Musicians with Disabilities

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<ul><li>1.Musicians with Disabilities<br>Presented By: Alicia Cooke<br></li></ul><p>2. In researching, I found that there was no one definition for the word disability. For the purpose of this presentation I have chosen to use the definition given by United States Code Title 42 Chapter 126 12102 Definition of Disability (The Americans with Disabilities Act{ADA}) .<br>Under the ADA, which has a three part definition, an individual with a disability is a person who: <br>Has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of such individual;<br>Has a record of such impairment; or<br>Is regarded as having such an impairment.<br>Disability Defined<br>3. Physical <br>Blindness/ Low Vision<br>Medical<br>Deaf/ Hard of Hearing<br>Psychiatric <br>Brain Injuries<br>Speech/ Language <br>Learning<br>Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD)<br>Various Types of Disabilities <br>4. Attitude of Society Towards the Disabled<br>Over the years those with disabilities have suffered many injustices. They have been considered incapable of living a normal life and not allowed to make their own decisions. Some have even been treated like patients for their whole life. It was once a belief that physical disabilities and mental illness were caused by demons or evil spirits. The term lunacy was developed because it was once a belief that the pull of the moon was a cause of mental illness. Children with disabilities were seen as punishment for their parents. Which is still a belief by some today, for example Republican Virginia State Delegate Bob Marshall stated in 2010 children born with disabilities are punishment for a woman having a prior abortion. Disabled persons were the subject of ridicule as court jesters. Not only drowned during the Inquisition, those with a seizure disorder could be considered a witch and burned at the stake. <br>Pictured: belief disability caused by demons; court jester; person being burnt at stake<br>5. Attitude of Society Towards the Disabled (cont.)<br>Featured in Freak Shows, like those put on by P.T. Barnum, or chained to the walls of the basement and put on display for a fee at the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia during 1756. They were placed in asylums, where they were just left in a cell for the remainder of their life or endured horrific medical treatments to cure them. From cutting holes in theirskull to let evil spirits out (trepanning), tospinning treatments, bloodletting,purging, blistering, frightening, and the spread eagle treatment which is like water boarding but meant to calm a disorderly patient. Not to mention electroconvulsive therapy, and of course Eugenics.<br>Pictured: Spread Eagle; Trepanning; PT. Barnum; a disabled person chained to bed in an asylum (was left there for 12 years).<br>6. Attitude of Society Towards the Disabled (cont.)<br>Many of this was brought on by the hysteria created by the pamphlet The Threat of the Feeble Minded. With the Eugenics movement various laws were passed to prevent people with disabilities from moving to the U.S., marrying, or having children.This led to the institutionalization and forced sterilization of disabled adults and children.Those who were believed to be feeble minded, depressed, insane, mentally handicapped, epileptic and other were sterilized. Another example of Eugenics would be the gassing of the disabled in Nazi Germany. By the 1970s over 60,000 persons with disabilities were sterilized without their consent. Even today, those with disabilities are still having to overcome abuse, rape, segregation, behavior management that in some cases is torture, as well as being euthanized, and even murdered. <br>Pictured: Eugenics Tree; Fitter Families medal; Sterilization Bill; Newspaper depicting doctors allowing disabled newborns to die, instead of giving medical aid. <br>7. Without the dedication, and empathy of those who were and were not disabled, along with the evolution of society through technology and education, the music industry could have been deprived of a variety of very talented musicians. Many disabled musicians (famous and not so famous) have persevered and overcome their disability. They have had very successful musical careers. And brought to us some of our favorite songs. <br></p> <ul><li>It is important to remember not all disabled people were born with a disability. Many people will develop a disability at some point in their life. Due to illness (physical, mental, or emotional) accidents, or late emerging effects of genetics.</li></ul><p>How Does This Affect Music?<br>8. There are many diseases that cause severe visual impairments. Often arising with older age. Such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, and cataracts.<br>Some people however are born with blindness.