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T R I B U T E

NIKOLA TESLA

PRESENTED IN

ARTICLES * LETTERS * DOCUMENTS

Published

by NIKOLA TESLA MUSEUM

BEOGRAD, YUGOSLAVIA

B E O G R A D 1961

P R E F A C E

Following the book , ) N i k o l a T e s l a - L e c t u r e s , P a t e n t s , A r t i c 1 e scc, published 1956 in English i n Belgrade, the Nikola Tesla Museum is now publishing a second volume dedicated to the memory of the great scientist. While the former publication w m rigorously restricted to his own works and included no comments or appreciations b y other hands, the present book is composed solely of articles and extracts written on Tesla b y others. Guided b y the wish to preserve to the full the ring of authenticity about each of the contributions, the Museum has decided to publish the articles i n their original versions. It was no easy task to make a selection from the copious collection of various important evaluations and tributes in the possession of the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, in view of the fact that a great deal has been written on Tesla throughout the last seven decades - much more than is generally sup- posed. It was therefore of necessity that the selection was restricted to articles written b y the eminent scientists, technicians and historians o f science and technology, i. e. such.as will no doubt prove to be the most invaluable to the history of scientific and technical development. A glance at the list of contributors will suffice to give substance to this point.

Another point calls f o ~ special emphasis. For various reasons, the t ruth about the body of Tesla's scientific work was remarkably slow in its penetration not only o f the public at large but also of any wider circles o f experts in the different fields of his research. The first and foremost o f these reasons was the fact that Tesla's achievements in the province of technical sciences was so revolutionary und so varied that it was difficult to fully grasp its significance as a whole; this took time. Indeed, around the close of the X I X t h century the number of distinguished experts who viewed Tesla's inventions as perfectly impracticable creations of pure phantasy was b y no means small. In an age of flourishing technical development, some saw the importance of his discoveries i n the field of production, transmission and utilization of electric power, but failed to realize that he had also laid the foundations of high voltage and high freguency technics and o f radiotechnics as well. Others hailed the results of his work in radio

w communications, bu t were u t t ~ l y unaware o f his pioneering achievements in what came to be &led the technics o f strong currents. Nor did Tesla's genius come to a halt here; for example, he foresaw - with a farsigh- tedness that hardly seems credible - the development of the techniques of remote control @ automatic guidance. This is best seen in an article o f his, published in the JUTE 1900 issue of T h e C e n t u r y I Z l u s t . r a t e d M o n t h l y M a g a z i n e a n d e n t i t l e d .The P r o b l e m o f I n c r e a s i n g H u m a n E n e r g y # . Tesla also proved by experiment that his nteleautomutm* was perfectly workable; but, the times being what they were, those to whom it wus presented showed little understanding o f its far-reaching significance. Another case in point is the initial failure o f no less a man t h a n Kelvin to see all the advantages of Tesla's system of production, transmi.gsi~n and utilization of electric power; it was only afterwards, when he had grasped the full scope o f the latter scientist's discoveries, that he gave h i m his enthusiastic support, the two men becoming close friends. This was b y no means an exceptional case.

Owing to his dislike of publicity, Tesla lived to see the honours due to him alone bestowed on others, and this at a t ime when his own creative powers had started to decline. Nevertheless, the articles assembled in this volume bear t e s t i ~ y to the fact that the most distinguished contempo- rary scientists and experts held Tesla's contribution to modern science and technology in great esteem.

And so, whatever 7 n i ~ ~ 0 n c e p t i 0 n ~ as to the real nature o f Tesla's achievements may have arisen in the past, subsequent development o f the technical sciences has paved the w a y for an adequate appraisal of his life's work. In publishing this book the N i b l a Tesla Museum hopes to fulfil, as a task o f honour, a twofold obligation: first, to the unique genius of the man who left his native Yugoslavia (where he was born in 1856) to serve the cause o f science in the United States o f America (where he died in 1943); and second, to the history o f science and technology, in which the name of Nikola Tesla will forever hold a place of truly great distinction.

VELJKO KORAC, Ph. D. Director of Nikola Tesla Museum

C O N T E N T S

SELECTED ARTICLES ON NIKOLA T E S L A AND HIS W O R K H

1. Du Bois-Reymond A.: Ein neues Sys tem von Wechselstrom- motoren und Transformatoren von Nikola Tesla . . . . . . - ETZ, Berlin, 1888, S. 343

. . . . . . 2. Martin Thomas C o n p e r f o r d : Nikola Tesla - Century Magazin, New York, Vol. XLVII, Febr. 1894, p. 582

3. Martin Thomas Commerford: Tesla's Oscillator and Other Inventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Century A'Iagazin, New York, Vol. XLIX, April 1895, p. 916

