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  • Price: £105.00

    A practical guide to exhaust gas cleaning systems for the maritime industry

    EGCSA Handbook 2012

    EG C

    SA H

    A n

    d bo

    o k

    2012

    Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems are a highly effective solution to the challenges of IMO MARPOL Annex VI air pollution regulations and the added complexities of regional and national emissions legislation. It is crucial that ship owners and operators fully understand their options for compliance. To aid decision making this guide contains a wealth of information, including:

    • The impact of emissions, current and future regulation and the IMO Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems

    • Types of Exhaust Gas Cleaning System for SOx, PM and NOx, including system configuration and installation, materials of construction and compliance instrumentation

    • Scrubbing processes, dry chemical treatment and washwater handling

    • Comprehensive details of commercially available systems from EGCSA members

    As exhaust gas cleaning technologies and legislation evolve, it is intended to further update this publication to keep pace with developments and EGCSA encourages all with an interest in this business critical area to take full advantage of each new edition as it is released.

  • 1

    Contents

    CONTENTS ............................................................... 1 LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................ 2 LIST OF INFO BOXES .................................................. 3 LIST OF TABLES .......................................................... 3 FOREWORD .............................................................. 4 INTRODUCTION......................................................... 5

    1. AIR POLLUTION - COMBUSTION .............................. 6 1.1 Ship Emissions ...................................................... 7 1.1.1 MARPOL Annex VI – regulation 14 ........................ 8 1.1.2 Gaseous emissions ........................................... 10 1.1.3 Primary particulates ........................................... 11 1.1.4 Secondary particulates ...................................... 14

    2. REGULATIONS AND GUIDELINES ............................15 2.1 International Maritime Organization (IMO) ............... 15 2.1.1 Compliance by Exhaust Gas Cleaning ................. 16 2.2 Regional Emissions Control .................................... 17 2.2.1 Europe ........................................................... 17 2.2.2 USA and Canada ............................................ 19 2.3 Future Emission Limits ............................................ 21 2.3.1 Carbon Monoxide (CO) .................................... 21 2.3.2 Hydrocarbons (HC) .......................................... 22 2.3.3 Particulate Matter (PM) ...................................... 22 2.3.3.1 Black Carbon (BC) ........................................ 22

    3. GUIDELINES FOR EXHAUST GAS CLEANING SYSTEMS (EGCS) ......................................23 3.1 Introduction ........................................................ 23 3.2 Overview .......................................................... 24 3.3 Scheme A .......................................................... 25 3.4 Scheme B .......................................................... 26 3.5 Washwater ........................................................ 27 3.5.1 pH ................................................................ 28 3.5.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) ............... 29 3.5.2.1 PAH measurement .......................................... 30 3.5.3 Turbidity .......................................................... 31 3.5.4 Nitrate ........................................................... 31 3.5.5 Washwater additives and treatments .................... 34 3.5.6 Washwater treatment plant residue ...................... 34

    4. TREATMENT PROCESSES - SOx ...............................35 4.1 Wet Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems ........................ 35 4.1.1 Removal of sulphur oxides - seawater ................... 40 4.1.2 Removal of sulphur oxides - freshwater with chemical addition ............................................... 40 4.1.3 Water quality at Exhaust Gas Cleaning System inlet ....42 4.1.4 Washwater treatment ........................................ 47 4.1.4.1 pH ............................................................. 47 4.1.4.2 Particulate matter and oil ................................. 47 4.1.5 Effects on seawater composition .......................... 49 4.1.5.1 Sulphate ...................................................... 49 4.1.5.2 Oxygen ....................................................... 49 4.1.5.3 Acidification ................................................. 49 4.1.6 Materials of construction .................................... 50 4.1.6.1 Exhaust gas cleaning system ............................ 50 4.1.6.2 Exhaust duct ................................................. 51 4.2 Dry Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems ......................... 52 4.2.1 Supply and disposal of consumables .................... 55

    5. EXHAUST GAS CLEANING TECHNOLOGIES .............56 5.1 Removal methods ................................................ 56

    5.1.1 Wet scrubbers ................................................. 58 5.1.2 Dry scrubbers .................................................. 63

    6 TREATMENT PROCESSES - NOx ................................64 6.1 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) ......................... 64 6.1.1 SCR control ..................................................... 65 6.1.2 Oxidation catalysts ........................................... 67 6.2 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) ............................. 67

    7. EGC SYSTEMS AND VENDORS ...............................71 7.1 Performance Overview ......................................... 72 7.1.1 SOx ............................................................... 73 7.1.2 Particulate matter .............................................. 73 7.1.3 NOx .............................................................. 75 7.1.4 CO2 .............................................................. 77 7.1.5 Instrumentation – gaseous emissions ..................... 77 7.2 Mechanical Details .............................................. 81 7.2.1 Consumption and flow ...................................... 81 7.2.2 Size and position ............................................. 82 7.3 Experience, Testing and Approvals .......................... 86 7.4 Installation and after-care ...................................... 87 7.5 Commercial Information ........................................ 88

    APPENDIX 1 Information and Data Summary - EGC Systems and Vendors ...........................................92

    APPENDIX 2 Resolution MEPC.184(59) 2009 Guidelines for Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems .......104

    APPENDIX 3 Emission Control Area Geographic Definitions .............................................116 A3.1 MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 14 - Sulphur Oxides (SOx) and Particulate Matter - Emission Control Areas Geographic Definitions ............................................. 116 A3.1.1 Baltic Sea ................................................... 116 A3.1.2 North Sea ................................................... 116 A3.1.3 North America ............................................. 116 A3.1.4 U.S. Caribbean ........................................... 116 A3.1.5 New areas ................................................. 116 A3.1.6 NOx Emission Control Areas .......................... 116

    APPENDIX 4 NOx Emission Limits and Schedule for Reduction ...........................................................118 A4.1 MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 13 – Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) ............................................ 118 A4.1.1 Tier I .......................................................... 118 A4.1.2 Tier II ......................................................... 118 A4.1.3 Tier III ......................................................... 118

    APPENDIX 5 USCG Marine Safety Alert ......................119 A5.1 Fuel Switching Safety ....................................... 119

    APPENDIX 6 U.S. EPA 16 Priority Pollutants ..................120

    APPENDIX 7 Installation of a Multi-Stream, Hybrid EGCS - M.V. Balder .......................................124

    REFERENCES ..........................................................136

    GLOSSARY OF TERMS, FORMULAE & ABBREVIATIONS ....................................... 140

    ADDENDA/CORRIGENDA .........................................145 3.5.2.1.PAH measurement, addendum – phenanthrene equivalents ........................ 145

  • 32

    List of Figures

    Figure 1: The link between atmospheric sulphur dioxide concentration and human mortality ....... 6

    Figure 2: Sulphur oxide deposition without exhaust gas cleaning ............................................... 8

    Figure 3: PAH analysis, gasoline, diesel, propane .......... 9

    Figure 4: Particle formation - diesel engine fuel combustion ...................... 11

    Figure 5: The effects of cooling and air dilution ............ 12

    Figure 6: Diesel engine particulate ............................. 13

    Figure 7: Graph of bimodal range of PM for diesel engines ...................................... 14

    Figure 8: MARPOL Annex VI Emission Control Areas ...... 15

    Figure 9: IMO timeline for reduction in fuel sulphur content .......................................... 17

    Figure 10: Long