mlelwa proposal - copy 7

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    Overview of the Study

    1.0 Introduction

    This chapter the researcher will introduce the objective of the study that aim to find the

    contributing factors towards poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania and its implication to the

    economic growth in different countries in the world, Africa as far as Tanzania is concerned. So the

    researcher will asses the different factors like shortage of rainfall, poor technology, soil infertility,

    conflicts between agriculturalist and pastoralist and the introduction of the structural adjustment

    program as well as marketing constraints that lead to poor performance of agriculture

    1.1 Background of the Study

    African Economic Research Consortium (2007) argued that since 2004 many sub Sahara African

    Countries have been experiencing a rare phenomenon boom in the price of their primary

    commodity export. Ngeno (2007) showed that agriculture share in value added has fallen sharply

    since 1965 from 39% to 17% with a popular collapse in oil economies .Olomola (20070)

    commended that the agriculture production and export have grown considerably and many

    commodities have seen price boom in recent years. Willey (1986) commended that the tropical

    Africans spans the greater part of African continent. It covers the area of about 2100 millions and

    has the population of over 300 Millions, the characteristic feature of economic activities is

    nomadic and transhumance pastoralist based in cattle, camels, sheep and goats.

    The report by Mlowe (2007) commended that Tanzania economy is agricultural dominated, with

    other sector following. In 2004 the agriculture sector contributed to about 46% of the Gross

    Domestic Product (GDP), Produces about 51% of the foreign exchange earnings and 75% of the

    total employment. (URT 2004).Tanzania has been going through a wide ranging of social

    economic policy changes, into the transformation of economy for a quit sometime now. The

    transformation process was triggered by the crisis of 1980s which lay the ground for the

    introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAPs). Following the structural adjustment

    programme, the agricultural marketing was gradually deregulated to allow the private sector to

    perform the roles in the marketing of agricultural produces.


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    1.2 Statement of the problem

    Ngdeno (2007) showed that agriculture share in value added has fallen sharply since 1965 from

    95% to 17% with a popular collapse in oil economies in connection with the fact that the African

    primary commodity have been experiencing a price boom in several areas.

    The report by Mwaibasa (2007) argued that the dependence in the cash crop economy has not

    delivered. It has failed to generate revenue for a development, while income from agriculture

    sector has been declining and job has been lost. In the face of increasing population in rural areas,

    no new employment has been created.

    According to National Commission of the United Republic of Tanzania (2006) which argued that

    the main reasons for the weak growth in agriculture sector in Tanzania are the reliance by the small

    scale farmers on hand hoe cultivation, lack of technology on farming and overdependence on rain

    fed agriculture, and also the decline in agriculture production has been attributed by falling in price

    of agriculture produces as compared to industrial t products, also lack of access to market of the

    agricultural produces.

    Despite of the fact that the agriculture is playing a greater role to the national economy, but the

    performance of the sector is still poor, though different writers have tried to explore the factors that

    contribute to poor performance of agriculture, but only little little research have been done to

    assess the factors for poor performance of agriculture as far as Tanzania is concern.

    Therefore the interest of this study is to find out the contributing factors for poor performance of

    agriculture in Tanzania.

    1.3 Objectives of the study

    The general objective is to assess the factors that contribute to the poor performance of agriculture

    in Tanzania.

    1.4.1 Specific objectives

    I) To assess the availability of agriculture inputs like fertilizers and insecticides.

    ii) To identify the accessibility of market for agricultural produces.


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    iii) To examine the socio economic factors that affects the performance of agriculture.

    iv) To assess the environmental factors affecting the performance of agriculture.

    1.4 Research Questions

    Basing on those research objectives, the study will address the following research questions;

    i) Is there any agricultural inputs available? And if any, is to what extend?

    ii) Are the markets accessible by agricultural producers?

    iii) What are socio economic factors that affect the performance of agriculture?

    iv) What environmental factors which affect the performance of agriculture?

    1.5 Significance of the study

    This study will help to provide more knowledge and awareness among the involved stakeholders in

    the agriculture sector. In this case more knowledge are going to be gathered with the use of

    community group in contributing to social, and economic development. The study will provide

    common understanding on the current performance of agriculture and developing a strategy to take

    measure on the current poor performance of agriculture.

