musical issues in copyright ??morrison leahy music v lightbond [1993] emlr 144 ... torn (natalie...

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  • MUSICAL ISSUES IN COPYRIGHT LAWKevin Glover, Shortland Chambers

  • Musical worksMusical works

    What is a musical work? Section 2, Copyright Act 1994: Musical work means a work consisting of music,

    exclusive of any words intended to be sung or spoken with the music or any actions intended to be performed with the music.

    John Cage

  • Musical worksMusical works

    Note different works within a song Potentially:Music Lyrics as literary work Performers rights Album artwork

    Peter Hayes v Phonogram Limited [2003] ECDR 11

  • Arrangements as musical worksArrangements as musical works

    ZYX Music v King (20 Feb 1997, EWCA) Please dont go KC and the Sunshine Band, Double You (Italy) and KWS

    (UK) Sought licence, refused Injunction in Germany (Cologne) Injunction in Germany (Cologne) Arrangement protected

  • OwnershipOwnership

    Hadley v Kemp (1999) 4 EMLR 589 (Spandau Ballet) Kemp wrote all music Voluntary paymentsy p y Joint authorship?

    Fisher v Brooker [2009] UKHL 41 (Procol Harum) Fisher v Brooker [2009] UKHL 41 (Procol Harum) Organ part as 40%

  • OwnershipOwnership

    Commonly dealt with by contract Procol Harum Pink Floyd The Smiths Joyce v Morrissey (1998, EWCA)y y ( 99 , ) Performance-related rights vs songwriting

    The Wiggles The Wiggles

  • Moral rightsMoral rights

    Morrison Leahy Music v Lightbond [1993] EMLR 144 Wham! megamix

    Confetti Records v Warner Music [2003] EWHC 1274 (Ch)1274 (Ch) Burnin Antill Mob The Heartless Crew The Heartless Crew

  • Infringement inspirationInfringement inspiration

    Johann Pachelbels Canon "Let it be" (The Beatles) "Ladies and gentlemen we are floating in space"

    (Spiritualized) "No woman, no cry" (Bob Marley) "All together now" (The Farm) All together now (The Farm) "Streets of London" (Roger Whittaker) "Basket case" (Green Day ) Basket case (Green Day ) "I'll C U when U get there" (Coolio)

  • Infringement inspirationInfringement inspiration

    Johann Pachelbels Canon (continued) "Domain" (Future Sound of London) "I should be so lucky" (Kylie Minogue) "Torn" (Natalie Imbruglia)(N g ) "Tunnel of love" (Dire Straits) "We're not gonna take it" (Twisted Sister) We re not gonna take it (Twisted Sister) "With or without you" (U2)

  • Infringement inspirationInfringement inspiration

    Procol Harum / JS Bach Lyricsy

    Willie Dixon Led Zeppelin Led Zeppelin

    Ludlow Music v Robbie Williams [2001] FSR 19W d G h i Woody Guthrie

    Parodied by Loudon Wainwright III, assigned copyright Robbie Williams

  • InfringementInfringement

    Deliberate copying of a substantial part Sampling 1980s/early 1990s The Rolling Stones / The Verve The Clash / Norman Cook/ N Shona Laing & The Crocodiles / Headless Chickens Rick James / MC Hammer Rick James / MC Hammer

  • InfringementInfringement

    Meaning of substantial part Quality, not just quantity Can be small low threshold? Hawkes & Son v Paramount Film Service (UK CA, 1934)( , 9 )

  • Infringement inspirationInfringement inspiration

    EMI Songs Australia v Larrikin Music Publishing [2011] FCAFC 47 Kookaburra Down under

  • InfringementInfringement

    Subconscious (inferred?) copying Cryptomnesia Not found in Francis Day & Hunter v Bron [1963] 1 Ch

    587 (EWCA) Bright Tunes Music Carp v Harrisongs Music Ltd (1976) Radiohead / The Hollies Radiohead / The Hollies

  • InfringementInfringement

    Mash-ups E.g. Paperback believer Danger Mouse The Grey Album

  • Fair useFair use

    Parody as a defence?

  • ConclusionConclusion

    Low levels of formality in ownership arrangements in bands

    Musicians may rely upon managers, producers and lawyersy

    Easy to allege plagiarism and difficult to defend if there is some similaritythere is some similarity

    Several different rights in play