module seven: verbal messages 5-1 mousetraps 5-2

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  • Module Seven: Verbal Messages 5-1
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  • Human language is a system of arbitrary signs and symbols used to communicate thoughts and feelings Every language spoken is a system; an interrelated collection of words and rules employed to construct and express messages that generate meaning All languages impose a grammar that arranges words in a meaningful way: the went store he to Human Language 5-3
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  • Well-chosen words are at the centre of effective communication 5-4
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  • Look for meaning not only in the words spoken, but in the person speaking them When you see or hear a word, you apply your prior knowledge, experience, and feelings to decide what the word means Verbal Messages 5-5
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  • Denotation: The dictionary (literal, objective) meaning of a word; the meaning that members of a culture assign to a word Connotation: A words emotional, subjective, or personal associations Denotative vs. Connotative 5-6
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  • Advantage: Indirect messages allow you to express a thought without insulting or offending anyone; they allow you to observe the rules of polite interaction Disadvantage: Indirect messages can create ambiguity and be misunderstood Indirect Messages 5-7
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  • Most languages reflect a gender bias Because of gender bias in English in North American society, female terms tend to take on demeaning connotations The connotations of the second word in some pairings are negative or outdated: governor/governess, master/mistress, sir/madam Women tend to use language that expresses uncertainty, lack of confidence, and excessive deference or politeness Language and Gender 5-8
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  • Stereotypically, women make indirect requests; men give direct orders Gender Differences in Directness 5-9
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  • There are approximately 5,000 to 6,000 languages spoken in the world, all of them with different vocabularies and rules of grammar The words in a language often reflect what is important to the people in a specific culture (Hope youre hungry! happy request here, cruel taunt in third world countries) Individualistic cultures have an I orientation; collectivist cultures have a we orientation English is the only language that capitalizes the pronoun I in writing Language and Culture 5-10
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  • Many Asian and Latin American cultures value indirectness, which enables a person to avoid appearing criticized or contradicted American styles of communication favour directness Cultural Differences in Directness 5-11
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  • The level of abstraction in verbal communication will vary depending on the context and audience of the message Use abstraction sparingly; express your meaning in specific terms Abstraction 5-12
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  • Abstract terms - concepts and ideas that have no physical dimensions (freedom, love, happiness, equality) Concrete terms -refers to objects, people, happenings that are perceived through sight, smell, touch, hearing, or taste Abstract vs Concrete 5-13
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  • Animal Domestic animal Dog Poodle Toy poodle White toy poodle Pampered white toy poodle From the General to the Concrete 5-14
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  • The meaning of a message can vary depending on the speaker and the speakers circumstances Depending on the speaker, message can be assertive, non-assertive, or aggressive People 5-15
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  • Complete Test Yourself on page 118 of your text Submit by email on Canvas Your Turn 5-16
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  • Verbal and nonverbal messages exist in context, which affects their meaning Cultural context influences the meaning assigned to speech as well as whether the meaning is friendly, offensive, sensitive, etc. Context 5-17
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  • Bypassing, exclusionary language, and offensive language are three common barriers to effective communication Bypassing when two people assign different meanings to the same word or phrase, they risk bypassing each other a form of miscommunication that occurs when people miss each other with their meanings. Overcoming Common Language Barriers 5-18
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  • Inclusive messages: Include all people present and acknowledge the relevance of others Exclusive messages: Exclude specific people and, in some cases, entire cultural groups Exclusionary language uses words that reinforce stereotypes, belittle other people, or exclude others from understanding an in- groups message Inclusion and Exclusion 5-19
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  • Exclusionary language widens the gap by separating the world into we (to refer to people who are like you) and they or those people (to refer to people who are different from you Avoid mentioning anything about age, health or mental and physical abilities, sexual orientation, or race and ethnicity unless these characteristics are relevant to the discussion Inclusion and Exclusion 5-20
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  • Sexism: derogatory behaviour or language toward one sex (usually women) Heterosexism: attitudes, behaviours, and languages that disparage people who are GLBTQ Racism: conscious or unconscious attempt to place a racial or ethnic group in an inferior position Ageism: discrimination based on age Disconfirmation: Denying Others Significance 5-21
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  • Acknowledges the presence of the other person Indicates your acceptance of this person, of this persons definition of self, and of your relationship as defined or viewed by this other person Confirmation 5-22
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  • Complete Test Yourself on page 121 of your text Submit by email on Canvas Your Turn 5-23
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  • To avoid sexism, heterosexism, racism, and ageism, learn and be sensitive to preferred cultural identifiers Cultural Identifiers 5-24
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  • Intensional: To view people, objects, and events in the way they are labeled Extensional: To look first at the actual people, objects, and events, and only afterwards at their labels Orientation 5-25
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  • Recognize the distinction between statements of fact and statements of inference Facts and Inferences 5-26
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  • Inferences are treated as fact Statements are made based on observation and inferences Factual statements are not based on observed facts only Inferential statements are not recognized as important to establish what is meaningful Fact-Inference Confusion Occurs When 5-27
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  • The tendency to look at the world in terms of opposites and extremes The fallacy of either/or and black/ white statements The inappropriate use of opposites The implication that there are only two sides to a problemfailure to look for middle ground Polarization 5-28
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  • Formality of language Jargon specialized technical language of a profession or homogenous group Slang - idioms Profanity Vulgar expressions Speaking Appropriately 5-29
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  • Expand your vocabulary Use oral language (as opposed to written) Use active language expressive Use I and You language wisely you can be very judgmental Use grammatical language Improving Your Way With Words 5-30
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  • Complete Check Your Ability on page 133-4 of your text Submit by email on Canvas Your Turn 5-31
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  • Have A Great Day 5-32

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