<br>How difficult would it be for you to learn a piece of music by someone dictating one note at a time to you?Or just by listening to it?<br>Musicians with Visual Impairments<br>9. Ray Charles<br>Ray Charles began to go blind at the age of 6. He lost his sight completely by the age of 7. The reason for his loss of sight has not been clearly attributed to a cause. Some have said glaucoma, or an infection from getting soap in his eye. He has been accredited with the early development of soul music. And has received various honors in Jazz, R &amp; B, Rock &amp; Roll, Gospel, and even Country &amp; Western music.<br>Some of his music:<br>Georgia On My Mind<br><br>Ive Got A Woman<br><br>10. Andrea Bocelli<br>Andrea Boceli lost his sight at the age of 12 due to congenital (born with) glaucoma and a soccer accident. Bocelli prefers not to talk about his blindness. He once stated My blindness is not a tragedy to me- I dont see why it should be to others. He has been called the fourth tenor. And has been very successful in contemporary opera and as a pop ballad singer.<br>Some of his music:<br>Con Te Partiro<br><br>Vivere<br><br>11. Stevie Wonder was born premature and lost his sight while in an incubator. He did not let his blindness stop him. By the age of 8 he was a skilled musician. He made is recording debut at the age of 12. He is not only a talented singer, but a great instrumentalist (playing piano, organ, harmonica, and drums), writer, and producer.<br>Some of his music:<br>Yester Me, Yester You, Yesterday<br><br>For Once In My Life<br><br>Superstition<br><br>Stevie Wonder<br>12. In the United States approximately 22 million people have a hearing impairment. <br>A hearing impairment is any type and degree of auditory disorder. Deafness is the extreme inability to discriminate conversational speech through the ear. <br>Can you imagine trying to sing a duet and not being able to hear? How about playing an instrument and not being able to tell if you are playing the notes correctly?<br>Musicians with Hearing Impairments<br>13. Gabriel UrbainFaur is known as one of the greatest French Romantic composers. He was not only a composer, but pianist, organist, and music teacher. At the age of 59 he began suffering from dizziness and migraines, as well as showing signs of hearing problems. Still able to produce significant music, he kept his total hearing loss a secret from everyone except close friends until the day he passed away at the age of 79. <br>Gabriel Faure<br>Some of his work:<br>Pavane, Op.50<br><br>Requime, Op. 48: In Paradisum<br><br>14. "... Know that my noblest faculty, my hearing, has greatly deteriorated... (Beethoven 1801)<br>We will never know the exact cause of Beethovens deafness because their were no specialists at that time. At the age of 39, his deafness had advanced rapidly. After a series of disastrous recitals, Beethoven began composing full time. He would press his ear to the wood of his piano to create pieces like the 7th symphony. Beethoven gave his first known public performance. It was said that Beethoven would be without a doubt, the new Mozart.<br>Beethoven has been said to be the greatest composer who ever lived.<br>Ludwig Van Beethoven<br>Some of his work:<br>7th Symphony<br><br>Moonlight Sonata<br><br>15. Evelyn Glennie became deaf by the age of 12, which was diagnosed due to nerve damage. She did wear hearing aids for awhile, but then threw them away. She learned to decipher between high and low notes by placing her hand on the wall of the music room in her elementary school. Evelyn is a Grammy award winner, and the first person to be able to create and sustain a full time career as a solo percussionist.<br>Evelyn Glennie<br>Performances by Evelyn:<br><br><br>16. Mental/ processing impairments consists of those who suffer from learning disabilities and mental health issues.<br>This category could also include those with mental retardation or who suffer from an age related disease, such as Alzheimers disease.<br>How difficult would it be to read a sheet of music upside down while playing an instrument?<br>Musicians with Mental/Processing Impairments<br>17. Buddy Bolden<br>Charles Buddy Bolden once reigned as the King of black New Orleans music. He has been credited as the founder of jazz. However, his career ended when he began having a mental breakdown. At the age of 29, after being arrested for insanity twice, and continued episodes of violence, he was committed to a State Asylum in Jackson. Reportedly he suffered from schizophrenia. He died 25 years later, at the asylum, unaware of the life he led before being committed. Unfortunately, I do not have musical clips by Buddy Bolden himself, I have included his song originally titled Funky Butt, now known as Buddy Boldens Blues done by Jelly Roll Morton.<br>18. Tom Harrell<br>Tom Harrell has courageously fought against schizophrenia, the debilitating side effects from medication, and been very successful. He has become one of the most respected trumpeters and composers of the last thirty years. