melodic concepts

Click here to load reader

Post on 04-Jun-2018

269 views

Category:

Documents

14 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    1/196

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    2/196

    2

    For publication information, contact David M. Shere

    via email:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    3/196

    3

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR

    Guitarist and composer David M. Shere graduated magna cum laude

    from Cornish College of the Arts in Seattle, WA, May 2003, with a

    Bachelor's degree in Music Composition. David completed M.A. and Ph.D.

    degrees in composition at UCSB , September 2006 and 2007, where he

    studied with Dr. Jeremy Haladyna, Dr. Joann Kuchera-Morin, Dr. Scott

    Marcus, and Dr. Curtis Roads .

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    4/196

    4

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    5/196

    5

    MELODIC CONCEPTS: Table of Contents

    I. INTRODUCTION 7II. SCALES, MODES, and CHROMATIC PATTERNS 9

    1. Pentatonic scales 11i. Scale-related pentatonic modes 13ii. Arpeggio-related pentatonic scales 22

    2. Chromatic exercises 293. Diatonic modes 36

    i. Modes as Rotations of a Scale in a single Key 36ii. Modes as Pitch-Axis Alterations of a Scale 47

    iii. Practicing Modes chromatically 63iv. Practicing Modal fragments: 2, 3, and 4-string

    patterns99

    4. Harmonic minor modes 1065. Miscellaneous scales and complex chromatic patterns 109

    III. BASIC BLUES TUTORIAL 1141. Blues Scales 1142. Traditional Blues Techniques 117

    i. Vibrato 117

    ii. Bending notes 118iii. Pinch Harmonics 120iv. Ostinato patterns 122v. Phrases 124

    IV. SCALE SEQUENCES 1281. Alternate Picking (Staccato) vs. Slurring (Legato) 1282. Alternate Picking (Staccato) patterns 1293. Slurring (Legato) patterns 151

    V. RIGHT-HAND TAPPING 1671. Traditional tapping patterns 1672. Adding tapped notes to scales 169

    VI. ARPEGGIOS 1731. Sweep Picking Arpeggios 1732. Legato Arpeggios3. Jazz chord/arpeggio tutorial

    180185

    VII. COMBINATION TECHNIQUES 193VIII. CONCLUSION 196

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    6/196

    6

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    7/196

    7

    MELODIC CONCEPTS

    I. INTRODUCTION

    The electric guitar has indisputably re-defined the world of

    contemporary music beyond all question for the past 60 years. It is an

    inspired creative resource of vast potential, a melodic vehicle capable of

    spectacular linear gymnastics and an incredible array of extended

    techniques, and a sonic medium which physically bridges the gap between

    acoustic and electronic music in the most direct, literal way possible.

    Some of the techniques found in this book may be used for the

    acoustic guitar as well as the electric guitar. However, the development of

    most of these exercises was intended predominantly for electric guitar

    improvisation, and some of the ideas contained herein may be technically

    impractical on an acoustic instrument. Thorough experimentation will bear

    out which techniques are practical in the acoustic medium, and whichtechniques are not.

    As this book is intended for intermediate to advanced players, it is

    assumed that the reader already understands a certain amount of music

    theory prior to approaching these exercises. All the melodic ideas in this

    book are in both tablature and manuscript notation, and are typically shown

    in only one or two keys in order to save space. However, each exercise may

    be transposed into any other key by a guitarist with a solid grasp of musical

    analysis.

    Thanks for reading, and I hope you find this book useful.

    -David M. Shere

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    8/196

    8

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    9/196

    9

    II. SCALES, MODES, and CHROMATIC PATTERNS

    A musical scale is a stepwise progression of single notes.

    Understanding scales and how they work requires a basic knowledge of set

    theory, pitch axis theory, and scale degrees. Set theory can be

    summarized as follows:

    1. Any collection of objects can be defined as a set. The objects in the

    set are defined as elements.

    2. Musical scales are generally defined as ordered sets, meaning the

    sequence of elements in the set is a fixed property.

