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S mycket p spel

En studie om spels narrativa

frmga och funktion i skolan

More Than a Game

A Study on Games Narrative Capacity

and Function in Education

Jon Alette

Interdisciplinr kandidatuppsats

Termin: HT 2013

Kurs: LV1310, Uppsatskurs, 15hp

Niv: Kandidatuppsats

Handledare: Christer Ekholm

Abstract

Interdisciplinary bachelor thesis Teachers education program

Title: More Than a Game: A Study on Games Narrative Capacity and Function in Education

Author: Jon Alette

Term and year: Autumn 2013

Department: Department of Literature, History of Ideas, and Religion

Supervisor: Christer Ekholm

Examiner: Hanne Andersson

Key Words: Video Games; Narrative; Cybertext; Structured Blanks; Literature didactics

Summary:

The purpose of this essay is to investigate and discuss the current state of game research and its potential usage

in didactic situations. The essay is divided in two parts. Part one consists of an attempt to comment preceding

contemporary game research and address possible myths that have been established. Part two aims to discuss

games narrative capacity and function in education using the theories and terms laid down by Wolfgang Iser and

Grard Genette.

Contemporary game research tends to focus on classic retro games, trying to form theories for a general

understanding of the media. This is a useful method as long as the purpose of the study is to define how game

mechanics and layout are formed. However, the use of this perspective in defining how games function as

narratives is a mistake, since games do not adapt narrative methods from their predecessors, but from literature

and other media. Another misconception is the possibility to generalize about games by looking at bestsellers.

Since the game media is under constant development there is no way to say what it can and cannot do. What we

today say is true, might tomorrow be contradicted and proven wrong with the next game release.

Wolfgang Iser has formed a literary theory built on the communication between reader and text. He

explains the grounds for this communication using the terms Repertoire, Strategies and Realization. Within a

texts strategies, Iser claims, communication is built on structured blanks that the reader is to fill in, and so

become part of the productive process, creating the aesthetic object. Using these terms, and structured blanks in

particular, I further on discuss how text and games share narrative and textual functions, using the role-playing

game The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings (Namco Bandai Games) as an example.

Innehllsfrteckning

Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... 2

1. Inledning ............................................................................................................................. 4

Syfte ....................................................................................................................................... 5

2. Avgrnsning ....................................................................................................................... 6

3. Teori och metod ................................................................................................................. 6

3.1. Wolfgang Iser .................................................................................................................. 6

3.1.1. Repertoire ............................................................................................................. 6

3.1.2. Strategies .............................................................................................................. 7

3.1.3. The Implied Reader .............................................................................................. 7

3.1.4. Structured blanks .................................................................................................. 7

3.2. Gerard Genette ............................................................................................................. 8

3.3. Cybertext ..................................................................................................................... 9

4. Tidigare forskning ............................................................................................................ 10

4.1. Struktur ...................................................................................................................... 11

4.2. Analys ........................................................................................................................ 12

4.3. Kritik .......................................................................................................................... 13

4.4. Moraliska val och textuellt vrde .............................................................................. 15

4.5. Sammanfattning ......................................................................................................... 15

5. Analys ............................................................................................................................... 17

5.1. Spel som text eller narrativ ........................................................................................ 17

5.2. Kommentar till tidigare forskning ............................................................................. 18

5.3. The Witcher 2 ............................................................................................................ 22

5.3.1. Temporalitet ....................................................................................................... 22

5.3.2. Repertoire ........................................................................................................... 23

5.3.3. Strategies ............................................................................................................ 23

5.3.3.1. Frmmandegring .............................................................................................. 24

5.3.4. The Implied Reader ............................................................................................ 25

5.3.5. Structured Blanks ............................................................................................... 25

6. Didaktisk diskussion ........................................................................................................ 26

Sammanfattande diskussion ..................................................................................................... 28

7. Referenslista ..................................................................................................................... 30

7.1. Nmnda spel: ............................................................................................................. 32

7.2. Begreppslista ............................................................................................................. 33

4

1. Inledning

P senare r har spel ftt en given roll i skolan fr yngre ldrar iPads r idag lika vanliga

som kaplastavar en gng var. I ldre ldrar ses dock spel fortfarande som ngonting av lgt

vrde ngonting som har sin plats p fritiden och inte i skolan. Jonas Carlquist, professor

vid Ume Universitet, ppekar att ungdomar distanserar sig mer och mer frn klassisk

litteratur till frdel fr lttillgngliga medier som dator- och TV-spel. Forskare br drfr

med gldje kasta sig in i arbetet att lra sig tolka, frst och utveckla den multiforma

berttelsen.1 Mot den bakgrunden, och i beaktande av synen p interaktiva narrativ som en

helig graal fr nya medier,2 kan man stlla sig frgan varfr vi inte intresserar oss mer fr

detta snabbt vxande flt av upplevelser och berttelser. Varfr gnas inte mer tid t att

frska lsa upp denna graals kapacitet?

Espen Aarseth, editor-in-chief fr Game Studies, ppekar att spel under en lng period

har lmnats fria frn kritisk granskning och pongterar att et r ett missfrhllande som mste

avhjlpas. Han hvdar drtill att spel r en alldeles fr stor kulturell tillgng fr att studeras

under endast ett vetenskapligt flt.3 Det talas i dessa nya spelteoretiska sammanhang om

electracy och nya former av literacy, begrepp som d avser kompetensen att ta till sig

digitala medier.4 Det br, kan man tycka, vara skolans uppgift att hjlpa ungdomar att

utveckla electracy och stllning till detta nya och s allmnt spridda medium. Skolan borde

vara en plats dr detta populra medium diskuteras och problematiseras. En allmn synpunkt

inom forskningen om digitala medier, frn 90-talet fram till idag, r att vi analytiskt och

kritiskt mste granska de nya medierna fr att p ett effektivt stt kunna hantera och ta

stllning till dem. Varje nytt medium har genomgtt en period av tvivel byggt p frdomar

och okunskap det synes mig att det r hg tid att spelmediet blir taget p allvar.

Denna interdisciplinra uppsats, har baserat p dessa inledande funderingar, ett tvdelat

syfte. Del ett ger en versikt ver den aktuella forskningen om spels narrativa frmga.

Spelforskningsfltet r fortfarande relativt nytt, och, vill jag hvda, fullt med

missuppfattningar och myter. Forskares bristande kun