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia in 1967 while a freshman at Stanford. <br>Some of his work:<br><br><br>19. Unlike the previous two categories, physical impairments consists of a wider range of disabilities. Such as spinal cord injuries, skeletal impairments (like abnormal/ missing limbs),lack of muscle control/ strength, coordination problems, head injuries, and many more. <br>I am including seizure disorders in this category as well.<br>How difficult do you think it would be to play an instrument with a physical disability?<br>Musicians with Physical Impairments <br>20. Bret Michaels<br>Bret Michaels became a rock icon as the lead singer for one of the biggest hair metal bands of the 80s, Poison. At the age of six, he was diagnosed with diabetes. Though the disease is chronic, he has not allowed it to slow him down. He has not only had a successful career with the band Poison, but a successful solo career as well. Bret Michaels has not only been a musician/ singer, but a songwriter, television personality, and actor. <br>Some of his work:<br>Every Rose Has Its Thorn<br>All I Ever Needed<br>21. Tony Iommi<br>Tony Iommi is a heavy metal guitarist for the band Black Sabbath. It is often said that we would not have that heavy metal sound if it was not for Tony Iommi. (Jimmy Page is also listed as a founder of heavy metal.) On his last day of work in a metal shop, as a teenager Iommi (a left handed guitarist) got the tips of his right-hand fingers cut off. Instead of giving up the guitar, he made a pair of caps to go over his fingers, used light gauge strings on his guitar, as well as decreased the slack so that strumming would not be so painful. The detuned guitar is what gave heavy metal its distinct sound.<br>Tony Iommi solo:<br>22. Kenny G<br>Kenny G is a Grammy award winning saxophone player. Although he uses less improvisation in his work compared to other jazz artists, he puts a lot of emotion into his solos. Kenny G has been diagnosed with asthma. One would think this would be a difficult disability to have and play a musical instrument such as the saxophone. However it has been studied that playing an instrument or singing may actually help those with asthma by improving muscle flexibility of the lungs, allowing them to take a deeper breath without the fatigue.<br>Some of his work:<br>23. Jason Becker<br>Jason Becker, a neo-classical guitarist, achieved fame at the age of 16. He has been described as a guitar prodigy. He released 2 albums under the band Cacophony, as well as a solo. At the age of 20 after finishing a collaboration with David Lee Roth before he was set to go on tour with David he noticed a limp in his left leg. He was diagnosed with ALS-aka Lou Gehrigs Disease and had to depart from the tour. He continues composing music through the aid of a computer and with the help of other musicians.<br>Jason Becker: <br>Paganinis 5th Caprice<br>Cacophony solo<br><br>24. Hank Williams<br>Hank Williams died at the early age of 29. While his alcohol and drug abuse is well known, the usage has been attributed to more of a way of coping with the severely painful disability Spina Bifida. It has been said that Hank Williams is country musics first superstar. Hank Williams is an American singer, songwriter, and guitarist. He even experienced great crossover success into the popular music market.<br>Some of his work:<br>Im So Lonesome I Could Cry<br>Lovesick Blues <br><br>25. Neil Young<br>Neil Young is a folkie/ rocker from Canada. He is a singer, guitarist, and songwriter. Neil Young is no stranger to disability. He has had several health obstacles that he has overcome in his life. From contracting polio at the age of 6, to diabetes, and epilepsy. He also underwent a surgery in 2005 for a brain aneurysm. He has two sons with cerebral palsy as well. Neil Young and his wife started the Bridge School in Hillsborough, CA. The school educates children with severe speech and physical impairments. Young hosts and performs at a benefit concert, for the school, in Mountain View, CA every year.<br>Some of his work:<br>Hey, Hey, My, My<br><br>Old Man <br><br>26. Mary Wells has been called the founder of the famous Motown Sound. She is also considered one of the best female singers in the music industry. However as a child she had spinal meningitis. This left her temporarily paralyzed. She had to relearn how to walk. This also led to a slight loss of hearing and partial blindness. She was diagnosed with throat cancer toward the end of her life, but still kept working and recording.<br>Some of her work:<br>My Guy<br>Two Lovers/ Bye Bye Baby<br><br>Mary Wells<br>27. Rick Allen<br>Rick Allen is the drummer for the band Def Leppard. He is one of the few internationally known musicians with a significant disabili...</p>


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