    3. Sets are expressed in the following notation:

    [a 0, a 1, a 2, a 3, a 4, a (n-1) ]

    The major scale is known in music theory as the mother of all scales.

    Lets consider a C major scale:

    The tones of the major scale can be expressed theoretically as the following

    set: [R,2,3,4,5,6,7], where R is the root of the scale, and each successive

    tone is given a value, known as a scale degree, in numerical order. For

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    10/196

    10

    example, in the C major scale, the degree of note F = 4. The root of the

    scale repeats at the octave, as does each scale degree.

    This set description applies to a major scale in any key. Consider a G

    major scale:

    Notice that the scale degrees are the same for a G major scale as for a C

    major scale, even though the actual notes are different.

    In pitch axis theory, all other scales are expressed as modifications,

    or alterations, of the major scale set.

    lowering a tone is expressed by a flat (example: a lowered 7 th is

    expressed as [b7] )

    raising a tone is expressed by a sharp (example: a raised 4 th is

    expressed as [#4] ).

    This is true even when lowering a tone from a sharp to a natural note (as inG minor pentatonic, where the F# is lowered to F natural ), or raising a

    tone from a flat to a natural note (as in F Lydian, where the Bb is raised to

    B natural ).

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    11/196

    11

    1. Pentatonic scales

    The pentatonic scale is the most common scale in music. Pentatonic

    means five tones. The following example shows a G Major pentatonic

    scale:

    The Major pentatonic is identical to the G major scale, except that it has no

    4th or 7th scale degree. The G Major pentatonic scale also functions as its

    relative minor scale, E minor pentatonic.

    The tones of the G major pentatonic scale may be accompanied by a

    G Major chord, an E minor chord, or any harmonically related chord. The

    following example shows a few possible chord choices:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    12/196

    12

    The next example shows a G minor pentatonic scale:

    The tones of the minor pentatonic scale can be expressed theoretically as thefollowing set relative to the G major scale: [R,b3,4,5,b7], where:

    R = root, b3 = lowered 3 rd scale degree, and b7 = lowered 7 th scale degree.

    The minor pentatonic has no 2nd or 6th scale degree. The G minor

    pentatonic scale also functions as its relative major scale, Bb Major

    pentatonic.

    The tones of the G major pentatonic scale may be accompanied by a

    G minor chord, a Bb Major chord, or any harmonically related chord. The

    following example shows a few possible chord choices:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    13/196

    13

    i. Scale-related pentatonic modes

    Modes are scales derived from a parent scale. One way to define modes is

    as rotations of a scale set, meaning that the elements of the set are moved

    one place to the right or left, resulting in a new scale containing the same

    tones but having a different ordering. The parent scale is always considered

    mode 1.

    If we rotate the Major pentatonic scale set [R,2,3,5,6], we get the

    following modes:

    mode 2: [2,3,5,6,R] mode 3: [3,5,6,R,2]

    mode 4: [5,6,R,2,3] mode 5: [6,R,2,3,5]

    The following musical examples show the modes of the G Major

    pentatonic scale in standard notation:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    14/196

    14

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    15/196

    15

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    16/196

    16

    If we rotate the minor pentatonic scale set [R,b3,4,5,b7], we get the

    following modes:

    mode 2: [b3,4,5,b7,R] mode 3: [4,5,b7,R,b3]

    mode 4: [5,b7,R,b3,4] mode 5: [b7,R,b3,4,5]

    The following musical examples show the modes of the G minor

    pentatonic scale in standard notation:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    17/196

    17

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    18/196

    18

    The most useful way to practice modal patterns is by ascending one mode

    and descending the next, up and down the guitar neck:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    19/196

    19

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    20/196

    20

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    21/196

    21

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    22/196

    22

    ii. Arpeggio-related pentatonic scales

    In any given chord progression, each chord may be embellished

    melodically by matching scales or chord tones. Chord tones played

    individually are defined as arpeggios. Let us consider the following

    progression in the key of G Major:

    Each chord in this progression has a corresponding arpeggio that may be

    used to create melodies against the harmony of the chord. The corresponding

    arpeggios are as follows:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    23/196

    23

    Each chord in this progression also has a corresponding arpeggio-related

    pentatonic scale that:

    1) functions as an embellishment of the underlying arpeggio, and

    2) may be used to create melodies against the harmony of the chord.

