medieval western europe a quest for order. periodizationperiodization early middle ages: 500 –...

Download Medieval Western Europe A Quest for Order. PeriodizationPeriodization Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 Late Middle Ages: 1250

Post on 29-Dec-2015

227 views

Category:

Documents

5 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Medieval Western EuropeA Quest for Order

  • PeriodizationEarly Middle Ages: 500 1000

    High Middle Ages: 1000 1250

    Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500

  • Western Europe. In the Middle AgesThe Medieval WorldConversion of Clovis links German barbarians with Christianity (496)Problem of Order after collapse of RomeCompeting interests: single empirereconstitution of Rome; Christendom under papacy; unforeseen third optionDynastic States.

  • Europe in the 6c

  • Souces of the Medieval World Memory of the Old Roman EmpireMemory of Greco-Roman CivilizationEmergence of the Institutional ChurchGermanic CultureBeginnings of Europe:St. Remi baptizes Clovis

  • The Medieval Catholic Church filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. monasticism: St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]

  • The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peters Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].

  • A Medieval Monks Day

  • A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium

  • Illuminated Manuscripts

  • PapacyUnder Church fathers, early heresy is overcomenature of Jesus.Triumph of St. Augustines world view (354-430) Civitas DeiLeo I (440-61) and Gregory the Great (590-604) elevate position of papacynew converts accept papal supremacy.Is Pope superior to Kings?

  • Papacy-2Gelasian TheoryInvestiture ControvesyInnocent III (1198-1216)Gothic ArchitectureScholasticism

  • Romanesque Architectural Style Rounded Arches. Barrel vaults. Thick walls. Darker, simplistic interiors. Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.

  • Gothic Architectural StyleReplaced Romanesque Pointed arches. High, narrow vaults. Thinner walls. Flying buttresses. Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors. Stained-glass windows.Flying Buttresses

  • CathedralAtChartresRomanesqueAnd Gothic

  • Cathedral atRheims

  • So Why Doesnt the Papacy PrevailCorruptionBabylonian Captivity of the Papacy (1305-1377)Great Schism (1378-1415)Failure of Conciliar Movement (1422-1450)Success of Dynastic States

  • A Quest for a New RomeCollapse of the Merovingian DynastyLes Rois FainantsComing of the CarolingiansCharles Martel; Donation of PepinCharlemagneCrowned 800 as H. R. E.Treaty of Verdun--843

  • Charlemagne: 742 to 814

  • Charlemagnes Empire

  • Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800

  • The Carolingian Renaissance

  • Carolingian Miniscule

  • Charlemagnes Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843

  • Fedualism-Manorialism: Response to Collapse of Carolingian OrderDecentralized governmental systemslocal nobles defacto rulers--feudalismReciprocityLocalized economies tied to self sufficient manors--manorialism

  • FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.

  • The Medieval Manor

  • Life on the Medieval ManorSerfs at work

  • Feudal Socio/Political Order

  • Emergence of Dynastic StatesSuccess in Western Europeforerunners of England, France, and SpainInterference of Papacy deterred evolution of more-or-less unitary states in the Italian Penensula and the Germanies until the 19th century.

  • Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy

  • Alfred the Great (871-899)King of Wessex who wielded power over all of HeptarchyDefeated Vikings (Danes) Issued a Code of Laws for all the realmBegan the English NavyCommissioned the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (measure of stability)

  • The Rise of European Monarchies: England

  • William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry)

  • William IKing of England (1066-1087)Introduced Norman Feudalism into Englandemphasized power of King (Salisbury Oath)Domesday Survey

    Great Council created out of WitanCuria Regis establishedMuch central authority compared to earlier governmental arrangements in England

  • Evolution of Englands Political System Henry I: Williams son. set up a court system. Exchequer dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury.

  • Magna Carta, 1215 King John I Runnymeade Great Charter Law was superior to the king/King could be compelled to obey the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily.

  • The Beginnings of the British Parliament Both tool of nobles and tool of crown: 1295Model Parliament under Edward III (1272-1307)included all classes of representativesNobles, plus Burgesses (towns) and Knights of the Shire (Counties). by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords nobles & clergy. House of Commons knights and burgesses.

  • Wars of the RosesLong View1399-1485Contingencymight not have been necessary if Henry V had lived a long time.ContingencyRichard IIIs image and usurpation gave Tudors a chance to press the Lancastrian claim.Henry VII not only had to prevail at Bosworth Field, he and his descendants had to create mythologies and interests that supported a nascent nationalism.Dynastic State as alternative to feudal-based Civil War.

  • Long View: Wars of the Roses

    Sheet1

    EDWARD III's Descendents

    Edward III (1377)

    Edward, Black PrinceWilliamLionelJohn of GauntEdmund

    Richard II (1399)PhilippaHenry IV (1415)

    Roger MortimerHenry V (1422)

    Anne MortimerHenry VI (1461)Richard, Earl of Cambridge

    Richard, Duke of York

    Edward IV (1483)Richard III (1485)

    Edward V (1483)

    Tudor Claim to the Throne (Tie to House of Lancaster)

    Blanche = John of Gaunt -> Catherine Swinford

    Henry IVJohn Beaufort

    Henry V = Catherine = Owen TudorJohn Beaufort, Somerset

    Henry VI (1461)Edmund Tudor = Margaret

    Henry VII (1509)

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • The Rise of European Monarchies: France

  • Dynastic State in FranceHugh Capet (r. 987-1328) held exclusive title to Ile de France.Louis VI (r. 1108-37) added to Capetian lands and crushed nobles who resisted.Philip II (r. 1180-1223) was first French King to be more powerful than any of his Vassals.Philip IV (r. 1285-1314) intimidated Pope Boniface VIII, leading College of Cardinals to name a Frenchman Pope.Louis IX (r. 1461-1483) used nationalismhatred of English and defeated Duke of Burgundymaster of real politik

  • SpainConquered by Muslims/Caliphate of Cordova (718)La Reconquista(718-1492)Kingdom of Castile (early 13th Centurysurvived Wars of Succession over Isabellas ascension in 1374)Kingdom of Aragon (1150)Isabella m. Ferdinand1469

  • Waning of the Middle AgesCrusadesRise of Towns and CitiesTradeEnd of Scholastic Consensus

  • Christian Crusades: East and West

Recommended

View more >