Merneptah Stele (aka the Menetaph Stele, aka Israel Stele)

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<ul><li><p>Merneptah Stele (aka the Menetaph Stele, aka Israel Stele)</p></li><li><p>Merneptah SteleDated to 1209/1208 BCE Inscription by the Ancient Egyptian king Merneptah (reign:1213 to 1203 BC) Found at Thebes</p></li><li><p>Merneptah SteleCanaan is captive with all woe. Ashkelon is conquered, Gezer seized, Yanoam made nonexistent; Israel is wasted, bare of seed.</p></li><li><p>Merneptah SteleThe determinative accompanying Gezer, Ashkelon and Yanoam indicate they are city-states. The determinative accompanying Israel indicates it is a foreign people, perhaps a nomadic tribe. </p></li><li><p>Merneptah Stele</p><p>Scholarly debate about translation for Some scholars suggest it doesnt refer to Israel but Jezreel.</p><p>Only known Egyptian reference to the Israelites Earliest known reference to the Israelites</p></li><li><p>Mesha Stele</p></li><li><p>Mesha SteleCommemorates the victory of Mesha, a Moabite king, over Omri the king of Israel.Dated to 840 BCE</p></li><li><p>Tel Dan Stele</p></li><li><p>Tel Dan SteleAramaic inscriptionKing of Damascus, Hazael, commemorates a victory over Israel.The inscription includes the phrase, House of David.Dated to 9th or 8th century BCE</p></li></ul>