    The corresponding arpeggio-related pentatonic scales are as follows:

    The next musical examples show each arpeggio-related pentatonic scale

    using the following two-octave fingerings:

    1) ascending only

    2) ascending/descending and descending/ascending

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    24/196

    24

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    25/196

    25

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    26/196

    26

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    27/196

    27

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    28/196

    28

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    29/196

    29

    2. Chromatic exercises

    The chromatic scale is the stepwise progression of all 12 notes in the

    European musical system. The following musical example shows one

    possible fingering for the chromatic scale:

    Chromatic exercises are an important part of developing good

    physical technique on the guitar, and are typically derived from simple

    chromatic patterns. A chromatic pattern can be defined as a sequence of

    notes that:

    1) is derived from the chromatic scale, and

    2) cannot be readily classified by tonal analysis.

    Simple chromatic patterns are typically symmetrical fingerings

    played across all six strings in a single position, and are an excellent tool forpreparing to play diatonic scales. The following musical examples show the

    most typical simple chromatic patterns, as well as four examples of basic

    exercises that can be derived from these patterns:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    30/196

    30

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    31/196

    31

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    32/196

    32

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    33/196

    33

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    34/196

    34

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    35/196

    35

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    36/196

    36

    3. Diatonic modes

    A diatonic scale is any scale with 7 notes. Traditionally, diatonic

    refers to the European classical Major and minor scales.

    Modes derived from the Major diatonic scale are the most important

    theoretical concept in contemporary improvisation-based music. Learning

    the diatonic modes is the key to understanding modern harmonic and

    melodic structure in jazz and popular music. In improvisation, it is

    absolutely essential to understand the diatonic modes theoretically in order

    to apply them correctly.

    i. Modes as Rotations of a Scale in a single Key

    If we rotate the Major diatonic scale set [R,2,3,4,5,6,7], we get the

    following diatonic modes:

    Root position/mode 1 (Ionian): [R,2,3,4,5,6,7]mode 2 (Dorian): [2,3,4,5,6,7,R] mode 3 (Phrygian): [3,4,5,6,7,R,2]

    mode 4 (Lydian): [4,5,6,7,R,2,3] mode 5 (Myxolydian): [5,6,7,R,2,3,4]

    mode 6 (Aeolian): [6,7,R,2,3,4,5] mode 7 (Locrian): [7,R,2,3,4,5,6]

    Each diatonic mode has a Greek name (Ionian, Dorian, etc.) that is

    historically derived from European musical traditions. The Aeolian mode is

    also known as the natural minor scale.

    The following musical example shows all seven rotational modes in

    the key of C Major:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    37/196

    37

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    38/196

    38

    The next set of musical examples show all seven rotational modes in

    the key of G Major, in the following fingering configurations:

    one octave two octaves 2.5 octaves 2.5 octaves ascending/descending and desc./asc.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    39/196

    39

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    40/196

    40

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    41/196

    41

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    42/196

    42

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    43/196

    43

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    44/196

    44

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    45/196

    45

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    46/196

    46

    In a diatonic chord progression, each chord corresponds to a

    rotational mode from the same key. The root tone of each chord

    corresponds to the root tone of the matching mode. Let us consider the

    following progression in the key of G Major:

    Each chord may be melodically embellished with tones from its

    corresponding rotational mode , as follows:

    Gma7 (I) = G Ionian Am7 (ii) = A Dorian Bm7 (iii) = B Phrygian Cma7 (IV) = C Lydian D7 (V) = D Myxolydian Em7 (vi) = E Aeolian F# half-diminished7 (vii) = F# Locrian

