merneptah stele (aka the menetaph stele, aka israel stele)
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Merneptah Stele (aka the Menetaph Stele, aka Israel Stele)
Merneptah SteleDated to 1209/1208 BCE Inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC) Found at Thebes
Merneptah SteleCanaan is captive with all woe. Ashkelon is conquered, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed.
Merneptah SteleThe determinative accompanying Gezer, Ashkelon and Yanoam indicate they are city-states. The determinative accompanying Israel indicates it is a foreign people, perhaps a nomadic tribe.
Scholarly debate about translation for I.si.ri.ar. Some scholars suggest it doesnt refer to Israel but Jezreel.
Only known Egyptian reference to the Israelites Earliest known reference to the Israelites
Mesha SteleCommemorates the victory of Mesha, a Moabite king, over Omri the king of Israel.Dated to 840 BCE
Tel Dan Stele
Tel Dan SteleAramaic inscriptionKing of Damascus, Hazael, commemorates a victory over Israel.The inscription includes the phrase, House of David.Dated to 9th or 8th century BCE