narrative theory

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Narrative theory

Narrative theory

Levi Strauss-binary oppositionsStrauss, an early 20th centaury French anthropologist proposed the way in which particular things within media are perceived are through binary opposition, for example good vs evil.Particularly used in film the theory denotes that a singular piece or character within a film is not on its own perceived in any particular way but that is the binary opposition between two characters that define the connotations in which the audience believes. A prime example of this theory within film is the relationship between batman and the joker the goodness of the actions in which the character of batman are perceived are only because of the inherent evil of the things in which joker is doing. The same can also be said in reverse as the joker is bad because he is stopping batman from doing good.

Todorov- four act structureTodorovs theory dictates that a story is split into 4 key phases of plotline: Equilibrium, Disruption of equilibrium, recognition of disruption and repair of equilibrium. These four sections can be applied to many if not all successful narratives and is especially prevalent in film.An example of this underlying narrative structure is within star wars: -Equilibrium- Luke is happy at home with no real danger -Disruption- Luke tries to go on an adventure to return C3PO and R2D2 to Princess Leia -Realisation-Luke realises the corruption in the empire when the emperor destroys Alderan -Reparation- Luke seeks to destroy the Death star which returns the story back to equilibrium.

Propp- character rolesPropps character roles suggests how The villain (struggles against the hero) Vader/ EmperorThe donor (prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object) Obi wanThe (magical) helper (helps the hero in the quest) Obi wanThe princess (person the hero marries, often sought for during the narrative) LeiaThe false hero (perceived as good character in beginning but emerges as evil)

The dispatcher (character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off)The hero [AKA victim/seeker/paladin/winner, reacts to the donor, usually marries the princess

Roland Barthes Barthes suggests that particular codes in which a narrative follows are the key to a successful media product. Relevant in both texts and film he defines what should and should not be done in creating a memorable or gripping media productHis first point the hermeneutic code suggest that parts of a narrative must be hidden to keep an air of mystery. Next the Enigma this dictates that the way in which tension within film and television is methodical in its structuring to leave a viewer guessing.Thirdly his semantic code which states that an object or event in a story line is meant to invoke different feelings for different people through the connotations linked wit them.Next the symbolic code saying that, similarly to Levi-Strauss, that opposites can be used to create greater understanding of a character or object within a text to create tension and drama.Lastly his code of referential, the assumption of pre-existing knowledge of a viewer which is often critical to a plot.

Joseph CampbellCampbell believes that all narratives fit within key stages or groups regardless of the time, place or culture the story was influenced by.He argued that all the features within narrative can fit into specific archetypes. These archetypes being not too dissimilar to Propps character roles.He also shows there can also be archetypes for situations in film for example;The Quest (Shrek)The Initiation (Star Wars: A New Hope/ The Empire Strikes back)The Fall (Star Wars: Return of the Jedi)Death and rebirth (The story of Christ)These four are examples of effective parts of narrative lines that are often crucial to the plotline but also expand upon it by adding a secondary narrative.

LyotardLyotards outlook on traditional narrative subjects that it is somewhat at fault in the way it defines the way a story is told.He makes the point that the way in which our ideas and thoughts are moulded are defined by the grand narrative and that understanding is shaped through stories and that most of what we think is a lieThis is often defined as being postmodernism and the idea of being a postmodernism is to sway away from defined ideals as most are flawed. For example a purely scientific outlook on the world is questionable as it completely disregards the idea of same sex couples.However the same can also be said for purely religious outlooks. Despite this modern narratives are still shaped almost primarily by these two ideals.