middle ages timeline early middle ages 500 â€“ 1000 high middle ages 1000 - 1500
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- Middle Ages Timeline Early Middle Ages 500 1000 High Middle Ages 1000 - 1500
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- Background @ 1000, new spiritual revival begins Reformers return to basic teachings of Church Middle Ages earns new nickname The Age of Faith. What other names were given to the Middle Ages?
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- Christianity During the Middle Ages Missionaries spread Christianity through Western Europe Monasteries religious communities for men Convents women (Nuns) Monks opened schools, maintained libraries copied books Illuminated Manuscripts
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- Gregory I & Papal Power Broadens power of Papacy (popes office) Papacy became more Secular (non-church) involved in political/ worldly matters Church money used for political/administrative purposes
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- Problems in Church? 1.Priests 1.marrying & raising children 2.Simony 1.Bishops selling church positions. 3.Lay Investiture 1. Kings gain control of Churchs Bishops 1.give them symbols of their position PLeaSe Help!! P = Priests L = Lay Investiture S = Simony
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- Simony Heycan I have that church position now?
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- Lay Investiture Layperson = member of church who is NOT clergy.
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- New Reforms to solve Problems. 1.New types of Monasteries 2.Restructuring of Church 3.New order of Traveling Monks
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- New Types of Monasteries 1.The Benedictine Monastery 1.Virtue 1.Ideas spread 2.Inspire Pope to make changes
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- Restructuring of the Church Church restructured to resemble kingdom Papal Curia (Popes advisors) acted as a court Canon Law laws dictated marriage & religious practices Diplomats traveled Europe spreading Papal power & influence Tithes (usually 10%) money to support hospitals & aid the poor
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- Traveling Monks Friars Spread Christian ideas to the poor Two groups of Friars 1. Franciscans 2. Dominicans
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- Church Architecture Represented wealth of Church Cathedrals (Church of the Bishop) Style of architecture moved from Romanesque style to new style - Gothic Gothic architecture Stained Glass windows Height of the tall spires Elaborate woodwork
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- Romanesque Gothic
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- Essential Knowledge 181. What are religious communities for men? Women? 182.Which Pope expanded the role of the papacy? 183. What is the term for the king giving the symbols of the church to the bishops? 184.What is term for bishops selling positions in the church?
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- The Crusades - Facts 1095 1291 7 major crusades 1 st crusade - regain Holy Land Religious motives & Economic goals (5:37)
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- The First Crusade 1095 1144 Called by Pope Urban II Byzantine emperor asks for help in protecting empire from Muslim Turks Most crusaders French butinclude Germans, English, Scots, Italians, & Spaniards
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- First Crusade Ill-prepared. Crusaders capture Jerusalem on July 15, 1099 Capture 400 mile stretch of land 4 Crusader States established 1144, northern state of Edessa recaptured by Turks
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- The Second Crusade 1145 1187 Organized to recapture city of Edessa Crusaders defeated by Muslims under leadership of Saladin. Saladin & Muslims recapture Jerusalem (3:07)
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- The Third Crusade 1190-1192 Led by 3 powerful European Kings; Philip Augustus/France Fredrick I (Barbarossa)/Germany Richard the Lionheart/England Only one to reach Jerusalem Treaty signed Muslims kept control of Jerusalem unarmed Christians could make pilgrimages to holy sites in city (3:22)
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- The Fourth Crusade 1198 Pope Innocent III calls to re-capture Jerusalem Knights became involved in Italian economics & Byzantine politics Led to looting of Constantinople Deeper riff between Catholic Church & Eastern Orthodox Church (1:34)
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- Essential Knowledge 185. Name the Pope who called for the first crusade? 186. What was the name of the territory founded by Crusaders in Palestine? 187. What Christian city was sacked by the Crusaders? 188. What is the name of the Muslim leader who defeated the Crusaders?
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- Later Crusades Less about religion - more about adventure & personal wealth Crusades in N. Africa for 1 st time 1212 - The Childrens Crusade children died on route or kidnapped & sold into slavery
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- The Spanish Crusade Muslims called Moors in Spain Reconquista Effort to drive Muslims out of Spain ( Reconquer Spain) pushed into small kingdom (Granada) 1492, Granada conquered by Christian army of Spanish monarchs Ferdinand & Isabella.
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- The Spanish Crusade Spain had Jews & Muslims convert to Christianity (escape persecution) To make Christian nation, Ferdinand & Isabella hold Inquisition tribunal held by Church to suppress HERESY (failure to follow Churchs teachings) People unfairly accused & often burned at the stake
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- The Crusades Causes 1.Christians wanted Holy Land 2.Byzantine Emp. asks for Help 3.Pope appeals to Christian knights 4.Knights desire adventure 5.Italian cities desire commercial power Effects 1.Byzantine Emp. Weakens 2.Popes power declines 3.Feudalism weakens 4.Kings b/c stronger 5.Religious intolerance grows 6.Italian cities expand 7.Trade grows btwn. Europe & Muslim World 8.European technology improves thru contact w/ Muslims
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- Essential Knowledge 189. What is the name of the Spanish effort to drive out Muslims & Jews? 190. What is the name of the tribunal held to try & punish heretics? 191.True or False: Feudalism became stronger at the conclusion of the Crusades. 192. True or False: The Crusades resulted in the opening of trade between Europe & Asia.
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