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National Institutional Arrangements for REDD Case Study Colombia

Prepared by

Corporacin Ecoversa Bogot, Colombia

Project Coordinator Javier Toms Blanco Freja

International Financing for REDD A Project of WWF US Policy Program

This is a report of the project International Financing for REDD, undertaken by WWF US Policy Program between July and December 2009, as part of WWF FC NI Program Engaging Civil Society in REDD Programs.

The focus of the International Financing for REDD project was: (a) To further UNFCCC parties understanding of the role and sequencing of public, private and market funding for REDD; and, (b) To discuss institutional and funding arrangements for REDD at international and national level

The project worked by (a) engaging in the international REDD discussion in the run up to COP15; (b) producing or participating in the production of technical reviews, reports and proposals; (c) advising WWF network on these issues; and (d) collaborating with WWF country offices in the review of country level arrangements for REDD.

This scoping exercise on the state of Colombias REDD arrangements as of late 2009, was jointly commissioned by this project and by WWF Colombia . Please direct queries regarding the project to its director Pablo Gutman at Pablo.gutman@wwfus.org and questions regarding WWF REDD work in Colombia to Javier Sabogal Mogolln jsabogal@wwf.org.co

Report No. 4 November 2009

mailto:Pablo.gutman@wwfus.orgmailto:jsabogal@wwf.org.co

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Table of Content

1. Overview of Deforestation in Colombia 1.1 Deforestation Levels in Colombia 1.2 Main Causes of Deforestation 1.3 Conclusion

2. Colombias Position on REDD 3. Institutional Arrangements to Control Deforestation in Colombia

3.1 Institutional Analysis 3.2 Conclusion

4. Isntruments to Control Deforestation in Colombia 4.1 Economic, Legal, and Technical Instruments 4.2 Conclusion

5. Ongoing REDD Projects and Capacity Buidling Activities 5.1 Sub-National Level Projects 5.2 REDD Capacity Buliding Activities

6. Gap Identification and Critical Issues 7. Functional Distribution Proposal

7.1 Proposed REDD Institutional Arrangements for Colombia 7.2 Interphase between the International REDD System and the Proposed REDD Institutional Arrangements for Colombia

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1. Overview of Deforestation in Colombia

This section discusses the deforestation situation in Colombia, based on the level of coverage of natural forests and the deforestation rates estimated in the official surveys, and then presents an analysis of the causes of deforestation. 1.1 Deforestation levels in Colombia Existing sources of information regarding levels of forest cover and deforestation in Colombia can be divided into two groups: 91) official publications and (2) reports from government agencies to international institutions. The following table provides a summary of the official publications reporting deforestation levels for Colombia:

Table 1. Official publications reporting deforestation levels for Colombia

Reference Agency Coverage Methodology Analysis Period

Natural forest cover (ha)

Total deforestation for the period

Annual deforestation for the period

Etter (1998) Mapa General de Ecosistemas de Colombia: Scale 1:2000000 Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Bogot, Colombia.

Humboldt National

Identification and classification of coverage based on satellite imagery.

1997 57,582,000 (1997)

NA NA

Leyva P. ( Ed.) 2001. El Medio Ambiente en Colombia Instituto de Hidrologa, Meteorologa y Estudios Ambientales, IDEAM, Bogot, Colombia. Agosto 2001.

IDEAM National

Identification and classification of coverage based on Landsat TM satellite imagery. IDEAM 1996 classification methodology. Scale 1:500,000

1996 63,777,519 (1996)

NA NA

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Reference Agency Coverage Methodology Analysis Period

Natural forest cover (ha)

Total deforestation for the period

Annual deforestation for the period

IDEAM 2004. Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Medio Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales

IDEAM National

Identification, classification, and comparison of coverage based on Landsat satellite imagery for the 80s and 90s, and the years 2000 to 2003. Scale 1:500,000 IDEAM 1996 classification methodology.

1986, 1994 and 2001

55,613,000* (2001) 56,280,000* (1994) 56,902,000* (1986)

622,000 ha (19861994) 668,000 ha (1994-2001)

76,921 ha/yr (19861994) 101,303 ha/yr (1994-2001)

IDEAM, IGAC, IAvh, Invemar, I. Sinchi e IIAP 2007. Ecosistemas continentales, costeros y marinos de Colombia. Bogot, Colombia.

