NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY - Green Bank RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY CHARLOTTESVILLE, ... The summary of cryogenic performance of eight Ku-band amplifiers is ... evo,;I: K4W,,St%/ Fig. 1 ...

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<ul><li><p>NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY</p><p>CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA</p><p>ELECTRONICS DIVISION INTERNAL REPORT No. 278</p><p>DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF CRYOGENICALLY-COOLED,</p><p>14.4-15.4 GHz HEMT AMPLIFIER</p><p>M. W. POSPIESZALSKI AND W. LAKATOSH</p><p>AUGUST 1988</p><p>NUMBER OF COPIES: 250</p></li><li><p>DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF CRYOGENICALLY-COOLED,14.4-15.4 GHZ HEMT AMPLIFIER</p><p>M. W. Pospieszalski and W. Lakatosh</p><p>I. Introduction</p><p>This report covers the design and performance of cryogenically-cooled,14.4-15.4 GHz amplifiers built with commercially-available FHRO1FH (Fujitsu)HEMT's. The design was computer optimized for gain and noise performancein a manner similar to previously described X-band designs [1], [2],although a different topology of an input matching network was assumed. Acommercially-available Fujitsu HEMT, FHRO1FH, was used. The signal andnoise model of this transistor was extensively discussed in [3]. Thetypical parameters measured at the cold input of the amplifier were:minimum noise temperature at midband Tmin 17 K, average noise temperatureover 1 GHz bandwidth </p><p>Tnav 19 K and gain GT 30 dB 2 dB over the same</p><p>bandwidth. The noise temperature is by a factor of two better in the bandcenter and by a factor of three better at the band edges than for theprevious NRAO design [4]. This can be mostly attributed to the use of amuch better device (HEMT instead of a FET), but also to a different designapproach.</p><p>II. Amplifier Design and Realization</p><p>Photographs of a finished amplifier are shown in Figure 1. Manydesign features are similar to the previously described designs [1], [2].A most notable difference is a topology of an input matching network whichconsists of (starting at the generator side): a parallel high impedanceopen-circuited stub, a length of 50 0 air slab line and length of lowimpedance slab line (partially filled with teflon). The input and firstinterstage matching networks were computer optimized to yield minimumaverage noise in 14.4-15.4 GHz band at 12.5 K ambient temperature, whilethe interstage coupling network and output network were optimized for gainflatness.</p><p>The details of the d.c. separation circuit and bias circuit and theirmicrowave and low frequency equivalent circuits are shown in Figure 2.The comparison between computer predicted and measured performance of thethree-stage amplifier (U-5) at room and cryogenic temperature is shown inFigure 3. The experimental data of Figure 3 are taken for all transistorsbiased at Vds 2 V, Ids 10 mA and Vds 2 V, Ids 5 mA for room andcryogenic temperatures, respectively. The cryogenic measurement was donewith all HEMT's illuminated. The computed data are for the circuitdescription as given in Figures 1 and 2, using the signal and noise modelof the FHRO1FH HEMT developed in [3]. The input and output return lossmeasured at room temperature is compared with the model prediction inFigure 4.