Meteorology Review Objectives Interactive Prepare for the Quiz and Regents Exam Eckert

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Meteorology Review Objectives Interactive Prepare for the Quiz and Regents Exam Eckert </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 1.Using the Temperature Chart in the ESRT make conversions between the three temperature scales. The chart is on page 13 of the ESRT. Example; 140 o F equals 60 o C and 333 o Kelvin </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> What temperature in degrees Fahrenheit is equal to 40 o C? 104 o F What temperature in degrees Celcius is equal to 40 o F? 4oC4oC4oC4oC </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 2. Using the Dewpoint Temperatures in the ESRT, determine the dewpoint temperature, given the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures, The chart is on page 12 of the ESRT. Example; if the dry-bulb temperature is 16 o C, and the wet-bulb temperature is 12 o C, the dew point is 9 o C. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> What is the dew point if the dry-bulb is 6 and the wet-bulb is 4? Remember the difference. Dry = 6 Difference = 2 1oC1oC1oC1oC </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 3. Using the Relative Humidity in the ESRT, determine the relative humidity, given the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures The chart is on page 12 of the ESRT. Example; if the dry-bulb temperature is 20 o C, and the wet-bulb temperature is 15 o C, then the relative humidity is 58%. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> What is the relative humidity if the dry-bulb is 6 and the wet- bulb is 4? 72% </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 4.a. Given a barograph, determine the air pressure to the nearest hundredth of an inch Students have a worksheet that contains a barograph and problems where they must read it. Picture from: http://www.yachtfiona.com/st ormwithfionaname.html </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 4b. Using the Pressure Chart in the ESRT, make air pressure conversion between millibars and inches The chart is on page 13 of the ESRT. Example; 1020.0 millibars equals 30.12 inches </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 5.a. Name the source of most of the Earth's energy. The Sun Picture from: http://stloe.most.go.th/html/lo _index/LOcanada7/703/4_en.htm </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 5b. List two other sources of energy for the earth. 1) The decay of radioactive material in the Earth. 2) Heat left over from the formation of the Earth. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 6. Describe the effect air temperature has on the air's capacity to hold water. The higher the air temperature the more water vapor the air can hold. Picture from:http://asd- www.larc.nasa.gov/edu_act/clou ds_fig28.gif </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 7. Identify the relationship between dewpoint and air temperature, that increases the probability of precipitation. The closer the dew point is to the air temperature the greater the probability of precipitation. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 8. Describe the relationship between relative humidity and air pressure As relative humidity increases air pressure decreases. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 9. Explain how changes in air temperature relate to changes in air pressure. The lower the air temperature the higher the air pressure. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 10. Explain 3 conditions that lead to the formation of a cloud: 1) There must be water in the air. 2) There must be a surface for the cloud droplets to form on. (Condensation nuclei) 3) The air temperature must be equal to the dew point. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 11. Explain how vertical movement in the atmosphere results in changes in air temperature, air pressure, and dewpoint As air rises air pressure decreases allow the air to expand, this causes the air temperature and dew point to decrease. The air temperature falls faster than the dew point. This change in temperature as a result of a change in pressure is called an adiabatic temperature change </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Picture from: http://www.csupomona.edu/~hcmireles/Courses/S ci210/Activities2005/MLittle2.html </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 12.a. Explain, which condition of cloud formation, may result in the occurrence of precipitation. For rain to happen a cloud needs to be stable enough to allow for the time it takes for thousands of cloud droplets to join together to form a rain droplet. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 12b. Identify one effect that precipitation has on the atmosphere Precipitation cleans the atmosphere </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 13. Construct an isoline map, given measured values. The students have had many practice maps to work on. There are 3 basic rules to follow: 1) Isolines never cross. 2) Isolines either form a circle or go to the edge of the map. 3) You must follow the stated interval. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 14. Calculate the gradient on an isoline map, given the difference in field value between two locations, using the formula in the ESRT. The formula is on page 1 of the ESRT </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 15. Explain the relationship between air pressure gradient and wind velocity. The greater the air pressure gradient the greater the wind velocity. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 16. Given a weather map showing isobars, identify on the map the area having the greatest pressure gradient The wind velocity is the greatest where the isobars are closest together Picture from: http://www.physicalgeography.net/f undamentals/7n.html </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 17. Determine the origin, characteristics, and symbols of five types of air masses Symbol OriginCharacteristics 1) Continental arctic: cAland, very high latitude dry and very cold. 2) Continental polar:cP land, high latitude dry and cold 3) Continental tropicalcTland, low latitude dry and warm 4) Maritime polar: mPwater, high latitude moist and cold 5) Maritime tropical:mTwater, low latitude moist and warm </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> http://members.aol.com/pakulda/images/stpptam.gif </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 18.a. Describe the air circulation pattern of a low-pressure system: On the surface air moves in towards the center and rotates counterclockwise. In the center air rises http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/im ages/atmosphere/pressure_wind/high_pres sure_small.jpg http://www.usatoday.com/weather/tg/wlowpres/wlowpres.htm </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 18. b. Describe the air circulation pattern of a high-pressure system: On the surface air moves away from the center and rotates clockwise. In the center air sinks. http://www.usatoday.com/weather/tg/wlowpres/wlowpres.htm http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/im ages/atmosphere/pressure_wind/high_pres sure_small.jpg </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> 19. Using Weather Map Symbols and Present Weather in the ESRT, interpret information given in the station model format. The information students need is on page 13 of the ESRT. Students have a worksheet, which gives them practice reading, and make station models. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 20.a. Locate the positions of a weather front on a weather map. Weather fronts always radiate from the center of low-pressure systems. The actual fronts are located between station models that are close to each other, but have very different weather conditions. For example two cities that near each other but have a 20 o temperature difference http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/guides/mtr/af/frnts/w frnt/gifs/cyc2.gif </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 20b. Describe conditions that occur ahead of and behind moving weather fronts Warm Front:This is when warm air is pushing cold air. Before the front arrives cirrus clouds will appear, followed by stratus clouds. Precipitation will occur before the front arrives and it will be steady for a lo0ng period of time. After the front passes the temperature will rise but the skies will remain cloudy. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 20b. Describe conditions that occur ahead of and behind moving weather fronts Cold Front: This is when cold air is pushing warm air. Cumulus clouds are found right at the front boundary. Rain is often hard but last for a short period of time. After the front passes temperature will fall but the skies will be clear. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 21. Analyze how wind direction is influenced by the rotation of the Earth. This is the Coriolis Effect. North of the equator the rotation of the Earth causes winds to curve to the right. South of the equator winds curve to the left. http://nsidc.org/arcticmet/images/fa ctors/coriolis.gif </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 22. Using the Planetary Wind and Moisture Belts in ESRT, identify the prevailing wind direction and moisture conditions at specified latitudes The map is on page 14 of the ESRT. We live at 43 o N, which the map shows is dominated by winds that come from the southwest. 30 o N is a latitude that has very dry climates. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 23. Predict the direction and rate of movement of weather systems and air masses in North America Because of the prevailing westerlies in North America, weather systems move from west to east. They move on the average 400 to 600 miles a day. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 24. Construct a diagram of a land breeze or sea breeze. Label areas of high and low pressure, air temperatures, and wind direction. Sea breeze:Happens during the daytime. Wind blows from the water towards the land. The land has lower air pressure and a higher temperature than the water. Land breeze: Happens during the nighttime. Wind blows from the land to the water. The water has lower air pressure and a higher temperature than the land. