses
EDWARD III's Descendents
Edward III (1377)
Edward, Black PrinceWilliamLionelJohn of GauntEdmund
Richard II (1399)PhilippaHenry IV (1415)
Roger MortimerHenry V (1422)
Anne MortimerHenry VI (1461)Richard, Earl of Cambridge
Richard, Duke of York
Edward IV (1483)Richard III (1485)
Edward V (1483)
Tudor Claim to the Throne (Tie to House of Lancaster)
Blanche = John of Gaunt -> Catherine Swinford
Henry IVJohn Beaufort
Henry V = Catherine = Owen TudorJohn Beaufort, Somerset
Henry VI (1461)Edmund Tudor = Margaret
Henry VII (1509)
The Rise of European Monarchies: France
Dynastic State in FranceHugh Capet (r. 987-1328) held exclusive title to Ile de France.Louis VI (r. 1108-37) added to Capetian lands and crushed nobles who resisted.Philip II (r. 1180-1223) was first French King to be more powerful than any of his Vassals.Philip IV (r. 1285-1314) intimidated Pope Boniface VIII, leading College of Cardinals to name a Frenchman Pope.Louis IX (r. 1461-1483) used nationalismhatred of English and defeated Duke of Burgundymaster of real politik
SpainConquered by Muslims/Caliphate of Cordova (718)La Reconquista(718-1492)Kingdom of Castile (early 13th Centurysurvived Wars of Succession over Isabellas ascension in 1374)Kingdom of Aragon (1150)Isabella m. Ferdinand1469
Waning of the Middle AgesCrusadesRise of Towns and CitiesTradeEnd of Scholastic Consensus
Christian Crusades: East and West