</p></li><li><p>The amplifier characteristics were found to be very sensitive to theelectrical length of the open-circuited stub. This is because the lengthof this stub becomes quarter-wave at the frequency of 17.5 GHz. The stubis realized by placing a tinned copper wire of 10 mills in diameter in achannel milled in the amplifier housing (compare Figure 1). The end ofthe stub rests in a movable rexolite support, which provides at the sametime the mechanical stability and required fine tuning.</p><p>III. Summary of Performance of Ku-Band Amplifiers</p><p>The summary of cryogenic performance of eight K u-band amplifiers isgiven in Table I. Full noise and gain characteristics of six of thoseamplifiers are shown in Figure 5. For most of the amplifiers, the onlyrequired tuning procedure was an adjustment of electrical length of theparallel stub by movement of its rexolite support. Indeed, the repeatabilityof amplifier characteristics was quite good. All the amplifiers werebuilt with FHRO1FH HEMT's from lot #C923. The spread in minimum noisetemperature at midband was less than 3.5 K for seven amplifiers. This isconsistent with the repeatability of noise performance of Fujitsu HEMT's withgood pinch-off characteristics, as observed in X-band amplifiers ( 1.5 K)[31, [5], and also with estimated accuracy of measurement ( 2 K in Ku-band).</p><p>IV. Conclusions</p><p>The design, construction and performance of cryogenically-cooled,14.4-15.4 GHz HEMT amplifiers were described. The cryogenic noiseperformance of these amplifiers is believed to be the best yet reported atthis frequency.</p><p>V. References</p><p>[1] M. W. Pospieszalski, "Low-Noise, 8.0-8.8 GHz, Cooled GASFET Amplifier,"NRAO Electronics Division Internal Report No. 254, December 1984.</p><p>[2] M. W. Pospieszalski, "Design and Performance of Cryogenically-Cooled,10.7 GHz Amplifier," NRAO Electronics Division Internal ReportNo. 262, June 1986.</p><p>[3] M. W. Pospieszalski, "A New Approach to Modeling of Noise Parametersof FET's and MODFET's and Their Frequency and TemperatureDependence," NRAO Electronics Division Internal Report No. 279,July 1988.</p><p>[4] S. Weinreb and R. Harris, "Low-Noise, 15 GHz, Cooled, GaAsFETAmplifier," NRAO Electronics Division Internal Report No. 235,September 1983.</p><p>[5] M. W. Pospieszalski, S. Weinreb, R. Norrod and R. Harris, "FET's andHEMT's at Cryogenic Temperatures - Their Properties and Use inLow-Noise Amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol.MTT-36, pp. 552-559, March 1988.