middle ages introduction ca. 500 – 1000 c.e.. the germanic successor states last roman emperor...

Download Middle Ages Introduction Ca. 500 – 1000 C.E.. The Germanic Successor States Last Roman emperor deposed by Germanic Odoacer, 476 C.E. Administrative apparatus

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Early Middle Ages

Middle Ages IntroductionCa. 500 1000 C.E.The Germanic Successor StatesLast Roman emperor deposed by Germanic Odoacer, 476 C.E.Administrative apparatus still in place, but cities lose populationGermanic successor states:VisigothsOstrogothsLombardsFranks2

Germanic Invasions 450 476 C.E.Medieval ChristendomTwo halves of what used to be the Roman EmpireByzantine empire Germanic statesInherited Christianity from Roman empireAfter eighth century, tensions between two halves

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Successor States to the Roman Empire, ca. 600 C.E.The Early Byzantine EmpireCapital: ByzantiumCommercial, strategic value of locationConstantine names capital after himself (Constantinople), moves capital there after 330 C.E.

6Justinian (527-565 C.E.)The sleepless emperorWife Theodora as advisorBackground: circus performerAmbitious construction programsThe church of Hagia SophiaJustinians code: codification of Roman law

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Hagia Sophia (now the Ayasofya Mzesi)CaesaropapismPower centralized in figure of emperor Christian leader cannot claim divinity, rather divine authorityPolitical ruleInvolved in religious rule as wellAuthority absolute9Muslim ConquestsSeventh century, Arab Muslim expansionBesieged Byzantium 674-678, 717-718Defense made possible through use of Greek fireConstantinople eventually fell to Muslims in 1453 and was renamed Istanbul10

Expansion of Islam 632 733 C.E.The Carolingian EmpireIn 486, Clovis, King of the Franks conquered the former province of Gaul, which later became known as the kingdom of France.Clovis converted to Christianity, which was the religion of most people in Gaul.This also gave him an ally in the pope, the leader of the Christian Church in Rome.The Early Middle AgesAccording to the Chronicle of St. Denis,He looked up to heaven humbly, and spoke thus, Most mighty God, whom my queen Clothilde worships and adores with heart and soul, I pledge Thee perpetual service unto Thy faith, if only Thou givest me now the victory over mine enemies. Instantly . . . his men were filled with burning valor, and a great fear smote his enemies, so that they turned the back and fled.

Clovis, King of the FranksThe Carolingian EmpireThe Muslim empire was also spreading, mostly across North Africa, but also into Europe.When Muslim armies moved into France, Charles Martel rallied Christian troops and defeated them at the Battle of Tours in 732.Muslims advanced no further into Western Europe, but continued to occupy what is now Spain.The Early Middle AgesIn 786, the grandson of Martel became king of the Franks his name was Charlemagne.Charlemagne helped Pope Leo III by arresting some rebels, so the Pope crowned him Emperor of the RomansHow do you think the eastern Roman Empire felt about this?The Carolingian EmpireCharlemagne continued to work with the church to unify Europe.Appointed powerful nobles to rule local areas.Sent out missi dominici to stay in touch.After Charlemagne died, his grandsons battled each other for power. In 843 they split the kingdom into three regions and called for peace with the Treaty of Verdun.

InvasionsSouth: MuslimsEast: MagyarsNorth: VikingsNorse expansion driven by population pressure, quest for wealthSuperior seafaring technology18The VikingsFrom village of Vik, Norway (hence Viking)Boats with shallow drafts, capable of river travel as well as on open seasAttacked villages, cities, monasteries from ninth centuryConstantinople sacked three timesCarolingians had no navy, dependent on local defenses19Economy in Medieval ChristendomByzantium economic powerhouseAgricultural surplusLong-distance tradeWestern ChristendomRepeated invasions contribute to agricultural declineTenth century, increased political stability leads to economic recovery20