mental health and disengaged youth

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Crawford PhD Conference 2014

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  • 1. Mental Health and Disengaged YouthPaul Amores and Robert BreunigNovember 19, 2014Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth

2. BackgroundI Poor mental health can lead to poor economic outcomes (andvice versa)I Dockery (2006); Frijters et al. (2010); Johnston et al. (2011)Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 3. BackgroundI Poor mental health can lead to poor economic outcomes (andvice versa)I Dockery (2006); Frijters et al. (2010); Johnston et al. (2011)I Mental health literature 4. nds signi 5. cant persistenceI Hauck & Rice (2004) 6. nd persistence is higher amongdisadvantaged youthI Roy & Schurer (2013) 7. nd similar results in AustraliaI Hughes & Cohen (2009)Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 8. BackgroundI Poor mental health can lead to poor economic outcomes (andvice versa)I Dockery (2006); Frijters et al. (2010); Johnston et al. (2011)I Mental health literature 9. nds signi 10. cant persistenceI Hauck & Rice (2004) 11. nd persistence is higher amongdisadvantaged youthI Roy & Schurer (2013) 12. nd similar results in AustraliaI Hughes & Cohen (2009)I How persistent is economic inactivity?Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 13. BackgroundI Poor mental health can lead to poor economic outcomes (andvice versa)I Dockery (2006); Frijters et al. (2010); Johnston et al. (2011)I Mental health literature 14. nds signi 15. cant persistenceI Hauck & Rice (2004) 16. nd persistence is higher amongdisadvantaged youthI Roy & Schurer (2013) 17. nd similar results in AustraliaI Hughes & Cohen (2009)I How persistent is economic inactivity?I Is the correlation between mental health and economicinactivity stronger for disadvantaged youth?Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 18. ContributionI Youth in Focus data matches survey with administrative dataon welfare receipt.I Descriptive analysis of mental health, economic activity, anddisadvantage.I Disadvantaged youth experience poorer mental health andgreater economic inactivity.I Mental health is both persistent and mobile. No eect ofdisadvantage.I Youth disengagement both persistent and mobile. Persistenceis higher for disadvantaged youth.I Poor mental health is correlated with inactivity, but only fordisadvantaged youth.Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 19. Youth in Focus ProjectI Data is based on a birth cohort of Australians born between 1October 1987 and 31 March 1988I Longitudinal survey of parents and youth at ages 18 and 20I Matched administrative data gives us family income supporthistory over 12 years (ages 6-18)I Covers youth from a range of backgrounds:I no disadvantage (no income support history);I mild disadvantage (less than 6 years on income support); andI intensive disadvantage (more than 6 years on income support)Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 20. Key variables in each waveI Mental health is measured using a person's average responseto a subset of SF-12 questions. Following OECD (2012), wecategorise this index as followsI Severe mental health : 5% lowest average responsesI Moderate mental health : next 15% lowest scoresI No mental health issues : the remaining 80% of respondentsPaul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 21. Key variables in each waveI Mental health is measured using a person's average responseto a subset of SF-12 questions. Following OECD (2012), wecategorise this index as followsI Severe mental health : 5% lowest average responsesI Moderate mental health : next 15% lowest scoresI No mental health issues : the remaining 80% of respondentsI Economic activity is derived from self-reported education andemployment status.I Fully engaged (FT study; FT work; or PT study and PT work)I Partly engaged (PT study only; or PT work only)I Fully disengaged/inactive (none of the above)Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 22. Key variables in each waveI Mental health is measured using a person's average responseto a subset of SF-12 questions. Following OECD (2012), wecategorise this index as followsI Severe mental health : 5% lowest average responsesI Moderate mental health : next 15% lowest scoresI No mental health issues : the remaining 80% of respondentsI Economic activity is derived from self-reported education andemployment status.I Fully engaged (FT study; FT work; or PT study and PT work)I Partly engaged (PT study only; or PT work only)I Fully disengaged/inactive (none of the above)I Additional controls: demographics; living arrangement at 14;parent highest education; general or physical healthPaul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 23. Incidence of mental healthFamily income support historyMental Health No Mild IntensiveCategory at 18 exposure exposure exposure TotalSevere 0:03 0:06 0:07 0:05(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Mild 0:15 0:15 0:20 0:17(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)None 0:82 0:79 0:73 0:78(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Prop. of Row 0:41 0:31 0:28 1:00Entries in table are weighted column proportions (their standard errors are inparentheses).Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 24. Persistence of mental healthMental Health Mental Health Category at 18Category at 20 Severe Mild None TotalSevere 0:26 0:10 0:03 0:05(0:01) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Mild 0:34 0:34 0:11 0:16(0:01) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)None 0:40 0:57 0:86 0:79(0:01) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Prop. of Row 0:05 0:16 0:79 1:00Entries in table are weighted column proportions (their standard errors are inparentheses).Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 25. Ordered Probit Marginal EectsFigure: Probability of [Mental Health Category] at 20Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 26. Incidence of economic inactivityFamily income support historyEngagement No Mild Intensiveat 18 exposure exposure exposure TotalFully engaged 0:84 0:79 0:67 0:78(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Partly engaged 0:11 0:13 0:16 0:13(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Fully disengaged 0:04 0:08 0:17 0:08(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Prop. of Row 0:41 0:31 0:28 1:00Entries in table are weighted column proportions (their standard errors are inparentheses).Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 27. Persistence of economic inactivityEngagement at 18Engagement Fully Partly Fullyat 20 engaged engaged disengaged TotalFully engaged 0:86 0:66 0:51 0:81(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Partly engaged 0:09 0:22 0:23 0:12(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Fully disengaged 0:05 0:12 0:26 0:08(0:00) (0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Prop. of Row 0:80 0:13 0:08 1:00Entries in table are weighted column proportions (their standard errors are inparentheses).Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 28. Ordered Probit Marginal EectsFigure: Probability of FT/PT (dis)engagement at 20Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 29. Engagement at 18 by Mental Health Category at 18Relative Mental Health Category at 18Engagement No mental Moderate Severeat 18 health issues mental health mental healthFully engaged 0:79 0:75 0:64(0:00) (0:00) (0:01)Partly engaged 0:13 0:14 0:16(0:00) (0:00) (0:00)Fully disengaged 0:08 0:11 0:20(0:00) (0:00) (0:01)Prop. of Row 0:78 0:17 0:05Entries in table are weighted column proportions (their standard errors are inparentheses).Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 30. Ordered Probit Marginal EectsFigure: Probability of FT/PT (dis)engagement at 18Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 31. Engagement at 20 by changes in Mental Health CategoryFigure: Proportion in full-time engagement at 20Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 32. Ordered Probit Marginal EectsFigure: Probability of full-time engagement at 20Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 33. Mental health and economic inactivityI For disadvantaged youth (mild or intensive IS)I Worse mental health = Lower engagementI Greater disadvantage = Larger marginal eectsI Consistent with expectationsI For youth with no IS historyI Worse mental health = Higher engagementI Contrary to expectationsI For youth with no mental health problemsI Greater disadvantage = Lower engagementI Consistent with expectationsPaul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth 34. ConclusionI Addressing mental health today has implications for mentalhealth and economic outcomes both now and in the future.I This is particularly true for disadvantaged youthI This suggests that mental health may be an importantchannel for intergenerational disadvantage.Paul Amores and Robert Breunig Mental Health and Disengaged Youth

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