</p><p>2</p></li><li><p>TABLE I. The Summary of Cryogenic Performanceof the 14.4-15.4 GHz Amplifiers</p><p>Noise Temp.' [K] Gain2 [K]</p><p>Amplifier Minimum Average Minimum Maximum</p><p>U-13</p><p>20.5 22.8 25.3 29.1</p><p>U-2 3 18.3 22.5 27.2 29.3</p><p>U-3 18.2 21.1 28.2 32.1</p><p>U-4 18.3 20.0 28.3 31.0</p><p>U-5 16.2 18.1 28.7 32.1</p><p>U-6 17.4 20.2 27.8 30.6</p><p>U-7 15.0 16.0 28.6 30.4</p><p>U-8 15.6 19.1 28.1 31.6</p><p>'Referred to the cold input of an amplifier.</p><p>2Includes a cold isolator and dewar transition at theoutput side.</p><p>3Prototypes.</p></li><li><p>40404.;4441.0411111.1.10,</p><p>,</p><p>evo,;I:K4W,,St%/</p><p>Fig. 1. Three-stage 14.4-15.4 GHz amplifier with cover plate removed.</p><p>4</p></li><li><p>L. F. SIAS Set E50 l k</p><p>GATE StASSvPpi.y</p><p>I6 t4v55/ ,--- 680</p><p>leLSO4--</p><p>I At16 4099 10</p><p>DRAIN MIASSUPPLV</p><p># 01.111..."</p><p>Fig. 2. (A) Schematic view of the realization of the d.c. separationcircuit. (B) Cross-section of the reentrant line after assembly.(C) High frequency equivalent circuit of the bias and d.c.separation circuits. (D) Schematic of the bias circuit.Element values are given in ohms, picofarads, nanohenries, andinches.</p></li><li><p>1 6.1i</p><p>LGRa]</p><p>Fig. 3. Comparison between model prediction and measured performanceof three-stage, Ku-band, FHRO1FH amplifier (U-5) at 297 K and12.5 K. At room temperature all transistors are biased atVds = 2 V, Ids 10 mA. At cryogenic temperature all transistorsare biased at Vds 2 V, I ds = 5 mA.</p></li><li><p>30</p><p>13.1i /4,9 FEGi4.1 16.4</p><p>Fig. Comparison between model prediction and measured return loss ofthe three-stage, Ku-band, FHRO1FH amplifier (U-5) at 297 K. Alltransistors are biased at Vds 2 V, Ids 10 mA.</p></li><li><p>100K ---U-3</p><p>.,N085.55 . .</p><p>501%</p><p>.....v ....... ......... v V"..if</p><p>II .. </p><p>4008</p><p>2008</p><p>* 0'0:1/4 IFP5:37.* ... BOB8 *164</p><p>:4008 100K</p><p>-N085.55</p><p>2008 50K</p><p>1 64 S S8 OK 13400</p><p>F,GHZ NOISE GAIN,DB14.30 23.4 32.214.60 17.3 30.814.90 19.3 29.215.20 22.9 28.115.50 23.2 29.115.80 22.9 31.8</p><p>F,GHZ NOISE GAIN,DB25.914.150 32.4</p><p>14.450 18.914.750 17.715.050 21.115.350 23.515.650 22.6</p><p>32.829.428.328.231.1</p><p>F,GHZ14.15014.45014.75015.05015.35015.650</p><p>NOISE GAIN,DB18.2 28.118.7 29.820.8 28.321.1 29.818.9 30.925.4 22.1</p><p>NOISE GAIN,DB18.2 29.919.7 28.721.4 29.120.0 30.719.7 27.841.1 17.4</p><p>F,GHZ14.3014.6014.9015.2015.5015.80</p><p>-N085.55</p><p>501.</p><p>4008 100K</p><p>- N085.55</p><p>_2008 50K</p><p>....</p><p> a </p><p>4008</p><p>2008</p><p>0/04/81;</p><p>4</p><p>*...... . .....:1_008</p><p>0249.8 16400</p><p>;</p><p>OK13400</p><p>..</p><p>..4</p><p>OK .................. . 13400 01/213/08 *041t.C8 *</p><p>o.- ...... - V........ V - .</p><p>-. </p><p>OK ' 13400 ..... _00801:1 *6/e8 *0328. - 7 16400-OK 13400 01/20/ee *12:494:9</p><p>..... 100816400</p><p>NOISE GAIN,DB32.6 31.819.7 28.917.4 27.820.0 30.124.0 29.926.8 28.8</p><p>F,GHZ14.15014.45014.75015.05015.35015.650</p><p>1001( .1</p><p>NOISE GAIN,DB F,GHZ20.5 26.5 14.3016.3 31.9 14.6017.0 29.5 14.9019.2 28.7 15.2019.9 30.7 15.5020.5,31.1 15.80</p><p> V, U-7. . </p><p>NOISE 6AIN,D817.6 30416.2 31.518.2 28.920.0 29.319.9 32.325.4 24.5</p><p>-- 4008</p><p>2008</p><p>F,GHZ14.15014.45014.75015.05015.35015.650</p><p>100K</p><p>- N08 -5.55 _</p><p>50K</p><p>F,GHZ NOISE GAIN,0824.3 30.017.8 28.118.6 29.022.0 30.625.7 29.227.6 25.2</p><p>400B</p><p>. 