    From the practical point of view, this study will help the development practionner such as

    Extension services, planers, policy makers, Government and non governmental organization

    (NGOs) to provide an effective means and strategies of developing the agriculture performance in



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    Literature Review

    2.0 Instruction

    Agriculture is the science, arts or practices of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising

    livestock and in varying degrees the preparation and marketing of the resulting products

    (Rubenstein 2003). Agriculture activities means the cultivation of soil, planting the crops, growing

    of fruits trees, including the harvesting of such farms products and other farms activities and

    practices performed by the farmer in conjunctions with farming operation done by persons on

    whether naturally or juridical (Philip 2010).

    The agriculture is the foundation of the Tanzania economy, it account for about half of the national

    income, three quarter of the merchandised exports is a source of food and provides employments

    opportunities to about 80% of the Tanzanian. It has linkages with the non farms sectors through

    forward linkages to agro processing, consumptions and export that provides raw materials to

    industries and markets for manufactured goods. (URT 2008)

    2.1 Policy Implication

    The government of Tanzania has adopted an agricultural sector development strategy (ASDS)

    which set the framework for achieving the sector objectives and targets and taking an intensive

    strategy to address the poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania, under the Agricultural Sector

    Lead Ministries (ASLMs) that provides the overall framework and process for implementing the

    Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS). (URT 2001)

    In order to address the problem of the poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania. The national

    policy has set various strategies and approach as a means of controlling the low performance of

    agriculture, these strategies includes Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS),

    Agricultural Sectors Lead Ministries (ASLMs) and the District Agriculture Development Plans

    (URT 2002)

    The micro economic policy has large positives effects on prices based on agriculture produces

    products. The produces share of the border prices declines over this periods for some key exports


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    crops like Tobacco, Tea and Cottons, this indicates that the sartorial policy did little to improves

    the export prices incentives of the agricultural produces over the late 1980s and early 1990s (URT


    2.2 The Key Features of Agricultural Sector policy Development strategy

    Sustained agricultural growth targets of at least 5% annually to be achieved through the

    transformation from subsistences to commercial agricultural, Transformation to promote sector

    led through an improved enabling environment for enhancing the productivity and profitability of

    agriculture with the removal of constraints to private sector involvement, Sector development to

    be facilitated through public or private partnership, including increased contract farming (vertical

    integration with the delineation of public or private role), Focus on participatory planning and

    implementation using the framework of the district agricultural development plans (DADPs) which

    are part of the district development plans (DDPs), Decentralization of service delivery

    responsibilities to local government authorities, Mainstreaming of the cross cutting and cross sect

    oral issues in agriculture development operations.

    The national policy on agriculture performance in Tanzania has further said on the contributions of

    Village Extensions Offices (VEO) towards addressing those problems related to poor performance

    of agriculture in Tanzania, that these people play a significance roles in training, facilitating and

    supporting the farmers group formation, farmers networking and assisting the group and farmers to

    develop services contracts proposal and plans in order to improve the performances of agricultural

    sector in Tanzania (URT 2002)

    2.3 Environmental Factors on Poor Performance of Agriculture

    Mtenga (2001), argued that the poor performance of agriculculture has been contributed by many

    factors, This happens particularly in tropic Africans as the results of the soil fertility constraints

    (SFC) the inherent low continent of nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) Organic matters (OM) andmineral nutrients. It is estimated that about 62 millions in Africa are affected by the activities. The

    continuous cropping without external inputs lower crop yields due to the net removal of nutrients

    from the soils by the crops. The problems are even severe in semi Aids areas where soil with low

    organic matters, moisture and nutrients Phosphorus and other mineral nutrients are common. With

    the rapid escalating population, most farmers can not practice sufficient long natural fallow periods


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    to permits complete regeneration of soil fertility. These trends are resulting in shorter fallow

    periods and some cases continuous cultivation, rapid soil degradation and decreasing crop yield.

