# meteorology: part 2 weather maps eckert minerva deland science

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• Slide 1
• Meteorology: Part 2 Weather Maps Eckert Minerva DeLand Science
• Slide 2
• Partner Discussion What are some variables shown on a weather map? Be specific.
• Slide 3
• On a Weather Map Weather Station Models Covered in Meteorology Part 1Covered in Meteorology Part 1 See ESRT pg 13 for an exampleSee ESRT pg 13 for an example Picture from: http://weather.about.com/od/forecastingtech niques/ss/mapsymbols_8.htm
• Slide 4
• Slide 5
• Weather Stations % cloud cover SSSShown on a station model when part of the circle is shaded SSSSometimes shown on a map by shading
• Slide 6
• Isolines Lines that connect points of equal value An isoline map is drawn to show any change over a certain area or field
• Slide 7
• 1. Isolines NEVER cross each other Ex: one spot has two temperatures?1. Isolines NEVER cross each other Ex: one spot has two temperatures? 20 30 40 50 60 XX YY ZZ Isoline Rules
• Slide 8
• 2. Isolines are generally parallel Isoline Rules
• Slide 9
• 3. Isolines are continuous they make circles or run off the map. Isoline rules
• Slide 10
• Isotherms Lines connecting points of equal temperature.Lines connecting points of equal temperature. http://earth.usc.edu/~stott/Catalina/images/tempdist.images/isotherms.jpg
• Slide 11
• Isobars Lines on a weather map connecting points of equal barometric pressure.Lines on a weather map connecting points of equal barometric pressure. Usually 4 mb incrementsUsually 4 mb increments http://vathena.arc.n asa.gov/curric/weath er/hsweathr/isomap 4.gif
• Slide 12
• Gradient The gradient formula is in the ESRT pg 1The gradient formula is in the ESRT pg 1 The field value means whatever the surface is that you are measuring (elevation, depth, thickness, etc)The field value means whatever the surface is that you are measuring (elevation, depth, thickness, etc) Distance is the measured distance between two pointsDistance is the measured distance between two points
• Slide 13
• A steep (high) gradient changes quickly and the isolines are close together.A steep (high) gradient changes quickly and the isolines are close together. A gentle (low) gradient changes slowly and the lines are far apart.A gentle (low) gradient changes slowly and the lines are far apart. Steep area Gentle area
• Slide 14
• Wind Horizontal movement of air over Earths surfaceHorizontal movement of air over Earths surface Shown on weather map with arrows and feathersShown on weather map with arrows and feathers See ESRT page 13
• Slide 15
• What causes wind? Difference in temperature and pressureDifference in temperature and pressure Wind always blows from high to low pressureWind always blows from high to low pressure
• Slide 16
• Coriolis Effect Caused by Earths rotationCaused by Earths rotation Deflects windsDeflects winds Curves winds to the right in the northern hemisphere A north wind is deflected to the WestA north wind is deflected to the West East wind is deflected to theEast wind is deflected to the North http://nsidc.org/arcticmet/images/fa ctors/coriolis.gif
• Slide 17
• Winds Huge Convection Cell
• Slide 18
• Draw a huge convection cell
• Slide 19
• Relationship of wind speed and pressure gradient Closer isobars means great change in pressureCloser isobars means great change in pressure Closer isobars means faster wind speedCloser isobars means faster wind speed
• Slide 20
• Low Pressure Systems TemperaturewarmerTemperaturewarmer Wind circulationcounterclockwise; inward; risingWind circulationcounterclockwise; inward; rising http://www.usatoday.com/weather/tg/wlowpres/wlowpres.htm
• Slide 21
• Low Pressure Systems Cloud developmenthumi d; cloudyCloud developmenthumi d; cloudy Precipitationgood chance of precipitationPrecipitationgood chance of precipitation http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/im ages/atmosphere/pressure_wind/high_pres sure_small.jpg
• Slide 22
• High Pressure Systems TemperaturecoolerTemperaturecooler Wind circulationclockwise; outward; fallingWind circulationclockwise; outward; falling http://www.usatoday.com/weather/tg/wlowpres/wlowpres.htm
• Slide 23
• High Pressure Systems Cloud developmentclear; no cloudsCloud developmentclear; no clouds Precipitationno precipitationPrecipitationno precipitation http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/im ages/atmosphere/pressure_wind/high_pres sure_small.jpg
• Slide 24
• Partner Discussion If the wind blows weather from a higher latitude what will probably happen to our temperatures?If the wind blows weather from a higher latitude what will probably happen to our temperatures? Lower Latitude?Lower Latitude?
