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  • 1. The MiddleThe Middle AgesAges

2. The beginningEarly MiddleThe beginningEarly Middle AgesAges Decline of Roman EmpireDecline of Roman Empire Rise of Northern EuropeRise of Northern Europe New forms of governmentNew forms of government Heavy Heavy RomanizationRomanization (religion, language, laws,(religion, language, laws, architecture, government)architecture, government) LatinLatin- medium aevum- medium aevum means middle age and ismeans middle age and is source of English wordsource of English word medievalmedieval 3. Early MiddleEarly Middle AgesAges Dark AgesDark Ages (500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named(500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named this as a time when the forces of darknessthis as a time when the forces of darkness (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light(barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light (Romans)(Romans) Rise of influence ofRise of influence of barbariansbarbarians as Romanas Roman Emperors had granted barbarian mercenariesEmperors had granted barbarian mercenaries land with the Roman Empire in return for militaryland with the Roman Empire in return for military service and it was these barbarians whoservice and it was these barbarians who eventually became the new rulerseventually became the new rulers 4. Warriors and Warbands in the WestWarriors and Warbands in the West Period of change in Western Europe asPeriod of change in Western Europe as barbarians were migrating in to areas given upbarbarians were migrating in to areas given up by Romansby Romans As more barbarians moved westward, otherAs more barbarians moved westward, other tribes were forced to movetribes were forced to move Groups categorized by languages and little elseGroups categorized by languages and little else CelticCeltic: Gauls, Britons, Bretons: Gauls, Britons, Bretons GermanicGermanic: Goths, Frank, Vandals, Saxons: Goths, Frank, Vandals, Saxons SlavicSlavic: Wends: Wends 5. From Rome to ConstantinopleFrom Rome to Constantinople ConstantinopleConstantinople (former city of Byzantium) became new capital and(former city of Byzantium) became new capital and control centre for Roman Empirecontrol centre for Roman Empire Was largest city by population in the world west of ChinaWas largest city by population in the world west of China Strategic location on trade routesStrategic location on trade routes One of largest natural harbours in the world linked theOne of largest natural harbours in the world linked the east and westeast and west Byzantine gold coin (bezant) was the main currency ofByzantine gold coin (bezant) was the main currency of international tradeinternational trade Ruled provinces by Roman model (governors,Ruled provinces by Roman model (governors, bureaucracy and imperial army, heavy taxation andbureaucracy and imperial army, heavy taxation and favouring of royal family and priests in trade and taxesfavouring of royal family and priests in trade and taxes 6. Expanding Influence of the ChurchExpanding Influence of the Church Christian ChurchChristian Church has become an importanthas become an important political, economic, spiritual and cultural force inpolitical, economic, spiritual and cultural force in EuropeEurope Leading officials of Church were theLeading officials of Church were the PopePope andand PatriarchPatriarch Banning ofBanning of heresyheresy (holding beliefs that contradict(holding beliefs that contradict the official religion)the official religion) conversion by forceconversion by force Eventually in 11Eventually in 11thth Century, Church split into twoCentury, Church split into two independent branchesindependent branches Eastern OrthodoxEastern Orthodox (Greek) based in Constantinople and(Greek) based in Constantinople and RomanRoman CatholicCatholic in Romein Rome 7. You scratch myYou scratch my backback Ill scratch yours.Ill scratch yours. ChurchChurch was granted favours bywas granted favours by Roman EmperorsRoman Emperors / Kings (land, exemption/ Kings (land, exemption from taxes, immunity in courts, positions infrom taxes, immunity in courts, positions in courts) and in return the Church wouldcourts) and in return the Church would endorse kings to help secure their ruleendorse kings to help secure their rule KingsKings looked tolooked to ChurchChurch to supply educatedto supply educated administrators to help run kingdoms and inadministrators to help run kingdoms and in return kings would enforce laws thatreturn kings would enforce laws that prohibited other religionsprohibited other religions 8. Monasticism andMonasticism and SaintsSaints MonksMonks were people who gave up worldlywere people who gave up worldly possessions and devote themselves topossessions and devote themselves to a religious lifea religious life Established between 400 -700 communities calledEstablished between 400 -700 communities called monasteries which became centres of education,monasteries which became centres of