    The agricultural sector is very crucial that, maintaining the sustainability of agriculture ion these

    areas is therefore require a frequent additions of nutrients and organic material for maintaining

    crop yield and growth

    The United Republic of Tanzania (2007), argued that in Tanzania context the problem is not very

    much severe as the case in semi arid areas. In Tanzania there is a prt of productive areas that have

    not yet been explored and most of these land is arable areas which has a fertile soil for agricultural

    practices, though the increasing population in many parts of the country reduced the area for

    cultivating, hence the farmers can not practices long term fallowing periods.

    World Bank (2002) commended that the agriculture is perfuming poorly because of heavily

    dependency on the vagaries of climate. The poor farmers also rely on their own savings and the

    help from the families or friends when floods or drought strikes. But this insurance mechanism is

    of little use when savings are meager or when the entire circle of families and friends suffer from

    the same disaster. The important things is that the farmers should buy insurances protect their

    crops against risk. Example the wealthier farmers and those in rich countries can purchase a farm

    of disaster insurance and benefits from the public subsidies when struck by adversities. World

    Bank also noted that the government and the communities plays an important rule in building an

    effective institution to raise farmers return and lower their risk by reducing uncertainties toward

    future income. . These institution are responsible for generating and disseminating the agricultural

    technology, directly affect the yield and risk inherent in agricultural production, Also the extension

    services are crucial in enhancing the agricultural productivity since the main function of extension

    services are twofold; To inform the farmers of new products and techniques and to gather and

    transfer information from one farmer to another participants.

    Hahhblad (2003), commended that despite the agricultural sector is performing poor, it has provento be the main sources of alternatives for most of the poor African societies. About 70% to 90% of

    the African societies are living in rural areas and their main economic activities are agriculture.

    The farms productivity and production costs largely determines the price of the basic food stuffs,

    which account for 60% to 70% of the total consumptions expenditure by the low income group.

    The agricultural growth has been mainly threatened by the population growth in sub Sahara


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    African countries. Example the population growth in Africa ranges to 2.7% per year over past 40

    years compared with 2% in developing Asia and 2.2% in Latin America, so with regard t

    population increase the agriculture performance in Africa has remained poorly compared with the

    other places, for example over the past 40 years ago the value of aggregate agricultural outputs has

    only increased by 2.5% in Africans compared with the 2.9% in Latin America and 3.5% in

    developing Asia.

    The important things in order to overcome the poor performance of agriculture in Africa is to

    ensure the transparent on the distribution of tax and other rent from the agricultural products;

    Given that the government should not tax the farmers as monetary rather than fiscal because

    farmers will initially directly saving into financial assets before investing.

    The International Cooperatives Alliance (2003), argued that though the agriculture sector is

    performing poorly in East African Countries; Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, this sector still remain

    the backbone of the countrys economy. The main problems of agriculture in these countries is

    that, it is characterized by small scale farming comprised of 60% to 80% 0f the small holder

    farmers with less than one hectors a land. With regard to the poor performances of agriculture ,

    these countries have adopted deferent mechanism that aims to promote the agricultural

    development which includes; Community Empowerment and Enterprises Development Through

    Cooperatives (CEEDCO) in Kenya, Institutional and Capacity Buildings in Primary Societies and

    Other Groups for Member Empowerment and Enterprises Development in Cooperatives in

    Tanzania (MEMCOOP) in Tanzania and Farmers Empowerment Through Agricultural

    services(FATES) in Uganda.

    African Economic Research Consortium (2007) Commended that the agriculture is performing

    poor in many African Countries due to the fact that these counties have historically suffered from

    urban bias in public policy. For example state marketing board in several African countries

    resembled the system used by colonialist to gather food during the Second World War. Thissystem subsidized urban consumers of food by requiring farmers to sell their output at less than the

    market prices. The public investment in infrastructure, Education and other services in rural area

    also tend to be lower than in urban areas. The low investment increases transactions costs in

    marketing in which can be major institutional constraints to developing agricultural productivity.


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    Karvaria([2010), his idea is based on the performance of agriculture in Tanzania and nearby

    countries like Kenya and Uganda, the agriculture in Tanzania is performing poorly most of the

    farmers hold the land of 0.5 to 2.5 hectors and most of these farmers are women . The farmers in

    Tanzania faces a lot of constraints despites of the fact that these people are extremely poor , they

    also suffer from poor infrastructure, lack of enough capital and lack of markets for agricultural

    produces outputs , so these are the main factors for poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania.