• Slide 25
• H L Wind moves from High to Low or Low to High Air Pressure? BUT, will the wind have a straight path between High and Low? Why or Why Not?
• Slide 26
• L Which way will Air rotate, as it rushes into a Low Pressure area?
• Slide 27
• H Which way will Air rotate, as it rushes away from a High Pressure area?
• Slide 28
• L Will Surface Winds converge or diverge at Low Pressure Area? Ground Level
• Slide 29
• H Will Surface Winds converge or diverge at High Pressure Area? Ground Level
• Slide 30
• Air Masses and place of origin Air mass huge region of air with similar temperature and humidity Source region place where air mass originates
• Slide 31
• Air Mass animation Air Mass AnimationAir Mass AnimationAir Mass AnimationAir Mass Animation
• Slide 32
• Air Mass Source Regions http://members.aol.com/pakulda/images/stpptam.gif
• Slide 33
• Fill in chart in note packet
• Slide 34
• Fronts Boundary between two air masses
• Slide 35
• Cold front Leading edge of a cold air mass Moves quickly (25-35 mph) Rounded edge because cold dense air is trying to go beneath warm air
• Slide 36
• What weather is associated with a cold front? Violent storms followed by cold weather often result when a cold front moves in. Cold dense air quickly pushes up the warm air. The warm air cools and moisture quickly condenses, forming storms.
• Slide 37
• Cold front Behind front Clear, dry air High pressure Cool temps.
• Slide 38
• Cold Front At Front Cumulus clouds Winds gust because warm air is forced up Pressure drops Brief, heavy rain/thunderstorms
• Slide 39
• Cold front Ahead of the Front Warm air Humid air
• Slide 40
• Thunderstorms Usually associated with a cold frontUsually associated with a cold front
• Slide 41
• Warm front Leading edge of a warm air mass Angled edge because warm air is sliding up and over the cold air Slower than a cold front
• Slide 42
• What weather is associated with a warm front? As warm air moves over a colder air mass, the air cools. This causes moisture in the air to condense creating rainy weather. Hot, humid weather usually follows.
• Slide 43
• Warm front Behind front Warm air Clears Pressure levels off
• Slide 44
• At Front Stratus clouds Pressure drops Long, steady rain
• Slide 45
• Ahead of the front Clouds thicken/may rain Cold, dry air further away
• Slide 46
• Stationary front Occurs when cold and warm air come together TTTThe system stalls and it rains http://library.thinkquest.org/C0125863/weather/image/front_stationary_ en.gif
• Slide 47
• Occluded front Occurs when a cold front catches up to a warm front rrrrains
• Slide 48
• How can you find the position of weather fronts on a weather map? Always radiate from the center of a low pressure system Fronts are located between station models that are close to each other, but have very different weather conditions
• Slide 49
• http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/guides/mtr/af/frnts/w frnt/gifs/cyc2.gif
• Slide 50
• General Circulation of Air in the Troposphere Troposphere Lowest level of atmosphere Contains weather
• Slide 51
• The movement of weather In U. S. caused by prevailing westerliesIn U. S. caused by prevailing westerlies Moves weather from (S) West to (N) EastMoves weather from (S) West to (N) East 400 to 600 miles per day400 to 600 miles per day
• Slide 52
• Jet Stream At top of the troposphereAt top of the troposphere Band of fast moving air Directs (controls movement of) air masses http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/guides/maps/upa/gifs/jet1.gif
• Slide 53
• What will temperatures be like in Rochester, when the Jet Stream is to the South of New York? What will temperatures be like in Rochester, when the Jet Stream is to the North of New York?
• Slide 54
• CanadaUSA Polar Front cP mT Jet Stream/Polar Front A Side View