Narrative theory 2

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<ul><li> 1. NARRATIVE MEANING Narrative is the way the story is told. It is the way a series of facts are organised and presented. This is the difference between narrative and story. Story is the facts, for example A meets B, something happens, A leaves B. Whereas narrative might begin Once upon a time</li></ul> <p> 2. NARRATIVE The way the story if told. How meaning is constructed for the audience Groups events into cause and effect action and inaction Organises time and space to suit the medium Narrative is constructed through elements like camerawork, lighting, sound, mise-en-scne and editing. 3. . FIVE-STAGE NARRATIVE STRUCTURE Exposition setting scene and introducing characters Development situation develops, more characters introduced Complication something happens to complicate lives of characters Climax decisive moment reached; matters come to head; suspense high Resolution matters are resolved and satisfactory end is reached. 4. TVZETAN TODAROV Very simple idea that narrative is EQUILIBRIUM DISEQUILIBRIUM NEW EQUILIBRIUM The middle stage where something happens disturbs what was established at the start, and the resolution of that results in a new equilibrium which is different from the original one. 5. TVZETAN TODAROV This can be expanded to be EQUILIBRIUM DISEQUILIBRIUM RECOGNITION OF DISRUPTION - ATTEMPT TO REPAIR DISRUPTION CHANGE TO A NEW EQUILIBRIUM 6. VLADIMIR PROPP Analysed a series of Russian fairy tales and come up with a list if stock characters and character types. Not the only character analyst but the best know one. Such as hero (protagonist), villain (antagonist), donor, princess, her father, dispatcher. false hero, helper Further details can be found http://www.adamranson.plus.com/Propp.htm 7. VLADIMIR PROPP In his analysis he also identified stock situations which he called narratemes, or narrative functions, necessary for the narrative to exist. Each narrateme is an event that drives the narrative forward, possibly taking it in a different direction. Not all of these functions appear in every story, but they always appear in the same order. http://www.mediaknowall.com/as_alevel/alevkeyconce pts/alevelkeycon.php?pageID=propp 8. VLADAMIR PROPP - CRITICISM Propp doesn't imply that the "functions" he found are universal in fiction (but some are very general), nor that they are an exhaustive description of fairy tales, nor that they are directly applicable to other traditions of fairy tales (but other European fairy tales are actually very similar to the ones Propp studied). 9. VLADAMIR PROPP CRITICISM (CONT) Propp's work was important for two related structuralist ideas: that all fictional works have basically the same structure underneath, and that a story can be created by instantiating a sequence of abstract plot elements But do not try to apply his ideas to all texts (probably only linear, quest driven ones), and do not forget the lists are not exhaustive. 10. NARRATIVE THEORY Both Todarov and Propps ideas about narrative emphasise resolution in the end and derive from structuralism. Propp also gives up the perspective that all characters have a function and there to drive the narrative forward. 11. STRUCTURALISM Ferdinand de Saussure the most influential structuralist stated that a sign has no intrinsic meaning but relies on its context ( syntagmatic dimension) and the group (paradigm) to which it belongs. He contended that language must be considered as a social phenomenon, a structured system that can be viewed synchronically (as it exists at any particular time) and diachronically (as it changes in the course of time). 12. SAUSSURE - SEMIOTICS He gave us the two part model of the sign signifier the form that the sign takes signified the concept it represents Also emphasized the negative oppositional differences between sign, and that key are these binary oppositions. To be what the others are not. 13. CLAUDE LEVI-STRAUSS An French academic thinker who stated that our understanding of certain words derived not so much from the words but rather their opposites or what they are not, our understanding of hero is driven by our understanding between the word and its opposite or as it is referred to binary opposite. 14. CLAUDE LEVI-STRAUSS Oppositions that should help you understand the idea are the youth/age binary, the masculinity/femininity, the good/evil binary, and so on. Levi-Strauss noticed another important feature of these 'binary opposites': that one side of the binary pair is always seen by a particular society or culture as more valued over the other. 15. NARRATIVE CODES ROLAND BARTHES Narrative Codes Barthes suggested that narrative works with different codes which activate the reader to make sense of it.Enigma Code little puzzles to be solvedAction codes looks, significant words, close ups which suggest an event such as jealousy, falling in love accident waiting to happen etcSymbolic code an object, event or action which refers to something outside itself like the flower which represents ETs life. 16. ROLAND BARTHES Barthes also gave us two narrative codes that in theior different ways drive the narrative forward and keep us the viewer watching and engaged. Both lead to the creation of a certain amount of suspense and because people have a longing for resolution keeps us reading or viewing the story. 17. ROLAND BARTHES The HERMENEUTIC code which refers to plot elements that raise questions that we want answered eg we see a dead body and we dont know why, how, whom etc The PROAIRETIC code refers to actions in the plot which lead to other actions, eg an assassin draws a gun and we wonder if he will shoot or get shot, rather that have why explained to us 18. SYD FIELD Suggests says a typical Hollywood film can de divided into three sections. Plot points are important pieces of plot that effects the lives of the characters, change their relationships and alter tone of the film. These happen between the Act 1 and 2 and between act 2 and 3 19. SYD FIELD Act 1 the set up. The first 10 mins are just so important to grab the audience. Intro the main character, why they should care what happens. They should also be able to see what style and genre. With the next 20 mins showing the nature of the problem that the 20. SYD FIELD Act 2 the confrontation. This ios the longest section of the film and shows us more and more extreme difficulties for the hero. They will be helpless and it will look like they are going to de defeated. And then something will happen or they realise something that starts to turn it around and they will realise the way to succeed at plot point two. 21. SYD FIELD Act 3 the resolution. The hero wins ( surprise surprise!!) often by confronting the opposing forces 22. STANLEY KUBRICK And others used the term non-submersible units to refer to the essential elements of a story, which would carry the film, the bits that the film just couldnt do without These units should be so strong and interesting that they would be themselves keep the viewer hooked. All you need is six non-submersible units forget about the connections.. 23. 2001 NON-SUBMERSIBLE UNITS 1. The monolith visits humankind in its infancy 2. An early man discovers technology (Moon Watcher smashes the bones)3. The monolith is excavated on the moon by astronauts and sends a message to Jupiter 4. Humankind send a manned mission to Jupiter to investigate 5. Advanced technology (Hal) endangers the mission crew 6. Technology is defeated and the surviving cremember rendezvous with the aliens 7. The Starchild is born </p>