    However the solution for most African countries is to have a clear plan for them. In 2003 African

    put in place a Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Plan (CAADP) which aimed to

    improve whose small holder famers. The local initiatives such as UWAMWIMA based in Zanzibar

    which aimed to join the group of famers to work in collaboratively manner in order to empower

    themselves. The T Tanzania have current adopted kilimokwanza which intends to make a green

    revolution in agriculture as the way of recovering problems of poor performance of agriculture in


    2.4. Marketing Constraints on Agriculture Performance

    The result of the poor performance of marketing in the agriculture sector in the early of 1990s as

    part of the process of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAPs). The government undertook a

    series of major reforms. These reforms included the decontrol of marketing of non traditional

    exports . Through this changes has not created any impacts as the results the producers are not

    guaranteed of markets of their crops in all localities due the to among other factors, like

    weaknesses of cooperatives societies, lack of farmers association, inadequate number of competing

    buyers and absence of regulatory institutions to oversee the quality and standards for non

    traditional exports and food crops. Consequently the producer has not received enumerative prices

    which intensified the rural poverty and unemployment levels (URT 2008).

    2.5 Empirical Studies

    The report by Kimaro (2010) commended that the African countries in general have passed

    through three major policies which have a significant impacts on agriculture performance. These

    phases are colonial policy on agriculture production. The post colonial era before market

    liberalization and the free market economy era which have spilled over to date. All of these policy


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    changes had a significant impact on agricultural production due to differences in philosophies of

    each phases.

    So the writer focused only on the colonial policy towards agricultural performance, but there are

    other colonial attributes that contributed to poor performance of agriculture in Tanzania for

    example the content of education which extremely does not intended to develop agriculture

    performance in Africa as far as Tanzania is concerned.

    The report by Bee (2007), argued that despite the outstanding contribution of agriculture to the

    national economy: but still the performance of this sector has not been impressive, although the

    government has implemented a series of adjustment policies and institutional reforms based on

    market economic principles, but there have been a little improvement in agricultural productivity

    and small holder livelihood.

    According to Bareja (2011), about 70 percent of the Tanzania are cultivated by the hand hoe,

    where the average farm land size is about 0.9 hectors and 3.0 hectors each, thereafter the poor

    performance of agriculture has significantly contributed by the dominance of small holder farmers.

    So despite the prevailing small holder farmers but there are other factors associated with these

    small holding farmers like the application of poor technology, dependence on unreliability and

    irregular whether condition has significant contributed to poor performance of agriculture in


    The report by Smale (2006), showed that the East Africa is a largest Banana and maize producing

    and consuming region in Africa, but the problem most producers are small holder farmers who

    grow banana mainly for food, the other factors associated with the poor performance of this sector

    is pest and diseases like weevils, Nematodes, Sigatoka and funga disease that normally affects the

    growth of banana plants, they cause the failure of failure through the death of young banana plants.

    So these diseases have been found to be the contributing factors that affect the performance ofagriculture in Tanzania.

    The report by Ethiopia Institute of agriculture (2010), commended that the introduction of the land

    reforms in Ethiopia and its marketing and distribution policies had a significant impacts on the

    performance of agriculture, since the reforms caused the agriculture production to go down in


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    Ethiopia. The study of this has been conducted in Orimia and Gambela region, where these regions

    are the main producer of coffee in Ethiopia.

    In many parties of the continent particularly the Sub Sahara African Countries a greater problem

    on agriculture production due to the climate condition. A case of Zimbabwe the Government has

    put a lot of initiatives to improves the agriculture performance, the initiatives was based on

    distributing seeds among the farmers in Marange Region where about 400 of the total of 2400

    farmers in Marange, but the agriculture performance in Zimbabwe is still poor due to the fact that

    the area is facing the problem of rain shortage which result almost in poor harvest.

    2.6 Conceptual Framework

    Conceptual framework is a research tool intended to assist a researcher to develop awareness and

    understanding of the situation under scrutiny, and to communicate this when clearly articulated. A

    conceptual framework has a potential usefulness as a tool to assist a researcher to make meaning of

    subsequent finding (Kombo et al2010).