2008</p><p>14.3014.6014.9015.2015.5015.80</p><p>V......... ......</p><p>- U-8 </p><p>' - .. ...</p><p> t</p><p>OK13400</p><p> 008*** e2/2 44/84 '03 ;1. 14 -16 00</p><p>F,GHZ14.3014.6014.9015.2015.5015.80</p><p>F,GHZ NOISE GAIN,DB F,GHZ14.150 17.0 24.8 14.3014.450 15.2 29.8 14.6014.750 15.3 29.0 14.9015.050 16.6 29.0 15.2015.350 16.4 30.4 15.5015.650 23.3 23.9 15.80</p><p>NOISE GAIN,DB15.9 27.514.9 30.316.2 28.816.6 29.817.7 29.439.6 18.1</p><p>F,GHZ14.15014.45014.75015.05015.35015.650</p><p>NOISE GAIN,D819.6 33.215.7 30.917.0 28.320.8 28.122.7 28.722.0 29.3</p><p>NOISE GAIN,DB16.8 72.415.8 29.418.9 28.422.4 28.222.3 30.225.1 23.1</p><p>Fig. 5. Cryogenic performance of six Ku-band amplifiers under optimalbias conditions. The noise temperature is referred to coldinput of an amplifier. The measured gain characteristics includethe contribution of the cold isolator at the output and thedewar transition (about 1 dB of loss).</p><p>8</p></li><li><p>APPENDICES</p><p>Appendix I. Parts List for Ku-Band HEMT Amp (14.4-15.4 GHz)</p><p>Appendix II. Drawings</p><p>A. Amplifier Alignment Procedure</p><p>B. Stub Dielectric Support</p><p>C. Chassis</p><p>D. Amplifier Cover</p><p>E. Transistor Strap</p><p>F. Output End Plate</p><p>. Input End Plate</p><p>. Coaxial Transformer</p><p>. Support Inner Conductor</p><p>J. Interstage Inner Conductor</p><p>K. Output SMA Modified</p><p>L. Input SMA Modified</p></li><li><p>PARTS LIST Ku-Band HEMT AmD</p><p> (14</p><p>.4-1</p><p>5.4 </p><p>GHz) </p><p>DATE August 1988 </p><p>REVISION </p><p>ITEM</p><p>QUANTITY</p><p>REF.</p><p>DESI</p><p>G.DESCRIPTION</p><p>MFG.</p><p>PART NUMBER</p><p>11</p><p>Amplifier alignment procedure</p><p>NRAO</p><p>C53208M017</p><p>21</p><p>Stub dielectric support</p><p>NRAO</p><p>A53208MO20</p><p>1Chassis</p><p>NRAO</p><p>C53208M009, Rev. C</p><p>41</p><p>Amplifier cover</p><p>NRAO</p><p>B53208M010</p><p>56</p><p>Transistor strap</p><p>NRAO</p><p>A53208M011, Rev. A</p><p>61</p><p>Output end plate</p><p>NRAO</p><p>A53206M072, Rev. D</p><p>71</p><p>Input end plate</p><p>NRAO</p><p>A53206M071, Rev. D</p><p>81 </p><p>ea.</p><p>Coaxial transformer</p><p>NRAO</p><p>A53208M016</p><p>92</p><p>Support inner conductor</p><p>NRAO</p><p>A53208M012, Rev. </p><p>A</p><p>102</p><p>Innerstage inner </p><p>con</p><p>du</p><p>cto</p><p>rNR</p><p>AOA53208M013, Rev. B</p><p>111</p><p>Out</p><p>put </p><p>SM</p><p>A modified</p><p>NRAO</p><p>A53208M015, R</p><p>ev. </p><p>A</p><p>121</p><p>Input </p><p>SM</p><p>A m</p><p>odif</p><p>ied</p><p>NRAO</p><p>A53</p><p>208M</p><p>014,</p><p> Rev</p><p>. A</p><p>131</p><p>Power co</p><p>nnec</p><p>tor</p><p>Omni-Spectra</p><p>ER-7</p><p>S-6</p><p>143</p><p>HEMT</p><p>Fuji</p><p>tsu</p><p>FHR</p><p>O1F</p><p>H</p><p>156</p><p>HE</p><p>MT</p><p> bia</p><p>s le</p><p>ads,</p><p> #3</p><p>6 