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    47/196

    47

    ii. Modes as Pitch-Axis Alterations of a Scale

    The second and most important way of defining modes is as

    alterations of a major scale relative to a single root. For example, lets

    consider every mode that begins with the note C, each of which may be

    derived from a diatonic scale in a different key:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    48/196

    48

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    49/196

    49

    If we collect together all of these modes that begin with C, and analyze

    them relative to the C major scale as pitch-axis alterations of the parent

    scale with raised or lowered tones, we get the following scale sets:

    mode 1 (Ionian): [R,2,3,4,5,6,7]

    mode 2 (Dorian): [R,2,b3,4,5,6,b7] mode 3 (Phrygian): [R,b2,b3,4,5,b6,b7]

    mode 4 (Lydian): [R,2,3,#4,5,6,7] mode 5 (Myxolydian): [R,2,3,4,5,6,b7]

    mode 6 (Aeolian): [R,2,b3,4,5,b6,b7] mode 7 (Locrian): [R,b2,b3,4,b5,b6,b7]

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    50/196

    50

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    51/196

    51

    Now lets consider every mode that begins with the note A, each of which

    may also be derived from a diatonic scale in a different key:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    52/196

    52

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    53/196

    53

    The next set of musical examples show all seven pitch-axis modes in the

    key of A Major, in the following fingering configurations:

    one octave two octaves 2.5 octaves ascending/descending and desc./asc.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    54/196

    54

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    55/196

    55

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    56/196

    56

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    57/196

    57

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    58/196

    58

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    59/196

    59

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    60/196

    60

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    61/196

    61

    Each modal alteration implies a significant change in the underlying

    harmony. Every mode can be harmonized using any diatonic chord derived

    from its parent key. Additionally, every mode can also be harmonized using

    chords constructed over the root that incorporate the altered modal scale

    tones. The following example shows some possible chords for each mode:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    62/196

    62

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    63/196

    63

    iii. Practicing Modes chromatically

    One of the most important tasks in your practice regimen should be

    learning your diatonic modes in as many configurations and harmonic

    relationships as possible. The more ideas you can develop, the better you

    will learn your fretboard and the more thoroughly you will understand the

    inner workings of modes.

    The following exercises demonstrate a few possible ways to practice

    modes chromatically. It is recommended that each student should develop

    his or her own additional methods for practicing modes in chromatic

    relationships.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    64/196

    64

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    65/196

    65

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    66/196

    66

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    67/196

    67

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    68/196

    68

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    69/196

    69

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    70/196

    70

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    71/196

    71

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    72/196

    72

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    73/196

    73

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    74/196

    74

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    75/196

    75

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    76/196

    76

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    77/196

    77

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    78/196

    78

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    79/196

    79

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    80/196

    80

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    81/196

    81

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    82/196

    82

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    83/196

    83

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    84/196

    84

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    85/196

    85

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    86/196

    86

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    87/196

    87

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    88/196

    88

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    89/196

    89

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    90/196

    90

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    91/196

    91

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    92/196

    92

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    93/196

    93

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    94/196

    94

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    95/196

    95

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    96/196

    96

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    97/196

    97

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    98/196

    98

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    99/196

    99

    iv. Practicing Modal fragments: 2, 3, and 4-string patterns

    In addition to practicing modes vertically across all six strings, modes

    should also be practiced in 2, 3, and 4-string fragments horizontally across

    the guitar neck. This approach allows the practitioner to become thoroughly

    acquainted with modal fingerings in every possible fretboard position. It also

    opens up the possibility for complex melodic patterns which are relatively

    easy to execute horizontally but are impractical using strict vertical

    fingerings.