4. Lamotte M.: ~'e'clairage sans lampe . . . . . . . . . - Science Fran~aise, Paris, 14. VI. 1895, p. 307

. . . . . . . . 5. Patten F. Jarvis: The Tesla Osc~illntor - New Science Review, New York, July 1895, p. 113

* 6. * * Mr. Tesla's Circuit I n t e r r u p t e . ~ ~ . . . - The Electrical World, New York 20. VIII. 1898, p. 181

7. Wright J.: Some Novel Inventions of Nikola Tesla - The Electrical Engineer, London. 10. VIII. 1900, p. 190

* 8. * * The Tesla Patents: Sweeping Decision in Favour

of These Patents b y U. S. Circuit Court . . . . . . . . . - Electrical Review, New York, 19. IX. 1900, p. 288

* 9. * * Tesla Double-Circuit Selective Space-telegrahp

Sys tem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Western Electrician, Chicago, 28. 111. 1903

* 10. * * - The Tesla Steam Turbine - The Rotary Heat

. . . . . . . . . Motor Reduced to Its Simplest Terms - Scientific American, New York, 3. IX. 1911, p. 296

11. Gradenwitz A.: Das Tesla'sche Konstruktionsprinzip fur . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbinen und Pumpen

- Die ~ u r b i n e , Berlin, Heft XIII, 5. IV. 1912, S. 239

* 12. * * Tesla's Early Work W i t h Radio Controlled Vessels

- The Electrical Experimenter, New York. June 1916, p. 88

13. Cohen Samuel: Lightning Made to Order . . . . . . . - The Electrical Experimenter, New York November 1916, p. 474

* 14. * * Nikola Tesla Receives Edison Medal . . . . .

- Electrical Review and Western Electrician, New York, Vol. 70,

15. Scott F. Charles: T h e Contribution of Tesla to Electrical H

Power Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - GodiSnjak SveueiliSta u Zagrebu 1924125-1928129, str. 975

16. BokSan Slavko: Nikola Tesla, der Begriinder der Hochfre- . . . . . . quenz- und der Radiotechnik

- NaSa PoSta. Beograd, 1. XII. 1932, str. 295 *

17. MiljaniC Pavle: Nikola Tesla, fondateur de 1'Clectrotech- nique industrielle moderne . . . . . . . . . . . - NaSa poSta, Beograd, 1. XII. 1932, str. 289

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. Zenneck J.: Nikola Tesla - Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektroakustik, Berlin, Heft 2, 1933,

S. 41

. . . . . . . . . . 19. JovanoviC Vladislav: Nikola Teslrc - Revue GenPral d'Electricite, Paris, tome XL, 4. VII. 1936, p. 3

20. Blonde1 A.: L'oeuvre de Tesla vue par u n de ses contempo- rains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Livre cornmemoratif a l'occasion de 80-&me anniversaire de Nikola

Tesla, Beograd 1936, p. 331

21. Gutton C.: Sur la contribution de Tesla au developpement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . de la radiotC16graphie

- Livre commemoratif a l'occasion de 80-&me anniversaire de Nikola Tesla, Beograd, 1936, p. 175

. . . . . 22. JovanoviC Dragomir: Tesla Drehstrom-System - Gedenkbuch anlasslich des 80-sten Geburtstages N. Tesla, Beograd,

1936, S. 234

23. Kiebitz Franz: Nikola Tesla als Wegbereiter der drahtlosen Telegraphie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - Gedenkbuch anlasslich des 80-sten Geburtstages N. Tesla, Beograd,

1936. S. 248

I

24. ,Pio-Ulsky G.: Die Arbeiten Nikola Teslas aif dem Gebiete def angewandten Mechanik . . . . . . . . . . . - Gedenkbuch anlasslich des 80-sten Geburtstages N. Tesla, Beograd,

1936, S. 337

25. MiljaniC. Pavle: Quarante-cinq ans de Radiotechnique. U n retour aux dkbuts de la Radioklectricitk . . . . . . . . - Livre commkmoratif & l'occasion de 80-eme anniversaire de Ni-

kola Tesla, Beograd, 1936, p. 379

26. RakiC. Milivoje: Funfzig Jahre Drehstrom . . . z .. - Gedenkbuch anlasslich des 80-sten Geburtstages N. Tesla, Beograd,

1936, S. 360

27. Zafek August: Nikola Tesla - tvurce vysokofrekventni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tehniky

- Elektrotechnicky Obzor, Praha, 27. XI. 1936, str. 759

28. Girardeau E.: Pourquoi Nikola Tesla, crkateur de la radio- klectricitk, a-t-il 6tk longtempsmkconnu . . . . . . . - Edition de la Soci6tk pour la Fondation de l'Institut Nikola Tesla,

Beograd, 1938

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. Bethenod J.: Nikola Tesla - Bulletin de la Socikt