    The independent variable are factors for poor performance, which actually influence the other

    variable to happens, these factors includes application of poor technology, overdependence on

    rainfall, market constraints and the soil infertility.

    The dependent variable are agriculture sector in Tanzania which cannot stand as an independent

    variable since it is influenced by other variable, it usually occur as a result of performance of the

    other variable.


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    Illustration of the conceptual framework

    Independent variables Dependent variable

    Source: The researcher 2012


    Poor performance of agriculture sector

    in Tanzania

    Application of poor


    Market constraints

    Soil infertility

    Overdependence of rainfall

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    Research Methodology

    3.0 Introduction

    Under this chapter a researcher will explore the various techniques or methods that he will use in

    collecting the information from various sources, Qualitative and quantitative data are both used

    during the collection of data from the field, and also the researcher will determine the research

    design in order to complement with the available resources like time and funds.

    3.1 Research Design

    In order to cover a variety of ideas and in depth knowledge and informations based in a single

    institution, Thereafter a research should use a case study design. Under this case study design the

    information is basically collected in a single institution, Example ministry of agriculture and food


    3.2 Description of the Study Area

    The region is bordered in the north by Singida and Dodoma regions, Morogoro regions in the east,

    Ruvuma region and Nyasa in the west. Iringa name came from Wahehe word lilinga meaning fort.

    3.2.1 Geographical Features

    The Municipal stretches along the hilltop overlooking the Ruaha River to the south and spreads

    along ridges and valleys to the north. Iringa Manspal is situated in the plateau that ranges from

    1500metres to 2500metres above the sea level. The highway distances from Iringa to

    Dar Es Salaam is 502kilometers or 312miles. The municipal lies along the latitude 70 south of

    equator and longitude 340 east of the Greenwich meridian, the municipal cover the area of 162

    square kilometers (Kilale 2007)

    3.3 Data Collection


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    A Researcher will use different tools in collecting the data from the field. Some of these data will

    collected from the documented materials and other data will be collected from the field directly

    where various techniques for data collection is going to be used such as Interview, Observation,

    and Focus Group Discussion(FDGs)

    3.3.1 Questionnaire

    Is a list of grouping of a written question in which the respondent answers, A questionnaire can be

    closed ended or an open ended questionnaire Open ended questionnaire

    In some cases a researcher will use open ended questionnaire in order to make a respondent more

    flexible with a divergent answer in the questions provided. Closed ended questionnaire

    The researcher will use closed ended questionnaire order to save time and resources which are

    normally scarcity. So the respondent will be supposed to provide a short and clear answer based on

    the questions provided.

    3.4.1 Types of Data

    The Researcher will be obliged to collect the data of both primary and secondary data whereby he

    will be obliged to go direct to the field and obtain the data for the first time, at the same time he is

    supposed to review different documentation materials in order to get more informations.

    3.4.2 Sources of Data

    A researcher will obtain the data from different sources like the documented information from the

    ministry of agriculture and food security and the agriculture marketing cooperatives, apart from the

    documented materials also the researcher will collect the data directly from the respondent through

    various techniques such as Observation, Interview, and Focus Group Discussion

    3.4.3 Techniques of Data Collection


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    Under the data collection techniques the researcher will use various techniques for collecting the

    data. He will use Interview, Observation and Focus Group Discussion and the review from the


    The researcher will use observation methods or techniques in searching the information in illicit

    circumstances, he will use his eyes to observe direct from the field. Focus Group Discussion

    Under the focus group discussion the researcher will organize the group of people of about six to

    eight people where each people will be encouraged to participate by sharing knowledge and skills. Interview

    The researcher will use interview techniques in collecting the data where the tools which will be

    going to be used is questionnaire, where a list set of questions are provided to the respondent and

    the respondent are supposed to fill it in a short descriptions

    3.5 Sampling

    Sampling is the process whereby one makes estimates or generalizations about the population

    based on the information contained in a partial or sample of the entire population (Adam et al


    The researcher will use sampling in order to save the resources such as time and money where few

    people or a sample are going to be selected to represent the whole population

    3.5.1 Sampling frame

    Refer to those sources of materials from which a sample is drawn. It is the list of all those within a

    population who can be sampled (Jessen 1978). The researcher will draw the sample from various

    sources example ministry of agriculture and food security, from the farmers themselves and from

    other stakeholders like teachers and local l, leaders.