    The following figures show several basic examples of fingerings for

    modal fragments:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    100/196

    100

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    101/196

    101

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    102/196

    102

    Once a guitarist is familiar with modes in both vertical and

    fragmented-horizontal fingering configurations, a combined

    vertical/horizontal fingering approach can be used to move through the tones

    of any scale all the way across the neck. Again, this approach is extremely

    useful for complex melodic patterns which are relatively easy to execute

    horizontally but are impractical using strict vertical fingerings. The next

    musical illustration shows several examples of this approach:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    103/196

    103

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    104/196

    104

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    105/196

    105

    Finally, it is important to be familiar with the tones of each mode

    played using fingerings entirely on a single string:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    106/196

    106

    4. Harmonic minor modes

    An interesting source for modes is the Harmonic minor scale. The

    harmonic minor scale may be theoretically described as an Aeolian mode

    with a raised 7 th (#7).

    The modes of the harmonic minor scale do not have traditional names

    like the modes of the major scale. There are numerous possible ways of

    naming these modes. One possibility is as follows:

    1. mode 2 = Locrian #6

    2. mode 3 = Ionian #5

    3. mode 4 = Dorian #4

    4. mode 5 = Phrygian #3 (Phrygian Dominant)

    5. mode 6 = Lydian #2

    6. mode 7 = Altered Diminished

    The modes of the harmonic minor scale may be practiced using the

    same methods as the diatonic modes of the major scale.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    107/196

    107

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    108/196

    108

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    109/196

    109

    5. Miscellaneous scales and complex chromatic patterns

    i. Miscellaneous scales

    In addition to diatonic major and harmonic minor modes, there are

    numerous other scales that a guitarist may find useful and should be familiar

    with. These include the following:

    a. Whole-tone scale

    b. Diminished scale

    c. Jazz 8-tone scale

    d. Melodic minor scale

    See the examples on the following page.

    As this book is not intended primarily as a scale dictionary, this is a

    very small and incomplete list of additional scales. For further scale

    material, feel free to consult books such as The Guitar Grimoire series

    by Adam Kadmon, and Nicholas Slonimskys Thesaurus of Scales and

    Melodic Patterns.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    110/196

    110

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    111/196

    111

    ii. Complex chromatic patterns

    Complex chromatic patterns may be defined as sequences of notes

    that meet one or both of the following criteria:

    a. combines two or more simple chromatic patterns

    b. occupies more than one position on the guitar neck.

    The following pages show four examples of fretboard patterns that

    meet this description.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    112/196

    112

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    113/196

    113

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    114/196

    114

    III. BASIC BLUES TUTORIAL

    1. Blues Scales

    Playing the blues is a time-honored tradition among electric guitarists,

    and is perhaps the most fundamental medium for exploring improvisation,

    regardless of skill level. The blues requires a unique melodic approach that

    relies predominantly on a traditional pentatonic vocabulary, deeply rooted in

    gospel music and imitative of the human voice.

    While the minor pentatonic scale is considered the core of blues

    melody, the blues can be also defined as a close relative of jazz, requiring a

    broader harmonic vocabulary. Consequently there are a number of other

    scales that are every bit as integral to the blues as the pentatonic, including

    several diatonic modes. The following pages show the most commonly used

    blues scales in the key of A:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    115/196

    115

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    116/196

    116

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    117/196

    117

    2. Traditional Blues Techniques

    i. Vibrato

    Vibrato can be best described as repeatedly bending and releasing a

    single note in a rhythmic manner, and is typically used to imitate the singing

    qualities of the human voice. There are two basic types of vibrato:

    stationary and bent. A stationary vibrato is notated as follows:

    A bent vibrato is notated as follows:

    The two most important aspects of vibrato are maintaining an even,

    steady rhythm, and maintaining a consistent interval width. Its important to

    listen to recordings of established blues players who are known for strong

    vibratos. Some guitarists use a rhythmically fast, intervallically shallow

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    118/196

    118

    vibrato, while others use a rhythmically slower, intervallically wide vibrato.

    Choose a guitarist that really speaks to you, and take note of the speed of

    rhythm and interval quality of that guitarists vibrato.

    ii. Bending notes

    Bending notes is one of the cornerstones of playing the blues. The

    following examples show several typical note-bending ideas.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    119/196

    119

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    120/196

    120

    iii. Pinch Harmonics

    Pinch harmonics produce a squealing sound which is very

    expressive when combined with bent notes. Pinch harmonics are a derivative

    of natural harmonics.

