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Namibia Protected Landscapes Proposal to GEF


Republic of Namibia

United Nations Development Programme

Global Environment Facility

NAMIBIA Protected Landscape Conservation Areas Initiative (NAM-PLACE)

PIMS No: 4173 Award ID: 00059705 and Project ID 00074796

Brief Description:

Namibia has a large biodiversity endowment, which is of global significance. Although predominantly a semi arid country, Namibia contains a remarkable variety of ecosystems, ranging from hyper-arid deserts with less than 10mm of rainfall to subtropical wetlands and savannas receiving over 600mm of precipitation per annum. Four major terrestrial biomes exist, namely: Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Desert and Tree and Shrub Savannah. On a finer scale, 29 different vegetation types are currently recognised, many of which are wholly unique to Namibia or to the southern African sub continent. These biomes are storehouses of high species richness: the country harbours 4,000 species and subspecies of higher plants and 658 species of birds have been recorded, of which approximately 30% is migrant. 217 species of mammals are found including unique arid varieties of desert-adapted rhino and elephant. Finally, the herpetofauna and invertebrate fauna display high diversity and endemism quotients.

The proposed project is designed to lift the barriers to establishment of a large scale network of protected landscapes and in doing so address threats to habitat and species loss on a landscape level approach, ensuring greater responsiveness to variability and seasonality issues around climate change. The project will directly bring an additional 15,550 ha of land under PA collaborative management arrangements designed to conserve biodiversity, including unprotected lands by establishing five Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCA). PLCAs will first and foremost be managed for the full suite of biodiversity and landscape values, including ecosystem services (which are better managed at landscape level), also for ecosystem functioning, also performing better at landscape level, for sustainable land management and for economic performance.

The project will comprise three complementary components which will be cost shared by the GEF and co-financing. Each addresses a different barrier and has discrete outcomes. Component One will entail the development of a framework for the formalisation of existing protected landscape collaborative management arrangements as well as the creation of national level best practices guidelines for PLCA establishment developed based on, but improving, existing adaptive management arrangements. Component Two will entail the development of strategic plans approved for each PLCA as well as management and work plans for each individual landholding (e.g. conservancy, private farm, etc.) forming part of a PLCA in place. Component Three will entail developing the crucial economical sustainability aspect of PLCA management. The project is designed to generate global and national benefits through protecting globally important ecosystems. This will protect the existence values, option values and future use values enjoyed by the global community and national stakeholders that might otherwise be forfeited, should the PA estate fail to provide an effective buffer against anthropogenic threats prevalent at the landscape level.

The project is likely to run through two consecutive UNDAFs because the current UNDAF is extended to 2012 and in 2013 Namibia is likely to have a new UNDAF.