    3.5.2. Sample size


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    A researcher will draw up a sample from each category of the population, and the sample size will

    vary depending on the level of each category of the populations. A researcher will have a total size

    of 40 sample size, that will be drown from various categories, example5 from the staff of the

    Ministry of Agriculture and food Security, 5 are teachers, 5 students, 5 religious leaders, 5 village

    leaders and the rest are the common people.

    3.5.3 Sampling Techniques

    In research there are various methods of obtaining a sample. In this case the researcher will use

    non probability sampling, whereby a researcher will be subjective to only those people to whom

    they are expected to have better information relating to the research study.

    3.6 Data Analysis Techniques

    After the collection of data the researcher will analyze the data through the use of various

    techniques in order to provide a good interpretation. He will use the following tools to analyze the

    data which includes, frequency distribution table, histogram etc through the use ofSPSS computer



    Adam et al(1991), Understanding research methods, second edition, New York

    African Economic Research Consortium (2003), Managing commodity Booms in sub Sahara


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    African, Nairobi.

    Bareja B.G (2011), Participatory Agriculture Development and Empowerment Project:

    Environmental and social framework approach

    Bee K.F (2009), Analysis of agricultural marketing constraints and strategies for Developing

    domestic, agricultural markets in Tanzania, Moshi.

    Bee K. B. (2007), Impacts of agricultural policies in farming business by members of rural

    producers organization in Tanzania, MUCCOBS

    Ethiopia Institute of Agriculture Production (2010), coffee production in


    Haggblade H. (2003), Building on success in African agriculture, Washington

    International Cooperative Alliance (2004), International Cooperative Alliance Regional

    Workshop on Agricultural Marketing, Moshi.

    International Cooperative Alliance (2003), International Cooperative Alliance Regional

    Workshop on agricultural marketing, Nairobi.

    Kimaro P.J (2010), Maize Marketing in Changing Agricultural Policy Environment, MUCCOBS

    Mlowe et al (2007), crop diversification, An emerging opportunity among the rural producer

    Organization in Tanzania, MUCCOBS

    .$ons J. W.(1986), Economic of agricultural development in Tropical African, New York.

    Smale M (2006), Genetic Resource Policies, Promising Crop Biotechnologies for Small Holder

    Farmers in East Africa

    Tanzania and UNESCO (2007), National Commission of the United Republic of Tanzania

    Magazine no3, Dar es Salaam.

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    United Republic of Tanzania (2001), Agricultural Sectors Development Strategy. %2025%2005%2006%20(2).pdf.

    Retrieved on 09/10/2012

    United Republic of Tanzania (2002), Agriculture Sector Development Program, Dar es salaam

    United Republic of Tanzania (2008), Agriculture marketing situation and current

    constraintshttp,// go tz/document/agriculturalmantentingpolicy/.pods

    Framework and process documents, %20docs/ASP

    %20FINAL%2025%2005%2006%20(2).pdf .Retrieved on 09/10/2012

    World Bank (2002), Building institutions for marketing, New York.

    Joyce et al(2005), an approach to social research methods, fourth edition, New York


    Im Fredrick Samson Mlelwa, Perusing Bachelor of Arts in Community Economic Development

    (BA CED) with registration number of FCCDS/BA CED.257/09, at Moshi University College of

    Cooperatives and Business Studies, Carrying out a Research on Factors for Poor Performance of

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    Agriculture in Tanzania. This is for partial fulfillment of the award of the Bachelor of Arts in

    Community Economic Development

    Im requesting for your participation towards the success of this research. Please respond to

    the following questions carefully and answer them giving your comment where necessary


    a/ Personal details information



    3/ residence; a/urban b/ rural ( )

    4/ occupation; a/ student

    b/ employee

    c/ employer

    d/ teacher

    e/ religion leader ( )

    5/ gender; a/ male ( ) b/ female ( )

    6/ marital status; a/ single ( ) b/ married ( )

    7/ is your body physically fits ; a/ yes ( ) b/ no ( )

    b/ information about the economic status

    8/how much salary do you receive permonth? ....................................

