narrative theory

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  1. 1. NARRATIVE THEORIESApplied to music video Now byParamore
  2. 2. Tzvetan Todorov (1977)The equilibrium of the plot is represented in a very visual way in this first shot.They are literally on level playing field , both occupying the same amount ofspace in the frame etc.
  3. 3. The equilibrium is then disrupted by the (presumable) antagonist throwing agrenade at the (presumable) protagonist, the front woman of the band.
  4. 4. There is conflict all around, seemingly triggered by the conflict existingbetween the antagonist and the protagonist. There is no evidence in thesyuzhet to support a fabula in which there is other reason for the war to takeplace. Therefore, the viewer infers that the cause of the war is the conflict (ofideologies) between these two characters.
  5. 5. TIM OSULLIVAN 1998 Argues that all media texts tell some kind of story about theculture of the society to which it is marketed. The interpretation of the text relies on careful mediation from theproducer which is deciphered by the audience. There are often several interpretations available, due to thevarying ideologies of groups and individuals. However, the producers are somewhat aware of these varyinginterpretations and mediate the text so it will portray theinstitutions ideologies as effectively as is possible.
  6. 6. INTERPRETATION 1 CONFORMIST VS NON-CONFORMISTClaude Lvi-Strauss (1958) theory of binary opposites!UniformsMajorityResemblance toNazi eagle onthe pin on his hatNon-conventionalclothingOnly 3 of themThe only femalefighterColouredpowder markthem as different
  7. 7. FATHER DAUGHTER CONFLICT Due to the ages of the pro/antagonist, the two could potentially befather and daughter. The narrative is reminiscent of the conflict that happens betweenparents and their children; the child is trying to break away from theirparents, the parents still worry about and want to protect their child. This is typical between fathers and daughters because fathers can beover protective of their daughters which sometimes causes tensionand resentment However love heals over all this conflict, as conveyed by the way theprotagonist hugs the antagonist at the end, seemingly melting hisheart and ridding him of his anger towards her In this way, the text is telling a story about aspects of our culture thataffect many people. This story may also be telling of the singers own afflictions; thereforethe audience feels as though they may be getting an insight into theirpersonal lives and experiences This is the point of Tim OSullivans theory; that media texts areinfluenced by and reflect the culture towards which they are targeted.
  8. 8. The antagonists side uses violence to attempt to oppress theprotagonists side The protagonist uses minimum force i.e. fighting off the soldiers.The protagonists dont actually retaliate the violence In the end, an act of love seems to bring about peace The narrative of the text then serves as a political anti-warmessage.LOVE AND PEACE
  9. 9. KATE DOMAILLE (2001)Every story ever told can be fitted into one of eight narrative types. Each of these narrative typeshas a source, an original story upon which the others are based. These stories are as follows:Achilles: The fatal flaw that leads to the destruction of the previously flawless, or almostflawless, person, e.g. Superman, Fatal Attraction.Candide: The indomitable hero who cannot be put down, e.g. Indiana Jones, James Bond,Rocky etc.Cinderella: The dream comes true, e.g. Pretty Woman.Circe: The Chase, the spider and the fly, the innocent and the victim e.g. Smokey And TheBandit, Duel, The Terminator.Faust: Selling your soul to the devil may bring riches but eventually your soul belongs to him,e.g. Bedazzled, Wall Street.Orpheus: The loss of something personal, the gift that is taken away, the tragedy of loss or thejourney which follows the loss, e.g. The Sixth Sense, Love Story, Born On the Fourth Of July.Romeo And Juliet: The love story, e.g. Titanic.Tristan and Iseult: The love triangle, Man loves womanunfortunately one or both of them arealready spoken for, or a third party intervenes, e.g. Casablanca.
  10. 10. KATE DOMAILLE APPLIED TO NOWThis narrative fits into two of the plot types indentified by KateDomaille. Many media texts do this, as there are seldom just onetheme or one storyline in one media text, meaning that multiplethemes and multiple interveaving storylines fit into different narrativetypes.NOW by Paramore; Achilles: The fatal flaw that leads to the destruction of thepreviously flawless, or almost flawless, person, e.g. Superman,Fatal Attraction. The antagonist is defeated by being shown affection. Circe: The Chase, the spider and the fly, the innocent and thevictim e.g. Smokey And The Bandit, Duel, The Terminator. The antagonist is using his army to try to chase down theprotagonist side- PARAMORE
  11. 11. Pam Cook 1985Linearity of cause and effect Antagonist throws grenadewhich triggers battleHigh degree of narrativeclosureProtagonist survives toreach antagonist, then hugshim which consequentlyends warA fictional world thatcontains verisimilitudeespeciallygoverned by spatial andtemporal coherence.Verisimiltude is createdthrough costume andlocation. We are familiarwith what the costumessignify and that land battleshappen on open fields.