nigerian biodiversity

Download Nigerian Biodiversity

Post on 26-Oct-2015

32 views

Category:

Documents

9 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Nigerian Biodiversity

TRANSCRIPT

  • June 2008 This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. It was prepared by Chemonics International Inc.

    NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTRY ASSESSMENT MAXIMIZING AGRICULTURAL REVENUE IN KEY ENTERPRISES FOR TARGETED SITES (MARKETS)

  • Cover photo: Harvested hardwood logs near Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary, Cross River State (Photo by Pat Foster-Turley)

  • The authors views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government.

    NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTRY ASSESSMENT MAXIMIZING AGRICULTURAL REVENUE IN KEY ENTERPRISES FOR TARGETED SITES (MARKETS) Contract No. 620-C-00-05-00077-00

  • CONTENTS Preface ................................................................................................................................ vi Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................... vii Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 1 Section I: Introduction ........................................................................................................ 3 Section II: Major Ecosystems ............................................................................................. 5

    Savanna, Grassland and the Arid North .................................................................. 5 Forests ..................................................................................................................... 6 Freshwater Ecosystems ........................................................................................... 9 Coastal Areas ........................................................................................................ 10

    Section III: Plant and Animal Species at Risk .................................................................. 12 Mammals............................................................................................................... 12 Birds ...................................................................................................................... 13 Lower Vertebrates ................................................................................................. 13 Invertebrates .......................................................................................................... 14 Plants ..................................................................................................................... 14 Other Biodiversity ................................................................................................. 15 Global Importance of Nigerias Biodiversity and Tropical Forests ...................... 15

    Section IV: Protected Areas in Nigeria ............................................................................. 17 Section V: Biodiversity and Forestry Legislation ............................................................. 26

    International Conventions ..................................................................................... 27 National Agencies and Policies ............................................................................ 29 State Policies and Enforcement ............................................................................ 30 Local Level ........................................................................................................... 30 Intertwining Functions and Responsibilities ......................................................... 31 Habitat Degradation .............................................................................................. 34 Unsustainable Use ................................................................................................. 36 Institutional and Management Threats.................................................................. 36 Lack of Available Information .............................................................................. 37

    Section VI: Organizations Involved in Conservation Efforts ........................................... 39 Donors ................................................................................................................... 39 Nongovernmental Organizations .......................................................................... 40

    Section VII: Conservation Approaches ............................................................................ 48 Protected Area Management ................................................................................. 48 Education and Training ......................................................................................... 50

  • NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTRY ASSESSMENT v

    Section VIII: Areas of Critical Importance ....................................................................... 52 Cross River State................................................................................................... 52 Gashaka-Gumti National Park .............................................................................. 53 Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands ...................................................................................... 54 National Parks Service .......................................................................................... 55 Select State-Protected Areas ................................................................................. 55 Other Critical Areas and Species .......................................................................... 56

    Section IX: USAIDs Role in Biodiversity and Forest Conservation ............................... 57 Section X: Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 61 Section XI: Bibliography .................................................................................................. 62 Annex I: Chart of Protected Areas in Nigeria ................................................................... 65 Annex II: Indicative List of Protected Areas in Nigeria ................................................... 75 Annex III: People Interviewed .......................................................................................... 80 Annex IV: Scope of Work ................................................................................................ 85

  • vi NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTRY ASSESSMENT

    PREFACE This Biodiversity and Tropical Forests Assessment has been undertaken to update a previous assessment conducted for USAID/Nigeria in 2002. Assessments like this one are required by Sections 118 and 119 of the Foreign Assistance Act guidelines for U.S. government agencies working abroad. This assessment was prepared under contract 620-C-00-05-00077-00, Maximizing Agricultural Revenue in Key Enterprises for Targeted Sites (MARKETS) implemented by Chemonics International. The MARKETS staff in Abuja and Kano coordinated and assisted with the work in Nigeria. The Biodiversity and Tropical Forests Assessment Team was composed of four members: Dr. Patricia Foster-Turley (team leader and biodiversity specialist), Prof. Enoch Okpara (policy analyst), Dr. Damian Ihedioha (environment specialist and MARKETS backstop), and Tony Bassey (biodiversity associate). It also received help from the Nigerian Conservation Foundation and others along the way. This assessment built upon the 2002 biodiversity assessment for Nigeria, which was also authored by Dr. Pat Foster-Turley but was updated with available information from current documents and Internet resources. Most importantly, this project included four weeks of time in Nigeria, two weeks of which were spent on a 3,000 mile road journey to visit the major biodiversity and forest sites from Calabar to the Niger border and over to Kano, covering more than half of the country. During the course of this trip, team members visited a number of key places, including Cross River National Park, the Drill Ranch, the Obudu Plateau, Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary, Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Yankari State Game Reserve, the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands, farms in the Kano area and many villages throughout the journey. This first-hand experience was crucial for development of the contents of this report.

    Olusegun Ojo, Damian Ihedioha, and Tony Bassey scrutinize a road map during the 3,000 mile field trip conducted during this assessment. (Photo by Pat Foster-Turley)

  • NIGERIA BIODIVERSITY AND TROPICAL FORESTRY ASSESSMENT vii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Compiling this assessment of biodiversity and tropical forests in Nigeria involved the hard work and contributions of many people in many positions throughout the country. The assessment team Dr. Patricia Foster-Turley (team leader and biodiversity specialist), Prof. Enoch Okpara (policy analyst), Dr. Damian Ihedioha (environment specialist and MARKETS backstop), and Tony Bassey (biodiversity associate and field site leader) could not have accomplished this project without the help of many others. The photos in this document were contributed by Pat Foster-Turley. The team would like to thank Mr. Nduka Okaro at USAID/Nigeria for all his work in coordinating the activities of this team and for accompanying the team to Kano during site visits to that area. Thanks, too, to the USAID MARKETS team who hosted our visit and made sure that we had all the tools we needed to perform this assessment, and especially Olesegun Ojo who cheerfully drove us around Nigeria despite the long hours and many potholes along the way. A strong thanks is offered to the Nigerian Con