IDEAM, IGAC, IAvh, Invemar, I. Sinchi and IIAP

National

Interpretation of satellite imagery (Landstat TM and ETM). Scale 1:500,000

2001 61,064,182*** (2001)

N/A N/A

Armenteras D, Rodriguez N (Eds) 2007. Monitoreo de los ecosistemas andinos 1985-2005: Sntesis. Instituto de Investigaciones Alexander Von Humboldt, Bogot, Colombia.

Humboldt Andes Region

Identification, classification, and comparison of coverage based on satellite imagery. Scale 1:500,000 Classification methodology (Etter 1998)

1985, 2000 and 2005

10,839,310 (2005) 11,131,605 (2000) 12,633,099 (1985)

1,501,482 (1985-2000) 292,308 (2000-2005)

100,099 ha/yr 58,459 ha/yr

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Reference Agency Coverage Methodology Analysis Period

Natural forest cover (ha)

Total deforestation for the period

Annual deforestation for the period

Crdenas M. (2005) Valoracin de superficies deforestadas por cultivos ilcitos en la Zona de Reserva Forestal del Rio Magdalena. IDEAM y Oficina de las Naciones Unidas frente a la Droga y el Delito.

Magdalena River Forest Reserve Area (2,172,752 ha)

Identification, classification, and comparison of coverage based on satellite imagery. Landsat 7 TM. Scale 1:500,000

2000-2004

1,144,814 (2000)

11,384 ha for illegal crops (2000-2004)

NA

Gobierno de Colombia y UNODC 2005 Anlisis Multitemporal de cultivos de coca en las reas del Sistema Nacional de Parques Periodo 2001-2004. Bogot, Colombia.

Ministry of the Environment, Housing and Territorial Development Special Administrative Unit for National Parks

Area of interest in 18 of 51 national parks (3,139,159 ha)

2001-2004

3,139,159

19,100 ha (2001-2004) 3,321 ha for illegal crops.

* Includes natural forests, mangroves, riparian forests, fragmented Andean forest (50%), and savanna woodlands (30%). Does not include forest plantations. *** Includes natural ecosystems classified as natural forests and mangroves. Does not include plantations.

Colombia has also officially reported to FAO and the Convention on Climate Change, data related to deforestation or greenhouse gas emissions from land use changes. The following table shows the information reported.

Table 2. Colombian deforestation or GHGs reports to international agencies.

*Data reported based on IDEAM 2004, reclassified to comply with FAOs definition and calibrated to add to total area for the country.

Does not include forest plantations and savanna woodlands.

International Agency Forest Area (ha) Annual deforestation Reporting

agency

FAO* Global Forest Resources Assessment FRA (2005).

61,523,878 (1986) 61,081,176 (1994) 60,647,311(2001)

55,338 ha/yr (1986-1994) 61,981 ha/yr (1994-2001)

IDEAM

First National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

N.A. 91,930 ha/yr (1990-1994) IDEAM

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To summarize , currently different studies show different levels of natural forest cover. Some (Leyva 2001, IDEAM et al. 2007), report 61 million hectares of natural forest cover while others (IDEAM 2004), estimate a coverage of 55 million hectares. Although the latter study reports an annual deforestation rate of 101,000 ha/year, the IDEAM report to FAO adjusted it increasing the natural forest cover to 60 million hectares in 2001 and a level of deforestation of 62,000 hectares/year during the period 1994-2001. There is a clear need to standardize methodologies and arrive to clear estimates of the countrys forest coverage and deforestation rates. This may require the formal adoption of a definition for natural forests that can be applied to the interpretation of satellite images and solve the issue about the treatment and classification of fragmented forests and wooded savannahs. In addition, if we compare the deforestation rate for Colombia to that of other countries with natural tropical forests (see tables 3 and 4 below), we can see that Colombia is classified as a country with high coverage and moderate deforestation rates, ( forests cover between 50% and 85% of the country and annual deforestation rates are between 0.04% and 0.8%)

Table 3. Developing countries with largest area of natural forest

Country / Area

Natural forest in 2005

Total area Primary Natural modified Semi-natural

1000 ha 1000 ha 1000 ha 1000 ha

Brazil 472,314 415,890 56,424

China 165,921 11,632 114,332 39,957

Indonesia 85,096 48,702 36,394

Peru 67,988 61,065 6,923 0

India 64,475 32,943 31,532

Mexico 63,180 32,850 30,330 Sudan 62,142 13,509 47,282 1,351

Colombia 60,399 53,062 7,337

Angola 58,973 0 58,973 0

Bolivia 58,72

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