A</p><p>WG</p><p> Bel</p><p>dso</p><p>lB</p><p>elden</p><p>8058</p><p>166</p><p>Bias w</p><p>ires</p><p>, #30 A</p><p>WG</p><p> Bel</p><p>dso</p><p>lB</p><p>elden</p><p>8055</p><p>171</p><p>LE</p><p>D, bia</p><p>s w</p><p>ire,</p><p> #30 A</p><p>WG</p><p>Alp</p><p>ha18</p><p>51</p><p>Appendix I</p></li><li><p>PARTS LIST Ku-Band HEMT Amt (1</p><p>4.4-</p><p>15.4</p><p> GHz</p><p>) </p><p>DATE </p><p>August 1988 </p><p>REVISION </p><p>ITEMQUANTITY</p><p>REF.</p><p>DESI</p><p>G.DESCRIPTION</p><p>MFG.</p><p>PART NUMBER</p><p>186</p><p>0.08x3/16 filister hd</p><p>screws, gold-plated</p><p>192</p><p>2-56 x 1/2" socket head SS screws</p><p>All-Metal</p><p>202</p><p>2-56 x 3/8" socket head SS screws</p><p>All-Metal</p><p>214</p><p>2-56 x 3/16" socket head SS screws</p><p>All-Metal</p><p>224</p><p>2-56 x 1/4" socket head SS screws</p><p>2312</p><p>4-40 x 1/4" socket head SS screws</p><p>All-Metal</p><p>241</p><p>4-40 x 3/8" socket head SS screw</p><p>All Metal</p><p>251</p><p>4-40 x 1/2" socket head SS screws</p><p>All-Metal</p><p>266</p><p>.3 pF chip</p><p> cap</p><p>acit</p><p>ors</p><p>ATC</p><p>100-A-0R3-B-P-150</p><p>276</p><p>16</p><p> pF</p><p> chip</p><p> capacit</p><p>ors</p><p>ATC</p><p>100-A-160-K-P-50</p><p>286</p><p>680 pF chip capacitors</p><p>ATC</p><p>100-B-681-M-P-50</p><p>299</p><p>50 ohm chip resistors</p><p>Mini-Systems</p><p>WA13PG-500-J-S</p><p>303</p><p>10 ohm 1/8 W metal film resistor</p><p>Corning</p><p>RLRO5C-10RO-FS</p><p>313</p><p>1000 ohm 1/8 W metal film resistor</p><p>Corning</p><p>RLRO5C-1001-FS</p><p>323</p><p>Diode Zener</p><p>Moto</p><p>rola</p><p>IN40</p><p>99</p><p>336</p><p>LED</p><p>Lit</p><p>ron</p><p>ixR</p><p>L-5</p><p>0</p><p>34Solder, 2% silver</p><p>Ersin</p><p>SN-62-.028</p></li><li><p>PARTS LIST Ku-Band HEMT Amp (14.4-15.4 GHz) </p><p>DATE August 1988 </p><p>REVISION </p><p>ITEMQUANTITY</p><p>REF.</p><p>DESI</p><p>G.DESCRIPTION</p><p>MFG.</p><p>.PART NUMBER</p><p>35,</p><p>Flux, rosin liquid</p><p>Lester</p><p>#1544</p><p>36Mylar tape</p><p>Scotch</p><p>RT-56</p><p>37Input stub, #30 AWG</p><p>Belden</p><p>8025</p><p>, ,</p></li><li><p>Ap</p><p>pen</p><p>dix</p><p> II.</p><p>A</p><p>.</p><p>iick=</p><p>ge.</p><p>5,</p><p>APPR</p><p>OVED</p><p> IVDA</p><p>TE</p><p>1;:re</p><p>s </p><p>1=7:</p><p>C.5</p><p>. 57-0</p><p>eIrrt</p><p>ot</p><p>mcv.e</p><p>.scA</p><p>ul X</p><p> tia</p><p>r .fra</p><p>':( </p><p>eeco</p><p>rnrr</p><p>ocr_</p><p>in p</p><p>ecc,</p><p>cot.J</p><p>ee., </p><p>DI P</p><p>r-c.e.</p><p>E.A.</p><p>yr </p><p>Peoc</p><p>.e.s</p><p>s rr</p><p>wt 3</p><p>e... </p><p>us..o</p><p>0,5 </p><p>L.O</p><p>k.K</p><p>.v A</p><p>c3 A</p><p>L%</p><p> ).-</p><p>OrN</p><p>E.A</p><p>.ST</p><p>5 5g</p><p>0-A</p><p>E..</p><p>55</p><p>IALI</p><p>C..,k</p><p>1 140t-</p><p>F-</p><p> A. pA</p><p>eT</p><p> cao w</p><p>uk.)</p><p>IT H</p><p> .10,</p><p> 5L</p><p>.0- T</p><p> ik) </p><p>pei,e</p><p>-r ek</p><p>txab 5</p><p>140t</p><p>.uk.</p><p>)1</p><p>PA</p><p>ET</p><p>S 1</p><p>40</p><p>uL</p><p>.0 E</p><p>. 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