1.1 Table of Contents

31.1 Table of Contents

1.2 Tables 6

1.3 Figures 6

1.4 Abbreviations and Acronyms 7

PART IA: Situational Analysis 12

1.1 Biophysical Context 12

Country Situation 12

Climate and Water 12

Climate Change 14

Biodiversity of Namibia 15

Protected Areas in Namibia 18

1.2 Socio-Economic Context 23

Namibian National Context 23

Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change 27

Growth of Tourism 27

Hunting and Fishing Tourism 28

Venison Production 29

1.3 Policy and Legislative Context 30

1.4 Institutional and Governance Context 34

Ministerial Level Governance 34

Communal Conservancies 35

Civil Society (NGOs and CBOs) 35

The Private Sector 35

PART IB: Baseline Course of Action 36

1.5 Threats to Namibia’s Biodiversity 36

National Level Threats 36

1.6 Root Cause Analysis 37

Shortcomings and gaps in the planning, policy and legal framework 38

Poor Integration of PAs and Landscape Management 40

Incomplete PA Network Coverage 41

Limitations with PA Infrastructure and Equipment 41

Human and Institutional Resource Deficit for Effective Management 42

Undervaluation of the natural resource base both within and outside the PAs 42

Insufficient PA Financing Systems and Access to Markets 43

1.7 Solutions to Threats and Root Causes 44

Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas 44

Adaptive Collaborative Management of PLCAs 46

Incentives and Market Transformation 46

1.8 Barriers to the Conservation of Biodiversity 48

Absence of or Limitations in Developing Partnerships for Landscape Management 48

Inadequate Governance Framework for Landscape Level Management 49

Insufficient Focus on Market Transformation and Incentive Measures: 49

PART II: Project Strategy 50

1.9 Project Rationale and Policy Conformity 50

1.10 Project Goal, Objective, Outcome, Components and Outputs 51

Component 1. Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCAs) 52

Component 2: Collaborative Governance for PLCAs 53

Component 3: Incentives and Market Transformation 53

1.11 Project Focal Landscapes 53

Mudumu Landscape (ML) 54

Greater Waterberg Landscape (GWL) 55

Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape (GSNL) 56

Greater Fish River Canyon Landscape (GFRCL) 57

Windhoek Green Belt Landscape (WGBL) 58

1.12 Project Risks and Assumptions 59

1.13 Alternative Strategies Considered 60

1.14 Country Ownership and Eligibility 61

1.15 Program Designation and Conformity 62

The Fit with GEF Focal Area Strategy 62

Linkages to UNDP Country Programme 63

Linkages with GEF Financed Projects 64

1.16 Sustainability 66

Social sustainability 66

Economic sustainability 67

1.17 Climate Change Adaptation 71

1.18 Replication Strategy 73

PART III: Management Arrangements 76

1.19 Project Management & Implementation 76

Execution Modality. 76

Implementation Modality. 76

Project Steering Committee 77

Project Advisory Committee 78

National Level Project Management 78

Site Level Project Management 79

Project components. 79

Inception workshop 79

Technical Assistance 80

Funds flow 80

Public involvement Plan 80

Reporting 80

Legal Context 81

Audit Requirement 81

PART IV: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan 82

1.20 Project Reporting 83

1.21 Independent Evaluations 84

PART V: Incremental Logic 85

1.22 Baseline Course of Action 85

Summary of Baseline Situation 85

Baseline Situation – Development of Protected Areas on a Landscape Level 86

Baseline Situation – Developing Collaborative Governance Arrangements 86

Baseline Situation – Creating Incentives for Market Transformation 86

1.23 GEF Alternative: Expected Global and National Benefits 86

Global Benefits 88

National Benefits 88

1.24 Co-Financing 91

Total Government of Namibia co-financing is USD 14,000,000 92

Total Private Sector co-financing is USD 883,000 92

Total United Nations Development Programme co-financing is USD 100,000 92

Total Bilateral Aid Agency co-financing is USD 17,000,000 92

1.25 Cost Effectiveness 92

PART VII: Project Results Framework 96

PART VIII: Project Total Budget 111

1.26 Co-Financing summary 114

1.27 Budget Notes 115

Component 1: Establish new Protected Landscape Conservation Areas (PLCAs). 115

Component 2: Collaborative Governance for PLCAs. 116

Component 3 Incentives and Market Transformation. 117

Project Management: Ensures effective project administration and coordination have enabled timely and efficient implementation of project activities. 118

ANNEX I: Additional Information 119

ANNEX II: Stakeholder Analysis 120

1.28 Ministerial Level Stakeholders 120

Ministry of Environment and Tourism 120

MET – Directorate of Parks and Wildlife Management (DPWM): 121

MET – Directorate of Environmental Affairs (DEA) 122

MET – Directorate of Tourism (DoT) 123

MET – Directorate of Scientific Services (DSS) 124

MET – Directorate of Administration and Support Services (DASS) 125

Ministry of Lands and Resettlement (MLR) 125

Ministry of Regional and Local Government and Housing and Rural Development (MRLGHRD) 126

Ministry of Works and Transport (MWT) 127

Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry (MAWF) 127

Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources (MFMR) 127

Ministry of Mines and Energies (MME) 127

1.29 Local Authorities 128

1.30 Communal Conservancies 128

1.31 Civil Society (NGOs and CBOs) 130

1.32 Municipal Authorities 131

1.33 The Private Sector 132

1.34 Protected Landscape Level Stakeholders 132

Mudumu Landscape Stakeholders 132

Greater Waterberg Landscape Stakeholders 133

Greater Sossusvlei-Namib Landscape Stakeholders 133

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