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Napoleon 1769 - 1821

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Page 2: Napoleon 1769 - 1821. Napoleon Crossing the Alps

Napoleon Crossing the Alps

Page 3: Napoleon 1769 - 1821. Napoleon Crossing the Alps

Which Napoleon would you want as a ruler?

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Vocabulary

Meritocracy: leadership chosen on the basis of abilities and achievements rather than birthright

Coup d’Etat: the sudden violent overthrow of a government and seizure of political power (especially by the military).

Abdicate: to give up a high office formally or officially, especially the throne

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Napoleon-Early Life

Napoleon was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica- the same year Corsica was reclaimed from Italy from France.

He came from minor Corsican nobility

His father secured a scholarship at a military school in France-age 10.

From there he advanced

to the École Militaire

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Napoleon-Background

Not a revolutionary before the Revolution, but welcomed the changes

The Revolution opened up French society-would abolish privileges of the nobility and clergy

He rose through the ranks during the foreign battles of the French Revolution

He was able to rise due to meritocracy.

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École Militaire

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Young Military Officer

In 1785, at age 16, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the French army.By the age of only 25, Napoleon was made a brigadier general by the Committee of Public Safety. He won a series of victories as the French commander against armies in Italy.

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The Egyptian Campaign

In 1798 Napoleon invaded Egypt.

His army had great military sucess on land

The campaign became doomed to failure when his naval fleet was destroyed.

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Battle of the Nile

Napoleon was defeated by a British navy under Admiral Horatio Nelson, who destroyed the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile.

Abandoning his troops in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France and received a hero’s welcome! British Admiral Horatio Nelson

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Egyptian Campaign: 1798 to 1801

The Rosetta Stone

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Coup d’Etat

Napoleon’s combination of intelligence, charm, wit, and decisiveness allowed him to win the support of his troops and others.

Napoleon took part in the coup d’etat that overthrew the Directory.

Even though in theory France was a republic, Napoleon held absolute power as the first consul of a new government called the consulate.

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18 Brumaire - Nov. 9, 1799

The Directory was a weak and corrupt leadership of five men.

Napoleon succeeded in a Coup d’état – he overthrew the Directory.

Abbe Sieyès said of him: Confidence from below; authority from above.

Napoleon overthrowing the Directory

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Was Napoleon a Dictator?

Napoleon appointed members of the bureaucracy, controlled the army, conducted foreign affairs, and influenced the legislature.

Once in power, Napoleon employed generosity, flattery and bribery to win over some of his enemies

He was ruthless in suppressing opposition

1802 Napoleon made himself consul for life

1804 Crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I

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Strong Government Control

He shut down 60 of France’s 73 newspapers, insisting that the government view all manuscripts before they are published, and having government police read people’s mail.

He never stopped reminding the French that he preserved what was beneficial in the revolutionary program.

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Napoleon’s Lasting Changes

Instituted a school system to educate the masses

Code Napoléon

Centralized Government

Normalized relations with the Catholic Church

Created the Bank of France

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Lycee System of Education

Established by Napoleon in 1801.

System of schools under strict government control to ensure well-trained government officials and military officers

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Meritocracy and Promotion

Napoleon developed a powerful, centralized administrative machine with promotion based on ability.

Opening government careers to individuals based on their ability was one change the middle class wanted.

Napoleon created a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service.

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Concordat of 1801

Napoleon wanted to heal the divisions within the Catholic Church that had developed after the confiscation of Church property and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

Catholicism was declared the religion of the majority of the French.

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Outcome of Concordat

Papal acceptance of church lands lost during the Revolution.

Bishops subservient to the government

Pope Pius VII later renounced the Concordat

The Pope excommunicated Napoleon.

Napoleon had the Pope brought to France and placed him under house arrest.

Pope Pius VII

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Napoleon in the New World

Sold for $15,000,000-Napoleon needed to money to fight his foreign wars.

Louisiana Purchase, 1803

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Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804

Slaves in the New World were inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution

Toussaint L’Ouverture – a former slave led a revolt to free the slave in Haiti

It was a brutal conflict

Result: the elimination of slavery and the establishment of Haiti as the first republic ruled by people of African and black Caribbean ancestry.

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Haitian Independence 1804

Of the many rebellions that occurred in the New World during the centuries of slavery, only Haiti was successful in achieving permanent independence under a new nation.

The Haitian Revolution is regarded as a defining moment in the history of Africans in the New World.

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Crowned Himself Emperor of the FrenchDecember 2, 1804 Notre Dame

Emperor Napoleon & Empress Josephine-1806 by David

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Napoleon placed the crown on his own head, instead of being crowned by the head of the Church.