    Natural harmonics can be played by lightly touching the string at

    specific mathematical points ( nodes ), measured by fractions of the length of

    the string. The most accessible harmonics are at the following points:

    1/2 node (12 th fret = octave above fundamental) 1/3 node (7 th fret = octave + 5 th above fundamental) 1/4 node (5 th fret = 2 octaves above fundamental) 1/5 node (~4 th fret = 2 octaves + major 3 rd above

    fundamental)

    Pinch harmonics are artificial harmonics created by the picking

    technique of snapping the string against the bony part of the thumb, just

    above the pick, at nodes above a fretted note. For instance, when fretting

    the 10 th fret, a 2-octave pinch harmonic may be played at 1/4 the distance

    between the 10 th fret and the bridge:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    121/196

    121

    In this instance, the node would be located at roughly the 34 th fret position.

    As most guitars have a maximum of 24 frets, a certain amount of trial and

    error must be employed to locate pinch harmonic nodes.

    A frequently-used pinch harmonic is the 2-octave node applied to a

    whole-step bend and vibrato at the B string, 15 th fret (high D bend to high

    E). This bend is notated as follows:

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    122/196

    122

    iv. Ostinato patterns

    An ostinato pattern is a melodic phrase which is repeated verbatim a

    number of times for musical effect. This concept originated in European

    classical music, and is used in numerous types of contemporary music. It is

    particularly common in improvisation as a way of emphasizing an especially

    powerful melodic idea.

    Most of the examples in the section ii. Bending notes can be

    classified as ostinato patterns. The following exercises show several more

    typical examples of ostinato blues melodies.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    123/196

    123

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    124/196

    124

    v. Phrases

    The following pages contain examples of possible blues phrases that

    can be constructed from a combination of the previous scales and melodic

    ideas outlined in this chapter.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    125/196

    125

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    126/196

    126

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    127/196

    127

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    128/196

    128

    IV. SCALE SEQUENCES

    1. Alternate Picking (Staccato) vs. Slurring (Legato)

    Scale sequences may be played using either alternate picking or

    slurring techniques, or a combination of the two.

    a. Alternate picking (picking every note using up- and down-

    strokes) tends to produce a clipped, articulate, enunciated

    sound for every note (a staccato sound).

    b. Slurring (using hammer-ons and pull-offs) tends to producean unbroken, fluid sound in which each note flows smoothly

    into the next (a legato sound).

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    129/196

    129

    These are not hard-and-fast distinctions, of course: alternate picking

    can produce a smooth, fluid sound via quiet, precise picking, and slurring

    can produce a clipped, articulated sound when combined with heavy palm

    muting. For the most part, however, these two techniques are used separately

    to produce the associated effects previously described.

    Furthermore, the construction of alternate picking sequences tends to

    differ slightly from the construction of slurring sequences. Certain sequences

    that work well using hammer-ons and pull-offs do not always work well

    using alternate picking, and vice versa. Again, this is not a hard-and-fast

    distinction, as many sequences work well using either technique; however, it

    does serve to explain why there are specific types of sequences that tend to

    be associated with either the alternate picking or the slurring technique.

    2. Alternate Picking (Staccato) patterns

    The following pages show examples of alternate picking exercises.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    130/196

    130

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    131/196

    131

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    132/196

    132

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    133/196

    133

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    134/196

    134

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    135/196

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    136/196

    136

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    137/196

    137

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    138/196

    138

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    139/196

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    140/196

    140

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    141/196

    141

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    142/196

    142

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    143/196

    143

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    144/196

    144

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    145/196

    145

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    146/196

    146

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    147/196

    147

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    148/196

    148

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    149/196

    149

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    150/196

    150

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    151/196

    151

    3. Slurring (Legato) patterns

    The following pages show examples of legato exercises.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    152/196

    152

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    153/196

    153

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    154/196

    154

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    155/196

    155

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    156/196

    156

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    157/196

    157

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    158/196

    158

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    159/196

    159

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    160/196

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    161/196

    161

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    162/196

    162

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    163/196

    163

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    164/196

    164

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    165/196

    165

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    166/196

    166

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    167/196

    167

    V. RIGHT-HAND TAPPING

    Tapping is an extension of the legato technique whereby the right

    hand is used to hammer notes onto the fretboard, in order to produce wide

    intervals and/or complex melodic effects. Tapping is also often applied to

    produce greater melodic speed than is possible with the left hand alone.