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Sea Breeze http://www.williamsclass.com/EighthScienceWork/Atmosphere/seabreeze.gif </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Land Breeze http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/landbreeze.gif </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 25.a. Describe how the location of the jet stream affects weather in North America. The jet stream can move air masses around, which helps to determine the weather an area is going to have. The jet stream also acts as a temperature barrier. North of the jet stream will be cold, south will be warm. http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/guides/maps/upa/gifs/jet1.gif </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 25. b. Using the Planetary Wind and Moisture Belts in the ESRT, determine the location of the Polar Jet Stream and the Subtropical Jet Stream. The map is on page 14 of the ESRT. The Polar Front Jet Stream is found at 60 o N and 60 o S. The Subtropical Jet Stream is found at 30 o N and 30 o S. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> 26. Given a weather map, determine the weather conditions for a specified location in the next 24 hours Warm front: Gentile rain precedes the front. Cirrus then stratus cloud also precede the front. After the front passes temperatures will increase and skies will remain cloudy. Cold front: Heavy rain as the front passes. Cumulonimbus clouds are found at the front. After the front passes temperatures will drop and the skies clear. Low pressure: Warm temperatures with clouds and possibly rain. High pressure: Cold temperatures with clear skies. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 27. Analyze the differences in the origin and characteristics of hurricanes and tornadoes Hurricanes form over water near the equator in the late summer or early fall. They cover 100's of square miles and last for days. Wind speeds are from about 74 to 200 mph. The greatest danger is from the storm surge. Tornadoes form over land at mid latitudes in the spring. They cover yards and last for minutes. They produce the greatest wind speed on Earth. The top speed is unknown. The greatest danger is from wind blown projectiles. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 28.Using Properties of Water in the ESRT, determine the amount of energy absorbed or released during a phase change. The chart is on page 1 of the ESRT. If 10 g of ice melts 800 calories (10 * 80) of energy is stored. If 10 g water vapor is converted to liquid water 5,400 calories (10 * 540) of energy is released </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 29. Evaluate the need for severe weather emergency preparedness. Students have a pamphlet outlining how to prepare for various severe weather conditions. </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 30. Describe variables that cause daily temperature change Cloud cover during the day blocks sunlight reducing the temperature. At night clouds prevent re-radiated energy from the Earth from going in to space that keeps the temperature relatively high. The duration of insolation also is important; the greater the duration of insolation the higher the temperature </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 31. In weather forecasting, evaluate the use of technology such as satellite images, radar, weather maps and computers. Increased technology has allowed accurate forecasts and has decreased loss of life. </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 32. Using the Selected Properties of Earths Atmosphere, determine the characteristics of the layers of the Earth's atmosphere using the ESRT. The charts are on page 14 of the ESRT. These charts show that as altitude increase air pressure and the amount of water vapor decrease. The charts also have the four main layers of the atmosphere labeled, and how the temperature changes in each of these atmospheric layers </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> What layer of the atmosphere has a temperature of -60 degrees Celsius?Mesosphere What is the altitude of the Stratopause in miles? 30 mi What happens to water vapor as you increase in altitude? decreases </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 33. Given the Dry-bulb and Dew point temperature, determine the elevation of a cloud base using the Cloud Base Altitude chart. Students have a worksheet that has the chart with several problems that required them to use the chart </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Vocabulary Atmosphere - Layer of gas that surrounds the Earth. Weather - The short term atmospheric conditions in an area. Dewpoint - The temperature at which the air becomes saturated. relative humidity- A comparison between how much water is in the air to how much water the air could hold. jet stream - This is a high altitude, fast moving, river of air. prevailing wind - This is the direction that the wind comes from most of the time for a given location. </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Vocabulary wind - Wind is the movement of air over the surface of the Earth. conduction - Energy transfer method that involves collisions between particles. precipitation - This is water falling from the sky radiation - Energy transfer method in which the energy travels at the speed of light in transverse waves weather front - A weather front is the boundary between two different air masses </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Vocabulary convection - Energy transfer method that is the result of differences in density. air mass - An air mass is a large body of air, which has the same weather characteristics through out. anemometer - A tool use to measure wind velocity. Barometer - A tool used to measure air pressure. </li> </ul>