    9/ how do you use your salary to manage your family expenses.



    10/do you have any income generating activities?;

    a/ yes b/ no ( )


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    11/if yes which activities do you perform?





    12/ how much do you earn from those income generatingactivities?. .

    13/ do you have any saving?

    a/ yes b/ no ( )

    14/ if yes which social economic group did you engaged?.

    15/ how do you benefits as a member from that socialeconomic group?.




    c/ information about the agricultural performance

    16/how many hectors of farm do you own or rent?.

    17/ do you receive any incentives/ subsidies of grains /fertilizers from the


    a/ yes b/ no( )

    18/ If yes how you benefits do from the subsidies / incentivesyou are receiving



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    19/ basing on your experience, how many bags of maizedo you harvest per


    20/ are you producing for consumption only?

    a/ yes b/ no( )

    21/if no, are you facing any constraints / difficulties /challenges in selling

    Your products?

    a/ yes b/ no ()

    22/ if yes, which problems do you encounters?




    23/ do you think the environmental condition has theimpacts on agricultural


    a/ yes b/ no( )

    24/ if yes, explain how does it impacts the performance the ofAgriculture in your locality?



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    25/ do you think the income level affects the performanceof agriculture?

    a/ yes b/ no( )

    26/ if yes, explain how the level of income affects theperformance of



    27/ do you think is there any other factors thatcontributes to poor

    Performance of agriculture?

    a/ yes b/ no ()

    28/ if yes, which are those?





    Im Fredrick Samson Mlelwa , Perusing Bachelor of Arts in Community EconomicDevelopment (BA CED) with registration number of FCCDS/BA CED.257/09,at Moshi UniversityCollege of Cooperatives and Business Studies, Carrying out a Research on Factors for PoorPerformance of Agriculture in Tanzania. This is for partial fulfillment of the award of the Bachelorof Arts in Community Economic Development


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    Im requesting for your participation towards the success of this research. Please respond tothe following questions carefully and answer them giving your comment where necessary


    a/ personal details information

    1/ name

    2/ age ..

    3/ residence; a/ urban b/ rural ( )

    4/ occupation; a/ employee b/ employer ( )

    5/ gender; a/ male b/ female ( )

    6/ marital status; a/ single b/ married ( )

    7/ is your body physically fits ; a/ yes ( ) b/ no ( )

    b/ Information about the social economic status

    8/ how much salary do you receive per month?

    9/ how do use your salary to manage your family consumption?



    10/ do you have any income generating activities?

    a/ yes b/ no ( )

    11/ if yes, which activities do you perform?





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    12/ how much do you earn from those income generatingactivities? ...........................

    13/ do you have any saving account?

    a/ yes b/ no ( )

    14/ if yes, which financial institution?

    a/ NBC BANAK b/ CRDB


    15/ are you a member of any social economic group?

    a/ yes b/ no ( )

    16/ if yes, which social economic group do you belong?..

    17/ do you benefits as a member from such social economic group?




    c/ information about the agricultural performance

    18/ does the government provides incentives / subsidies on grainsand fertilizers to


    a/ yes b/ no ( )

    19/ if yes, how do they benefits from those subsidies / incentivesthey receive?



    20/ basing on your experience, how many maize of bags do thefarmers harvest per


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    21/ basing on your experience, do these farmers produces productsfor their own

    Consumption only?

    a/ yes b/ no

    22/ if no, do they face any constraints / problems in trying tomarket their products?

    a/ yes b/ no ( )

    23/ if yes, which are those problems do they encounter?





    24/ do you think the environmental conditions has the impacts inthe agricultural


    a/ yes b/ no ( )

    25/ if yes, explain how does it affects the performance ofagriculture?



    26/ do you think the income level affects the performance ofagriculture?

    a/ yes b/ no ()


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    27/ if yes, explain how the level of income affects the performanceof agriculture?


    28/ do you think is there any other factors that contributes to poorperformance of

    Agriculture in Tanzania?

    a/ yes b/ no ( )

    29/ if yes, which are those?