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Napoleonic Empire. 1799 - 1815. Napoleonic Timeline. 1769 Napoleon born in Ajaccio in Corsica 1784 Entered Royal military school in Paris 1793 Bonaparte family leave Corsica for France Napoleon promoted to Brigadier General 1794 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Napoleonic Empire

1799 - 181511769Napoleon born in Ajaccio in Corsica

1784Entered Royal military school in Paris

1793Bonaparte family leave Corsica for France Napoleon promoted to Brigadier General

1794 Napoleon arrested as suspect Robespierrist following collapse of Terror, but within weeks, cleared on all counts.

1795Napoleon made Commander in Chief 1796Bonaparte commands one of the armies in a pincer movement against the Austrians, victories in Italy and further triumphs in Austria follow

1798 Bonaparte marries Josephine de Beauharnais

1799 Nelson traps and destroys French fleet at the Nile. Egyptian campaign fails militarily but cultural successNapoleon overthrows the Directory & elected First Consul

1801Concordant of 1801 restores relations between France and the Catholic ChurchNapoleonic Timeline21802Treaty of Amiens brings (temporary) peace between Britain & France. Napoleon voted Consul for Life

1804Napoleon proclaimed Emperor by the Senate & crowns himself

1805Battle of Trafalgar First signifcant French Loss. Napoleon crowned King of Italy

1806French victory over Prussia. Berlin Decree initiates the Continental System

1808Spanish people rose up against France. Joseph Bonaparte crowned King of SpainAristocracy restored to France as imperial nobility1811Napoleons baby son crowned King of Rome

1812Russian invasion begins and falters

1814French forces defeated by Coalition Napoleon abdicated & exiled to Elba.Absolute Monarchy restored in France under Louis XVIII. Peace talks begin

1815Napoleon escapes from Elba & arrives in Paris. Beginning of the Hundred Days. Battle of Waterloo leads to French defeat. Napoleon exiled to St. Helena

1821Death of Napoleon3David, 1800

Napoleon Crossing The Alps

Napoleon Crossing The Alps (http://www.flickr.com/photos/25876167@N08/3695825824/) / Joaqun Martnez (http://www.flickr.com/photos/25876167@N08/) / CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/)Classic David print of Napoleon as an heroic figure and its undoubtedly true that Napoleon sought to position himself as such right from the start of his reign.Coalitions Against France

The 1st Coalition, 1792-1798Main States: Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, HollandMajor Campaigns: Italy

The 2nd Coalition, 1799-1801 Russia, Great Britain, AustriaMajor Campaigns: Egypt, Marengo

Both Collapsed following French victories

Peace of Amiens: 1802-1803Great Britain & France

The 3rd Coalition, 1805Austria, Great Britain, RussiaCollapsed in 1805 after Austrian withdrawal following defeat Major Campaigns: Trafalgar, Austerlitz The 4th Coalition, 1806-1807Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, RussiaCollapse after Prussian and Russian defeat :

Major Campaigns: Conquest of Prussia, Conquest of Poland

5th Coalition, 1809Great Britain, AustriaCollapsed following Austrian defeat and withdrawal Major Campaigns: Peninsular wars, Austrian Campaigns

6th Coalition, 1812-14Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria

Major Campaigns: Invasion of Russia, Liberation of Germany, Defeat of France

And on Napoleons return to power, 1814-1815: Battle of WaterlooGrand scale of Napoleonic conflict shown hereThomas Morris: A Soldiers View

I was particularly fond of reading the heart-stirring accounts of sieges and battles; and the glorious achievements of the British troops in Spain... created in me an irrepressible desire for military service... and, oh! how proud did I feel when having gone through my course of drill, I was permitted to join the ranks.

Even now I often think of the delightful sensation I experienced where our evolutions and martial exercises excited the admiration and wonder of crowds of nursery-maids and children, who invariably attended on such occasions.

Then, how delightful on our return home, to parade the streets in our splendid uniform, exhibiting ourselves as the brave defenders of our country, should the Corsican attempt to carry into effect his threatened invasion of England.

John Selby (ed.), Thomas Morris: The Napoleonic Wars, London, 1967, p 2Mass war meant mass call up in a modern sense for the first time as shown hereMy dear Mother

We have safely received your parcels and letters which were very acceptable to us. I am now quite comfortably settled in my new house and feel as if I had taken up my station here for a constancy...

