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Surreal ism

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Surrealism :

Surrealism means super realism. Surrealism literary means ‘above

and beyond reality’. Surrealism sought to free the

imaginative human mind & reveal the unconscious encouraging and rejection to logic & reasoning.

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Historical background :Surrealism was an artistic and literary movement that emerged in reaction to the horrors of World War I. Artists responded to the horrors of war by challenging the prevalent norms of society and its values. With a spirit of idealism, artist and writers shared a belief that they could change the world by freeing the unconscious mind from rational thought.

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Surrealism term :

This term was coined by ‘Guillaume Apollinaire’ in 1917 to describe his

own play The Mammaries.

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In 1924, the French poet André Breton founded the first official Surrealist group in Paris. It was comprised of gifted writers and poets; later visual artists joined the movement.

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They practiced automatic techniques — writing, speaking, or making art without thinking about what they were creating, allowing images and ideas to flow freely from their imagination. Often they then worked back into a painting to “pull out” fantastic imagery

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Freudian Influence :

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Freud had significant influence on the beliefs and practices of the Surrealists. He believed that our subconscious thoughts are symbolically represented in our dreams and fully understand ourselves, we need to tap into these dreams and messages. Artists, writers and poets were inspired to explore the conscious and subconscious mind.

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Forms of Surrealism :• Automatism • Veristic surrealism

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Veristic Surrealism :

• Portray the dream world with rich detail.• Allow the subconscious to surface in order to

interpret meaning.• Closer to reality.• Hold some truth.

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Andre Breton

• Created The Surrealist Manifesto based on the “pure psychic automatism”

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Poem Objet by Andre Breton, 1935

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Joan Miro

• Leading artist Automatist Surrealism art movement

• Bright primary colors• Biomorphic forms, • Rough geometric shapes • Marginally recognizable objects.

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Symbols in work: the moon, birds and women

Most work incorporated themes of: the sea, stars, birds and animals

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Person Throwing a Stone at a Bird, 1926

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Max Ernst• Leading Veristic Surrealist

artist• Invented a new method

called frottage• Transferring textures

suggest proactive approach to composing image

• Experiment with mediums like, collage, decalcomania and exquisite corpse

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Two Children are threatened by a Nightingale, 1924

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Loplop, 1930

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Rene Magritte

• Shift into illusionary-visual movement • Same objects reappear (green apple, woman’s

body)• Started using dream theory more

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Portrait of Edward James, 1937

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Start of WWII ended it in Europe Breton and others moved it to New York Breton died, movement no longer organized

group Some artists continued as self- labeled

surrealists Surrealism itself hasn’t really ended and can

still be seen today