mel siegel. Лекция по энергетике для робототехники

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Лекция научного сотрудника университета Карнеги-Меллон Мела Зигеля на конференции Skolkovo Robotics

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• 1. Will Power and Energy Issues Put the Brakes on the Engine of Robotics Growth? Mel Siegel Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science The Robotics Institute Sensing, Sensors, & Control Lab Director MS in Robotics Technology Program Director 20140301 energy issues in robotics1

2. historically: sensors & human interfaces20140301 energy issues in robotics2 3. recently: energy & power issues ...liquid fuel 20140301 batteries energy issues in robotics3 4. The Energizer (batteries) BunnyHe just keeps going! 5. The Energizer (batteries) BunnyHe just keeps going?But in truth the Bunny's original animatronics engineer (Grant Imahara) reports that it actually ran less than 10 minutes ... 6. batteries vs. ice cream ASIMO runs for about 30 minutes on a 7.7 kg battery mass (out of 52 kg total mass), so requires ~400 kg/day of fully-charged batteries an excellent 7.7 kg battery might store ~4 Mjso Asimo's power demand is ~2 kWcompare with human power demand ~0.1 kWwould be provided by ~400 g/day of ice cream~400 gm/day for human | ~400 kg/day for robotso it is no surpriseenergy issues in robotics BigDog runs on liquid fuel! 20140301 6 7. what to measure / what to calculate scaling rules for geometrically similar vehicles: vehicle's characteristic linear dimension = h then on-board energy storage capacity ~h^3 baseline power requirement = P running time (T) on stored energy ~h3/P range (R) on stored energy ~h3v/P (v = speed) if P is mostly frictional loss to air or water then P ~h2v, so T ~h/v, so R~h which is why we use a few big boats/airplanes vs. many small ones to travel long distances(and similarly for any baseline power model) 20140301 energy issues in robotics7 8. partial conclusion - energy storage batteries are terrible compared to liquid fuels this problem is not unique to robotics: cell phones, electric cars, etc, are all battery-limitedpotential ultimate solutions: renewable electrodes? fuel cells? solutions that avoid storage: wireless transmission (while in motion)? foraging for energy (in the environment)? we're not green, but this isn't yet a barrier robotics can ride the wave of progress driven by transportation & communication demands20140301 energy issues in robotics8 9. also: energy from transient power sources sun nclou dy?nel olar pa sENGINEERINGINTELLIGENCEy?SCIENCE 10. what is the problem? some system ... mobile robot? bus? boat? ... some requirements are discretionary ... collects solar energy for immediate tasks and stores solar energy for future tasksdo them now or do them later use an optimal mix of incoming & stored energythe optimal strategy now depends on the energy you predict you will collect later ! predictions can be based on a mixture of locally collected data and downloaded weather datasolar and weather are convenient concrete examples, but same thinking applies globally 20140301 energy issues in robotics10 11. what are the questions? given weather forecasts today, can we predict the energy we will be able to gather tomorrow? given our own local measurements of insolation, other weather variables, sky temperature, etc, can we predict the energy we will be able to gather tomorrow? what is the optimal approach to fusion of these multiple data sources? plus some secondary technology issues, e.g., tracking the maximum power point of sources (like solar cells) with interesting V-I properties20140301 energy issues in robotics11 12. partial conclusion - transient power it is mostly an information technology domain! hardware is generally well-developed software to coordinate hardware components isn'tthis is not a threat for robotics it is rather an opportunity for us to spin-off the IT, AI, and communication technology advances in our smaller robotics context into the larger contexts of transient power availability and consequent energy storage requirements even on regional, national, and international scales20140301 energy issues in robotics12 13. overall conclusion ... Will Power and Energy Issues Put the Brakes on the Engine of Robotics Growth? at first it seems like yes: we talk about bio-inspired robots, but our energy storage media are far inferior to life forms' the fix seems to be to gather energy locally but management of transient sources may be harder than path planning, etc, in robotics nevertheless, taking a closer look: energy storage is a crucial issue in fields much larger than robotics, so we can ride their wave transient power management is similar to optimization problems in robotics, so we can spin-off our progress into broader contexts 20140301 energy issues in robotics13 14. overall conclusion ... Will Power and Energy Issues Put the Brakes on the Engine of Robotics Growth? at first it seems like yes: we talk about bio-inspired robots, but our energy storage media are far inferior to life forms' the fix seems to be to gather energy locally but management of transient sources may be harder than path planning, etc, in robotics nevertheless, taking a closer look: energy storage is a crucial issue in fields much larger than robotics, so we can ride their wave transient power management is similar to optimization problems in robotics, so we can spin-off our progress into broader contexts 20140301 energy issues in robotics14 15. Another Topic - Briefly!20140301 energy issues in robotics15 16. companies recently bought by Google (Wikipedia says more than one/week since 2010!) DeepMind Nest Boston Dynamics Bot & Dolly Holumni Meka Robots Redwood Robotics Industrial Perception Schaft Flutter Makani Power 20140301 AI home automation walking robots robot cameras robot wheels people-oriented robots robot arms computer vision humanoid robots gesture recognition airborne wind turbinesenergy issues in robotics16 17. Albert Efimov asked this question: How will Google's purchase of ~10 robot/robotics companies affect the rates & directions of research, development, & adoption of robots/robotic systems?20140301 energy issues in robotics17 18. Albert Efimov asked this question:How will Google's purchase of ~10 robot/robotics companies affect the rates & directions of research, development, & adoption of robots/robotic systems?Mel Siegel gave this answer: The lion's share of robotics funding -- government and industry -- chases requirements articulated by the military sector; Google's fusion of many unique areas of expertise -- until now held by many small players -- and the funding that will now allow them to pursue their own dreams -- will trigger a huge explosion of products that will live or die according to their fitness to survive in the popular -- not just the military -- market. 20140301 energy issues in robotics18 19. Is this a topic for future panel discussion?20140301 energy issues in robotics19 20. 20140301 energy issues in robotics20 21. Will Power and Energy Issues Put the Brakes on the Engine of Robotics Growth? ? 20140301 energy issues in robotics21 22. ? Will there be a problem with the power and energy inhibit growth robottehniki dark? 20140301 energy issues in robotics22

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