education, literacy and learningliteracy and learning Strict codes of monastic conduct calledStrict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of St.Rule of St. BenedictBenedict Saints- one who performs miracles that areSaints- one who performs miracles that are interpreted as evidence of a special relationshipinterpreted as evidence of a special relationship with Godwith God St. Augustine-St. Augustine- wrote Confessions whichwrote Confessions which discussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and thediscussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and the role of free will which shaped monastic traditionrole of free will which shaped monastic tradition and the influence of Churchand the influence of Church 9. Justinian the GreatJustinian the Great (ruled 527-565 CE)(ruled 527-565 CE) Byzantine EmperorByzantine Emperor goal to reunite the Roman world as agoal to reunite the Roman world as a Christian Empire and suppressed allChristian Empire and suppressed all paganismpaganism Ordered the codification of RomanOrdered the codification of Roman laws in thelaws in the Justinian CodeJustinian Code or Body ofor Body of Civil Law that defined civil law in theCivil Law that defined civil law in the Middle Ages and the modern worldMiddle Ages and the modern world Crushed theCrushed the Nika RiotNika Riot with the help ofwith the help of his wife Theodorahis wife Theodora During his reignDuring his reign LatinLatin was the officialwas the official language of the Byzantine Empire,language of the Byzantine Empire, but was later changed to Greekbut was later changed to Greek (another difference between two(another difference between two regions)regions) 10. Byzantine Empire in 6th Century 11. MerovingiansMerovingians Merovingian is derived from the leader of theMerovingian is derived from the leader of the tribe of Frankstribe of Franks First dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 yearsFirst dynasty after the Romans and ruled for 300 years Leader in 481 CE wasLeader in 481 CE was Clovis I-Clovis I- he united Frankish tribes andhe united Frankish tribes and expanded territoryexpanded territory HisHis conversionconversion to Christianity won him support from the Churchto Christianity won him support from the Church Clovis I wroteClovis I wrote Salic LawSalic Law - assigned a specific financial value to- assigned a specific financial value to everyone and everything; concept ofeveryone and everything; concept of trial optionstrial options (trial by oath(trial by oath and trial by ordeal)and trial by ordeal) Merovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churchesMerovingian's founded and built many monasteries, churches and palaces and spread Christianity throughout Western Europeand palaces and spread Christianity throughout Western Europe IMPACT = Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed powerIMPACT = Eventually dynasty declined as kings relaxed power and became more like figure heads whereas the real power layand became more like figure heads whereas the real power lay with the powerful officials and leading aristocracywith the powerful officials and leading aristocracy 12. CarolingiansCarolingians Rise of aristocraticRise of aristocratic Charles MartelCharles Martel who dominatedwho dominated Frankish kingdom in 8Frankish kingdom in 8thth centurycentury He confiscated land given to Church and beganHe confiscated land given to Church and began Church reforms that would restore spirituality toChurch reforms that would restore spirituality to clerical lifeclerical life His sonHis son Pepin the ShortPepin the Short continuedcontinued Church reforms and eventuallyChurch reforms and eventually with the support of reformedwith the support of reformed Church, removed lastChurch, removed last Merovingian king from throneMerovingian king from throne Established theEstablished the CarolingianCarolingian dynastydynasty, named to protect the, named to protect the papacy and establish the popepapacy and establish the pope and bishops are the makers of kingsand bishops are the makers of kings Greatest legacy was CharlesGreatest legacy was Charles the Great, orthe Great, or CharlemagneCharlemagne 13. The Holy RomanThe Holy Roman Empire & CharlemagneEmpire & Charlemagne CharlemagneCharlemagne (Charles the Great) who was a(Charles the Great) who was a military general and restored Pope Leo III who hadmilitary general and restored Pope Leo III who had been exiledbeen exiled In return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne andIn return, Leo placed a crown on Charlemagne and named him thenamed him the Emperor of the RomansEmperor of the Romans which which secured the relationship between Frankish kingssecured the relationship between Frankish kings and the papacyand the papacy Charlemagne became the first ruler of theCharlemagne became the first ruler of the HolyHoly Roman EmpireRoman Empire, a dynasty that would last for more, a dynasty that would last for more than 700 yearsthan 700 years CharlemagneCharlemag