Thank you for the carpet: it is quite a luxury to us. Although we brought every thing absolutely necessary we have few conveniences; and though, if we were all huddled together in a barn, expecting the French to overtake us every instant we might be very well contented with An open broken elbow chair... Yet, living quietly like our neighbours we rather miss the conveniences we have been used to.

Isaac Taylor, Memoirs and Poetical Remains of the late Jane Taylor, 1825, pp 74 - 5

Another modern feature was the evacuation of children from the Essex coastline, following fears of French invasion.Napoleon Crowns himself Emperor, 1804, Jacques Louis David

Coronation of Napoleon. Louis Davids huge painting of the coronation of Napoleon in Notre Dame Cathedral occupies the central space in the Salle Denon. Coronation of Napoleon (http://www.flickr.com/photos/justaslice/3520071752/) / Slices of Light (http://www.flickr.com/photos/justaslice/) / CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/)Meanwhile Napoleons sheer self confidence or arrogance shown by Davids print of his self crowning momentFrom The Imperial Catechism, 1806

Question: What are the duties of Christians toward those who govern them, and what in particular are our duties towards Napoleon I, our emperor?

Answer: Christians owe to the princes who govern them, and we in particular owe to Napoleon I, our emperor, love, respect, obedience, fidelity, military service, and the taxes levied for the preservation and defense of the empire and of his throne. We also owe him fervent prayers for his safety and for the spiritual and temporal prosperity of the state.

Question: Why are we subject to all these duties toward our emperor?

Answer: First, because God, who has created empires and distributes them according to his will, has, by loading our emperor with gifts both in peace and in war, established him as our sovereign and made him the agent of his power and his image upon earth. To honor and serve our emperor is therefore to honor and serve God himself. Secondly, because our Lord Jesus Christ himself, both by his teaching and his example, has taught us what we owe to our sovereign. Even at his very birth he obeyed the edict of Caesar Augustus; he paid the established tax; and while he commanded us to render to God those things which belong to God, he also commanded us to render unto Caesar those things which are Caesar's.The semi religious nature of the cult of Napoleon was boosted further by his own actions as in this sacrilegious play on the Catholic catechism.Question: Are there not special motives which should attach us more closely to Napoleon I, our emperor?

Answer: Yes, for it is he whom God has raised up in trying times to re-establish the public worship of the holy religion of our fathers and to be its protector; he has re-established and preserved public order by his profound and active wisdom; he defends the state by his mighty arm; he has become the anointed of the Lord by the consecration which he has received from the sovereign pontiff, head of the Church universal.

Question: What must we think of those who are wanting in their duties toward our emperor?

Answer: According to the apostle Paul, they are resisting the order established by God himself and render themselves worthy of eternal damnation.

10Battle of Trafalgar 1805: The Cost of Victory

Gibraltar, Trafalgar cemetery (http://www.flickr.com/photos/martin55/4924251248/) / martin_vmorris (http://www.flickr.com/photos/martin55/) / CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/)But on the British side Nelsons own audacity came to the fore in the Battle of Trafalgar, as Nelson defied express orders to achieve victory in the process however suffering his own. (There were around 2000 British sailors killed or wounded in the action with one mans death individually captured in this memorial in a Gibraltar cemetery. By contrast however there were around 6000 French casualties)

'The Death of Nelson' 1859-64, by Daniel Maclise (1806-70) (detail from) liverpool walker art gallery Maclise death of nelson detail (http://www.flickr.com/photos/damiavos/6332665849/) / damian entwistle (http://www.flickr.com/photos/damiavos/) / CC BY-NC 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/)The death of Nelson sparked off a mass public outpouring of grief including a lavish state funeral and numerous memorial prints and statues like the one above- as well as the famous Nelsons Column of course, in Trafalgar Square, construction of which took place in the 1840s.The Plumb-pudding in danger; Gillray, 1805Authors own photo

Meanwhile the whole conflict seemed increasingly focussed on Anglo-French rivalry, Gillray showing the two states cynically involved in a world power struggle. However relations between the two states were about to become decisively changed by a further Napoleonic innovation economic warfare.The Continental System

FROM OUR IMPERIAL CAMP AT BERLIN, ,November 21, 1806. Napoleon, emperor of the French and king of Italy, in consideration of the facts:

That England does not recognize the system of international law universally observed by all civilized nationsThat she regards as an enemy every indivi