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Narrative Theory Revision

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  • Narrative

  • Narrative What is narrative theory? Music video theories applying these theories to videos other narrative theories applying them to existing products applying them to your own

    products

  • what is

    narrative?

    Narrative is the media term for story telling. !

    It is the way that different elements come together to make a meaningful story.

  • what is

    narrative structure?

    Narrative structure is the way the story is told or happens. !

    An open structure is one that means that it has no final ending; the story is left open.

    What examples of these can you think of?

  • what is

    narrative structure?

    Narrative structure is the way the story is told or happens. !

    A closed structure is one that means that the story is concluded, usually satisfactorily.

  • what is

    narrative structure?

    Narrative structure is the way the story is told or happens. !

    An interactive structure is one that means that the story is not fixed and will change depending on different factors.

    !

    What examples can you think of?

  • YOUR NARRATIVE

    STRUCTURES

    You can discuss the narrative structures and theories of your own products in various ways, but make sure its relevant.

    For example, if your music video does not feature a narrative, you cannot apply an open, closed or interactive structure to it.

    Make sure you know what narrative structure or theory is applicable to your products before you go into the exam.

    !DO THIS NOW!

    Which of your products feature an open, closed or interactive narrative structure?

  • music video

    narrative theoryAndrew Goodwin stated that there were three different ways in which the music video can connect back to the song itself

    These are: !

    Illustration Amplification Disjuncture

  • music video

    narrative theory - Illustration

    Illustration is the simplest and easiest concept to base a music video around as it is just a literal meaning to the songs lyrics in visual form. This can be seen in the actions of the people in the video acting out what has been sung, or the actual lyrics being used on screen. These are often performance videos. !

    What examples can you think of?

  • music video

    narrative theory - Amplification

    Amplification is second. These type of music videos may use both performance and narrative, with connotations of the meanings. These are designed to be a creative and artistic endeavour that seeks to create a form of story or artistic statement, informed by the lyrics or meaning from the song. For this reason, amplification videos often have elements of performance or illustrative elements in them. !

    What examples can you think of?

  • music video

    narrative theory - Disjuncture

    Disjuncture is the final type. These videos intentionally ignore the content of the song and genre of the music and tries to create a whole new set of meanings. These music videos don't tend to make a lot of sense and can often use abstract imagery. This is a radical technique used and applied by arty bands in order to assert their difference and originality. They usually contain performance from the artist/s, but have no recognisable link to the lyrics. !

    What examples can you think of?

  • YOUR NARRATIVE

    STRUCTURES

    You can discuss the narrative structures and theories of your own products in various ways, but make sure its relevant.

    For example, your music video should broadly adhere to Goodwins theory of music videos.

    Make sure you know what narrative type of Goodwins theory is applicable to your products before you go into the exam.

    !DO THIS NOW!

    Your music video is what kind of music video? Illustrative, amplification or disjuncture?

  • Task: find 2 examples for

    each of goodwins

    music video types.

    for each, explain what type of video it is and

    why it is that type.

  • Task 2: what type of music

    video is your video?

    !

    using a 9-still box, explain how your video

    fits one of the 3 types.

  • Basic narrative theory

    narrative structure can be split into 3 simplified categories. these are: !

    Linear circular episodic

  • Basic narrative theory -

    Linear

    A linear narrative is one that follows a line, it starts at the beginning and finishes at the end.

    Start of story Story End of story

  • Basic narrative theory -

    Linear

    A linear narrative is one that follows a line, it starts at the beginning and finishes at the end.

    Start of story Story End of story

    What examples of linear narrative structures can you think of in film?

  • Basic narrative theory -

    episodic

    An episodic narrative is one that follows a line, and starts at the beginning and finishes at the end, but is broken up into smaller episodes or sections. These are usually clearly marked.

    Start of story Story End of story

  • Basic narrative theory -

    episodic

    What examples of episodic narrative can

    you think of in film?

    Start of story Story End of story

  • Basic narrative theory -

    circular

    A circular narrative is one that follows a circle; the story finishes where it started. Start of story

    StoryEnd of story

    Story

    Story

  • Basic narrative theory -

    circular

    Start of story

    StoryEnd of story

    Story

    Story

    You can have some element of these narrative styles being mixed however. For example, you could have an episodic, circular narrative.

  • Basic narrative theory

    your as studies project is a small section of a film, so does not easily fit one of the narrative structures.

    However, your section should be part of a bigger film.

    With this in mind, you should know both where your section would fit within this larger project and also, because of this, what narrative structure your larger film would be.

    therefore, you should be able to explain what narrative structure the overall film would be and why.

  • YOUR NARRATIVE

    STRUCTURES

    You can discuss the narrative structures and theories of your own products in various ways, but make sure its relevant.

    For example, you must know what narrative structure is the most suitable for both products.

    Make sure you know what narrative structure or theory is applicable to your products before you go into the exam.

    !DO THIS NOW!

    Which of your products feature a linear, circular or episodic narrative structure?

  • classic narrative theories

    todorov Propp Barthes Levi-strauss

  • classic narrative theories

    Narrative Structure

    Visual texts adopt different ways of

    constructing stories, called narrative

    structures and these fall into five main

    categories:

  • classic narrative theories

    1. Open / Closed narratives

    Stories that are part of a series are open narratives (eg Soaps).

    Stories with endings are closed narratives (eg Documentaries).

    !

    2. Single / Multi-strand narratives

    Stories developing same plot are single strand narratives (eg Many

    dramas).

    Stories with more than one plot line are multi-strand narratives (eg

    Soaps).

  • classic narrative theories

    3. Linear / Non-linear narratives

    Stories following chronological order are linear narratives (eg Soaps).

    Stories jumping around in time are non-linear narratives (eg Many who-dunnits).

    !4. Investigative narratives

    Stories involving investigations of some kind are investigative narratives (eg Who-dunnits, Documentaries).

    !5. Realist & anti-realist narratives

    Stories featuring real life situations are realist narratives (eg Soaps, The News).

    Stories that do not feature real life situations are anti-realist (eg Cartoons).

  • classic narrative theories

    REVISION:

    Make sure that you can clearly, easily and quickly

    define what narrative type your product/s are.

    THEN, you can begin to bring in a narrative

    theory to IF relevant.

  • classic narrative theories

    todorov Propp Barthes Levi-strauss

  • TZVETAN TODOROV

    Todorov proposed that narrative structure has 5 main stages.

    However, these can be summarised as 3 key points:

  • TZVETAN TODOROV

    Beginning: A state of equilibrium Middle: Disruption to the equilibrium End: Reinstating of the equilibrium

  • TZVETAN TODOROVStage 1

    A state of equilibrium is defined.

    Stage 2Disruption to the equilibrium by some action or

    crisis.

    Stage 3The Character(s) recognition that there has been a

    disruption, setting goals to resolve problem.

  • TZVETAN TODOROVStage 4

    The Character(s) attempt to repair the disruption, obstacles need to be overcome to restore order.

    Stage 5Reinstatment to the equilibrium. Situation is

    resolved, a conclusion is announced.

  • TZVETAN TODOROV

  • TZVETAN TODOROVCan you add an example of a film that suits

    Todorovs narrative structure? !

    Hint: Make sure its a fairly standard Hollywood film in order to really see the accuracy of

    the theory.

  • vladimir propp

    During the 1920s, Russian analyst Vladimir Propp discovered that a storys format was key to its success. Basing his studies on traditional Russian fa