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NAPOLEONIC FRANCE. AP European History. Napoleon Bonaparte. Corsican of Italian ancestry Military officer, earned fame on battlefields Student of the Enlightenment – “Last of the Enlightened Despots” Revolutionary – allied with Jacobins - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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NAPOLEONIC FRANCE

NAPOLEONIC FRANCEAP European HistoryNapoleon BonaparteCorsican of Italian ancestryMilitary officer, earned fame on battlefieldsStudent of the Enlightenment Last of the Enlightened DespotsRevolutionary allied with Jacobins1799 Coup dEtat Brumaire overthrew Directory; Dec 25 Consulate put in placeNapoleon takes power as First Consul Used plebiscite to give rule legitimacyNapoleons Civil Reforms1804 Code Napoleon:Equality before the lawProtection of personal propertyFreedom of ReligionPromotion by merit, rather than birthAbolition of serfdomWomen gained inheritance rights, but denied equal treatmentResulted in strong central government, united civil authority

Napoleons Social ReformsLyces public higher education schools to train professionals for service to FranceSought to increase size of middle class, where Napoleon had much supportNew imperial nobility to reward loyalty to state gave over 3500 titlesAmnesty granted to over 100,000 migrs to return to FranceDenied workers right to form trade unionsNapoleons Religious ReformsConcordat of 1801:Catholic Church re-established in FrancePope Pius VII renounced Church claims to land seized during RevolutionFrench government reasserted right to choose bishopsRefactory priests replaced revolutionary priestsReligious toleration for Catholics, Protestants, Jews, and atheistsChurch calendar replaced revolutionary calendar

Napoleons Economic Reforms1800 Bank of France created for government and upper classNew stable currency and public creditBalanced budgetLowered taxes on peasant farmers, allowed them to keep land seized in Revolution helped strengthen peasantry, gain their loyaltyKept food prices low with price controls

The Dark Side of the New EmpireWomen reduced to second-class status loss of Revolutionary gainsWorkers denied right to form trade unionsCreated secret police to spy on domestic enemiesBy 1814 over 2500 political prisonersRestricted Freedom of the Press

Napoleons Wars I1798-1801 War of the Second Coalition France victorious over Austria, Russia & U.K.1802 Treaty of Amiens created temporary peace with British allowed French control over Holland, Belgium, western German states, and much of Italy1802-03 French army sent to Haiti to put down slave rebellion eventually lost Haiti and sold Louisiana Territory to U.S.

A New EmperorDec 1804 Napoleon crowned himself Emperor at Notre Dame

Empire Period 1804-1814Ten years of constant warfare for FranceEventually created the largest empire since RomeNapoleon placed relatives upon thrones in conquered lands, attempting to create a new dynasty

Empire Period 1804-1814Introduced many reforms to these lands the liberator carrying Enlightened ideasInitially supported by middle and upper classes, French rule eventually created nationalist resentment and resistance in many lands

Napoleons Wars II1805-1807 War of the Third Coalition Austria, Russia, U.K., & Sweden vs. FranceOct 1805 Battle of Trafalgar British fleet under Nelson destroyed combined French/Spanish fleet saved Britain from possible invasion

Napoleons Wars IIDec 1805 Battle of Austerlitz (Moravia) Napoleons greatest victory demolished Austrian army; Russians and Swedes quit Third Coalition1806 Arc de Triomphe commissioned to celebrate victory over Third Coalition1806 French twice defeated Prussians1807 Treaty of Tilsit Napoleon recognized as master of Western and Central Europe Prussia surrendered half its population to France; Russia gave up land and agreed to become allies with FranceOnly Britain remained as a powerful enemy of FranceReorganizing EuropeHoly Roman Empire abolished Confederation of the Rhine replaced it consolidated 300+ German states into 15; Austria & Prussia left outDuchy of Warsaw created as Polish nation took land from RussiaEnded serfdom in these lands and gave peasants rightsFrench control will awaken German nationalism, thoughNapoleons Europe

Problems Begin1806 Napoleon begins Continental System in an attempt to economically isolate and weaken BritainBy 1812, proved to be a major failure:1. Many nations relied on British trade2. France couldnt enforce system across Europe3. Britain never suffered since it could trade with American and Asian colonies and Expand1808 Napoleon replaced Spanish king with brother Joseph Spanish rebelled1808-1814 Peninsular War first major revolt vs. FranceSpanish guerrillas aided by British forces commanded by Duke of WellingtonFrench brutally attempt to regain control, but cant crush Spanish resistanceFrancisco Goya: The Third of May 1808

and Get Even WorseNapoleon blamed Czar Alexander I for failure of Continental System Russia had supported it, but withdrew to protect its economy1812 Napoleon sent 600,000 soldiers marching into Russia The Grand ArmyRussian army scorched earth tacticsSept 1812 Battle of Borodino outside Moscow resulted in a draw

Defeat in RussiaNapoleon seized a burned Moscow, waited 5 weeks for Russians to surrenderOrdered retreat in Oct, but too late winter had arrivedOnly 30,000 of the Grand Army make it back to France 400,000 dead; over 100,000 captured; others deserted

Napoleons Fall1813-1814 War of the Fourth Coalition Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Britain vs. FranceOct 1813 Battle of Leipzig (Battle of Nations) largest battle in world history before 20th centuryNapoleon lost 500,000 soldiers most capturedBritish and Spanish troops entered Paris Napoleon abdicated in Apr 1814Bourbons restored to French throne Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVIPost-NapoleonNapoleon exiled to Elba in Mediterranean given yearly allowance from FranceBourbons now constitutional monarchs kept much of Napoleons reformsFirst Treaty of Paris, 1814:1. France had to surrender all lands taken since 17922. No war reparations made against FranceQuadruple Alliance agreed to meet in Vienna to reshape Europe after NapoleonCongress of Vienna1814-1815 Quadruple Alliance members met in ViennaVery conservative and anti-revolutionary hoped to roll back Revolutionary & liberal movements, restore old order to EuropeLed by Prince Klemens von Metternich of AustriaFrance treated as equal for now

The Emperor Strikes BackAs Vienna meetings stalled, Napoleon escaped Elba and returned to FranceThe Hundred Days Napoleons attempt to regain control of FranceLouis XVIII fled France as Napoleon took over

Napoleon Meets His WaterlooBattle of Waterloo (Belgium) June 1815 Napoleon finally defeated by English and Prussian armiesDuke of Wellington commanded victorious British forces

This is Wellingtons happy faceThis is Napoleons sad face The Empires EndNapoleon now exiled to St. Helena in South AtlanticDied in exile in 1821; body eventually returned to France

Congress of ViennaSecond Treaty of Paris France forced to pay 700 million francs for war damagesPrinciples:1. Legitimacy return the ruling families to power2. Compensation rewarding states who fought Napoleon with land3. Balance of Power encircle France with stronger nations, make sure no state can again do what Napoleon didGerman Confederation (Bund) established with Austria in control of the governmentEurope after Vienna - 1815

Concert of Europe1815-1848 Quadruple Alliance worked together to maintain status quo in EuropeWorked together to end liberalism and nationalism prevent any more revolutionsKept close eye on France prevent any Bonaparte from taking the throneRelied on collective security come together to enforce conservative rule across the continent, even if it meant warNo large-scale general war for 100 yearsThe Holy AllianceCzar Alexander I proposed all monarchs agree to uphold Christian values across EuropeAll signed it except the Pope, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Great BritainOnly Alexander took it seriouslyTo revolutionaries, this was an unholy alliance against liberty and progress

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