He then crowned Josephine.

Painting by David.

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Consul vs. Emperor

Note the plainer appearance of

Napoleon when he first became Consul, as

compared to the much more grand scene of him once

his imperial ambition had been revealed and he

had seated himself as Emperor

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Napoleonic Code 1804

Napoleon’s most famous domestic achievement was codifying French laws.

Before the revolution France had up to 300 separate legal systems.

Embodied Enlightenment principles.

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Napoleonic Code 1804

The chair at Malmaison where Napoleon sat as he wrote his Civil Code.

Napoleon's personal copy of the Civil Code

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Napoleon’s Civil Code

Recognized equality before the law, the right to choose a profession, religious toleration, ended feudalism.

The Code outlawed unions and strikes.

Opened government careers to more people.

Undid revolutionary changes, such as making divorce easy for both men and women, and allowing children, including daughters, to inherit property.

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Women Lose Rights Under the Code

Men gained complete authority over their wives and children

The new code made it harder for women to divorce.

Women were unable to exercise their rights as full citizens

Napoleon the Lawmaker. Painting by Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse.

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Napoleon’s Empire

Napoleon created a vast French Empire through war and conquest.

Annexed the Netherlands, Belgium and parts of Italy and Germany.

Abolished the Holy Roman Empire and created the Confederation of the Rhine under French protection.

Cut the Prussian territory in half

Turned part of Poland into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw

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Napoleon’s Grand Empire

His Grand Empire had three parts: the French Empire, dependent states, and allied states.

The dependent states were kingdoms that Napoleon’s relatives ruled, including Spain, Holland, Italy, and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.

The allied states were those Napoleon defeated and forced to join him in war against Britain.

These included Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden.

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Napoleon’s Influence Spread

French armies under Napoleon spread ideas of the revolution across Europe.

The army backed liberal reforms in the lands they conquered.

In some places titles of nobility were abolished, church privileges ended, careers open to men of talent

The Napoleonic Code influenced the continent (and Latin America)

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Wherever it was implemented in the conquered territories, the Code Napoleon swept away feudal

property relations.

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Napoleonic Europe 1799-1815

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Battle of Trafalgar 1805Napoleon dreamed of conquering Great Britain.

Britain defeated a combined French-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar – a decisive British naval victory

Ended Napoleon’s dream of invading England.

Nelson was mortally wounded during the battle, becoming Britain's greatest war hero

Napoleon tried to use the

Continental System to defeat Britain.

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The Continental System

Napoleon banned British goods in the lands he controlled.

The Continental System was intended to stop British goods from reaching continental markets.

The main flaw in the Continental Plan was that Britain still had naval dominance

Allied states resented being told they could not buy British goods, and this strategy failed as well.

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The Continental System 1806-1810

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Napoleon’s Family Rules!

Jerome Bonaparte King of Westphalia.

Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain

Louise Bonaparte King of Holland

Pauline Bonaparte Princess of Italy

Napoléon Francis Joseph (son) King of Rome

Elisa Bonaparte Grand Duchess of Tuscany

Caroline Bonaparte Queen of Naples

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Napoleon in Spain

The Third of May 1808 by Goya

Shows Napoleon's troops executing the defenders of Madrid

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Beginning of the End

Napoleon’s fall began with his invasion of Russia, which had refused to remain in the Continental System.

In 1812 a Grand Army of over six hundred thousand men entered Russia.

Napoleon needed to score a quick, decisive victory.

The Russians would not fight but kept retreating.

Scorched earth policy!!

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Moscow Ablaze

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Defeat in Russia

Russian’s burned their villages, and even Moscow, as they wanted to deny the French food and supplies.

Lacking food, Napoleon left Moscow after two months to retreat.

He left in October, so his “Great Retreat” happened under terrible winter conditions.

Only forty thousand men arrived back in Poland.

Other European nations rose up to attack the crippled French army- NATIONALISM!!.

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Napoleon's retreat from Moscow

Painting by Adolf Northern

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Route of the Great Retreat

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First Exile

Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to the island of Elba on 4 May, 1814.

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The Bourbons are Back!

Louis XVIII r. 1814-1824

Louis XVI’s brother, restored the Bourbon monarchy.

He agreed to accept the changes Napoleon made.

The king had little support.

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Napoleon Escapes

Napoleon escaped from exile on Elba. Troops were sent to capture him, but on their

meeting, Napoleon opened his coat and invited anyone who would to kill the emperor.

No one did and instead the troops shouted, “Vive l’Empereur” (“Long Live the Emperor”). Napoleon entered Paris in triumph on March 20, 1815.

