nanotech presentation final

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  1. 1. 1 The Ethics of Nanotechnology
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  3. 3. 3 Introduction Imagine a world in which cars can be assembled molecule-by-molecule garbage can be disassembled and turned into beef steaks, and people can be operated on and healed by cell-sized robots
  4. 4. 4 Sounds like a science fiction ? Nanotechnology is the practical everyday application of a futuristic science so amazing you may have trouble believing its for real. But for investors, it is very real. semiconductor chip manufacturing encroaching upon the nanometer scale ability to move individual atoms ability to fabricate devices that can manipulate things at the atomic level
  5. 5. 5 What is Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology, also called molecular manufacturing, is "a branch of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices built at the molecular level of matter.
  6. 6. 6 There are many different views of precisely what is included in nanotechnology: 1. Small size, measured in 100s of nanometers or less. 2. Unique properties because of the small size 3. Control the structure and composition on the nm scale in order to control the properties. Nanostructuresobjects with nanometer scale features are not new and they were not first created by man. There are many examples of nanostructures in nature: catalysts, porous materials, certain minerals, soot particles, etc. We have entered the era of engineered nanomaterials and devices
  7. 7. 7 Goals of Nanotechnology To be able to manipulate materials at the atomic level To build the smallest possible electromechanical devices, given the physical limitations of matter. In essence, the purpose of developing nanotechnology is to have tools to work on the molecular level analogous to the tools we have at the macroworld level.
  8. 8. 8 Potential Benefits... Just given the basic premises of nanotechnology, you can imagine the vast potential, such as: Manufacturing o Precision Manufacturing o Material Reuse o Miniaturization Medicine o Pharmaceutical Creation o Disease Treatment o Nanomachine-assisted Surgery Environment o Toxin Cleanup o Recycling o Resource Consumption Reduction Respirocytes with Red Cells. (by Vik Olliver, 1998)
  9. 9. 9 POTENTIAL DANGERS Unfortunately, the technology can be used for dangerous ends. Weapons o Miniature Weapons and Explosives o Disassemblers for Military Use Rampant Nanomachines o The Gray Goo Scenario o Self Replicating Nanomachines Nanoterrorism Surveillance o Monitoring o Tracking The flip side to these benefits is the possibility of assemblers and disassemblers being used to create weapons, be used as weapons themselves, or for them to run wild and wreak havoc.
  10. 10. 10 Why worry? The ethical issues fall into the areas of equity, privacy, security, environment, and metaphysical questions concerning human machine interactions. Privacy and security: 1.dramatically improving surveillance devices 2.producing new weapons 3.near-invisible microphones, cameras, and tracking devices
  11. 11. 11 Environmental issues: toxicity and exposure to humans and the environment the biological and chemicaleffects of nanoparticles on human bodies or natural ecosystems leakage, spillage, circulation, and concentration of nanoparticles that would cause a hazard to bodies or ecosystems. Nanopollution: generated due towaste generated during their manufacture
  12. 12. 12 Ethical Issues & Analysis
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  15. 15. 15 Ethical Concepts Of Nanotechnology Nanotechnology covers personal and social aspects of etics Personal aspects covers character of individual. Social aspects looks in harmony of society. Nanotechnology has thrown motivists in debate since it do not consider human emotions. Consequentialist theory is applicable to it since its consequence are not good.
  16. 16. THE INDIAN SCENARIO There is more funding on commercial applications rather on risk management and research and development. Lately some initiatives have been taken for addressing risk issues by Nano Mission and key scientific agencies. NIPER is developing regulatory approval guidelines for nanotechnology based drugs and standards for toxicological tests in nanobased drug delivery systems. In 2010, DST appointed a task force which has been asked to advice NanoMission Council to develop a regulatory body for nanotechnology in India. Firms involved in nanotechnology based product development primarily products addressing water, textile, drug delivery have undertaken Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) partnering with research institutes/universities. Standardization remains an area of concern. India, has only taken initial first steps in addressing standardization issue. 16
  17. 17. RECOMMENDATIONS Nano machines should not be self replicating. A non government regulatory or advisory commision should be setup . Nano machines should only be specialised,not general purpose. Create institutions to monitor development of nanotechnology. Establish dialogue with the public and with industry. Develop guidelines and standards for production, handling, commercialization and risk assessment of nanomaterials. Nano machines should be tagged so that they can be tracked. 17
  18. 18. 18 Conclusion Ethical guidelines are needed to ensure that nanotechnology is not used for harmful purposes. We broaden the canves to examine regulation towards addressing responsible technology development, innovation governance.
  19. 19. 19 Questions????