    1. Traditional tapping patterns

    The following musical examples show several typical tapping ideas,

    beginning with single-string triads and progressing to multi-string patterns.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    168/196

    168

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    169/196

    169

    2. Adding tapped notes to scales

    Possibly the most useful and inconspicuous application of the tapping

    technique is to incorporate right-hand tapped notes into left-hand legato

    scale runs. This approach has the benefit of adding another order of

    complexity to an already interesting sound, and allows for an element of

    unpredictability and speed which is difficult to achieve through use of the

    left hand alone.

    The following pages show several exercises for developing this

    approach.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    170/196

    170

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    171/196

    171

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    172/196

    172

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    173/196

    173

    VI. ARPEGGIOS

    1. Sweep Picking Arpeggios

    The single most common approach to playing arpeggio runs in

    contemporary guitar music is the sweep picking technique. Sweep picking

    means to rake the pick across two or more strings in a single direction to

    pick notes on those strings in quick succession.

    To sweep notes in an ascending direction, a down rake is used. To

    sweep notes in an descending direction, an up rake is used. To sweep a

    quick ascending/descending arpeggio, a down rake followed by an up rake is

    used.

    The following pages show several examples of sweep picking patterns and

    progressions.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    174/196

    174

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    175/196

    175

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    176/196

    176

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    177/196

    177

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    178/196

    178

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    179/196

    179

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    180/196

    180

    2. Legato Arpeggios

    Legato arpeggio patterns typically do not employ sweep-picking (or

    employ minimal sweep-picking), instead using hammer-ons and pull-offs to

    play two or more chord tones per string. The advantage of this approach is

    that it is typically easier to play arpeggios based on 7 th chords, alterations,

    and extensions using legato technique instead of sweeping technique.

    The following pages show examples of legato arpeggio patterns and

    progressions.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    181/196

    181

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    182/196

    182

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    183/196

    183

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    184/196

    184

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    185/196

    185

    3. Jazz chord/arpeggio tutorial

    The next tutorial shows yet another possible approach for fingering

    arpeggios. This tutorial goes through two basic jazz chord progressions in

    the key of G, showing first the chord fingerings and then the corresponding

    arpeggio patterns. These arpeggio patterns may be played using either

    hammer-ons and pull-offs, or strict alternate picking.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    186/196

    186

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    187/196

    187

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    188/196

    188

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    189/196

    189

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    190/196

    190

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    191/196

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    192/196

    192

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    193/196

    193

    VII. COMBINATION TECHNIQUES

    1. Adding tapped notes to Sweep Arpeggios

    One of the most commonly used combination techniques is the

    addition of one or more tapped notes to a sweep arpeggio, as shown in the

    following examples.

    2. Building Sweep + Tap + Legato + Picking Lines

    The most interesting melodic ideas are typically derived by

    assembling components of more than one technique. The following musical

    example shows a study in which sweeping, tapping, legato, and picking are

    all combined into a single melodic idea.

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    194/196

    194

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    195/196

    195

  • 8/14/2019 Melodic Concepts

    196/196

    VIII. CONCLUSION

    I genuinely hope you have enjoyed the material contained in this

    book, and that you have learned something new and useful from its pages.

    There are so many topics and subtopics when discussing guitar technique

    that it is impossible to address every subject comprehensively within a single

    volume. This book is intended primarily as a general overview, and serves as

    the foundation for books which are to follow, namely the transcription of

    over 20 years of journal content detailing my development as a melodic

    player.

    Thanks again for reading!