His reign lasted 100 days.

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Waterloo

At the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium in 1815, Napoleon was defeated by a combined British and Prussian army under the Duke of Wellington.

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Waterloo

Painting by Clément-Auguste Andrieux

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Permanent Exile on St. Helena

The allies exiled Napoleon to St. Helena, a small island in the south Atlantic held by the British.

Napoleon’s power ended.

He never saw France or his family again.

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Death of Napoleon

Napoleon died on 5 May 1821

Cause of death is now considered to be cancer- not poisoning!

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Burial on St. Helena

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Napoleon’s Final Resting PlaceLes Invalides- Paris

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Collapse of Napoleon’s Empire

The survival of Great Britain and the force of nationalism are the two main causes of the quick collapse of Napoleon’s empire.

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What was the legacy of Napoleon?

Napoleonic Code consolidated many changes of the revolution.

France was a centralized state with a constitution

Citizens had rights to property and access to education.

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Château de Malmaison

His home with his wife Josephine.

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Office and Bedroom

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Putting Europe Back Together: Congress of Vienna -1815

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Prince Klemens von Metternich

What was the meeting which attempted to restore Europe to what it had been before the French Revolution and Napoleon?

 What was the significance of the Congress of Vienna? What is the belief that no one country should be more

powerful than the others?  What was the legacy of Napoleon? What was the legacy of the Congress of Vienna?

Portrait by Thomas Lawrence

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Napoleon (1769-1821), is standing, holding sacred, similar to that of Roman emperors, others are merely passive spectators.

Joséphine de Beauharnais (1763-1814), is kneeling in a submissive position, as called for in the French Civil Code. She received the crown from the hands of her husband, not the pope. Her robe is decorated with silk according to a contemporary cartoon by Jean-Francois Bony.[citation needed]

Maria Letizia Ramolino (1750-1836), mother of Napoleon, was placed in the stands by the painter. She occupies a place more important than the pope. Actually, she did not attend the ceremony to protest the friction of Napoleon with his brothers Lucien and Joseph. Napoleon's father, Charles Bonaparte, died in 1785. Maria Letizia asked the painter to give it a place of honor.[dubious – discuss] In 1808, when Napoleon discovered the canvas completed in the workshop of David, he was transported, and said his gratitude to the painter who had managed to pay tribute to posterity to the affection he was carrying a woman who shared with him the burden of his office.[citation needed]

Louis Bonaparte (1778-1846), who at the beginning of the empire received the title of grand constable, King of Holland, in 1806. He married Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter of Josephine.

Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844), who was not invited and did not attend because of an argument with Napoleon. This is why his mother did not attend either. After the coronation, he received the title of imperial prince. Then he was king of Naples in 1806 and Spain in 1808.

The young Napoleon Charles Bonaparte (1802-1807), son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense de Beauharnais. The sisters of Napoleon. Charles-Francois Lebrun (1739-1824), the third consul alongside Napoleon and Cambacérès. Under the

First Empire, he took the place of prince-architrésorier. He holds the sceptre. Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (1753-1824), arch-chancellor prince of the empire. He takes the hand of justice. Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753-1815), minister of war under the Consulate. Marshal Empire in 1805. He keeps

the globe surmounted by a cross. Talleyrand (1754-1836), grand chamberlain since July 11, 1804. Joachim Murat (1767-1815), marshal of empire, king of Naples after 1808, brother-in-law of Napoleon and

husband of Caroline Bonaparte. Pope Pius VII (1742-1823), was content to bless the coronation. He is surrounded by dignitaries clerics, appointed

by Napoleon since the Concordat. In order not to jeopardize the new balance between Church and State, the pope accepted to attend the coronation.[citation needed]

The painter Jacques-Louis David is depicted in the stands as well.

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http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/france/consys.htm

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Trafalgar

Painting by Joseph Turner

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Britain survived principally because of its sea power, which made Britain virtually invulnerable.

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http://www.musees-nationaux-napoleoniens.org/en/homes/home_id24833_u1l2.htm

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Europe Under Napoleon

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Europe After the Congress of Vienna

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On February 26, 1815, Napoleon managed to sneak past his guards and somehow escape from Elba, slip past interception by a British ship, and return to France. Immediately, people and troops began to rally to the returned Emperor. French police forces were sent to arrest him, but upon arriving in his presence, they kneeled before him. Triumphantly, Napoleon returned to Paris on March 20, 1815. Paris welcomed him with celebration, and Louis XVIII, the new king, fled to Belgium. With Louis only just gone, Napoleon moved back into the Tuileries. The period known as the Hundred Days had begun.

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