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  • i

    Nottingham Trent University

    Nottingham Business School

    Doctor of Business Administration

    Document 5

    The Thesis

    An examination of strategic performance

    enablers: A case study of Abu Dhabi Police

    perceptions

    Document Five submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements

    of The Nottingham Trent University for the degree of Doctor of

    Business Administration

    By Ahmed M. Al Ramahi

    October 2015

    (Note: All information concerning the Abu Dhabi Police in this document is confidential)

  • ii

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    This journey has been a blessing throughout all of its phases. I am so glad to have reached

    this point, where I can see the world of policing and management through a different lens.

    I would like to take this opportunity to thank my main tutor for this thesis, Professor Carole

    Tansley at Nottingham Trent University. She has been very patient with me, as I was a bit

    impulsive in my theoretical assumptions. Her knowledge and experience has improved both

    my performance and way of thinking.

    I express my warm gratitude to my second tutor, Dr Donald Harradine. He has been

    supportive since the first day of my Doctorate journey, always explaining issues related to

    my thesis with a smile, which had a big impact on my morale and confidence.

    I would also like to thank Dr Harry Barton for his constructive feedback and consistent

    follow up at the beginning of this project. It was a privilege to learn from his experience in

    the field of policing and management.

    The teaching faculty of Nottingham Business School were extremely helpful and equipped

    me with different tools to absorb research materials. Many thanks to them for their efforts.

    Of course, my lovely wife, parents, two amazing children and best friends had a share in

    my journey. In good and bad, good health and illness. My wife told me once: “If Albert

    Einstein has done it, then you can”. A bit of humour made this journey a joyful one.

    Finally, I would like to pay the highest respect to my sponsor, Lt. General HH Sheikh Saif

    bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior of the United Arab

    Emirates, for giving me the opportunity to conduct this research to develop knowledge in

    the field of policing and management. I would also like to thank the police officers involved

    in this research and to all police officers of all ranks in the Abu Dhabi Police community.

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............................................................................ii

    List of abbreviations ....................................................................................vii

    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................ viii

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................. 1

    The thesis structure ..................................................................................................................... 2

    Linkage with Documents 2, 3 and 4 of the Doctorate in Business Administration (DBA) ... 3

    Aims and objectives of the research .......................................................................................... 3

    CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................... 5

    Performance management concept and definition................................................................... 5

    Police performance ..................................................................................................................... 7

    Police Culture .............................................................................................................................. 8

    ADP’s culture ............................................................................................................................ 10

    Performance Enablers .............................................................................................................. 12

    Difference between Performance Enablers and Performance Indicators ........................... 16

    Intellectual capital ..................................................................................................................... 17

    The three forms of intellectual capital .................................................................................... 18

    Organisational capital ............................................................................................................ 18

    Human capital ......................................................................................................................... 19

    Social capital .......................................................................................................................... 20

    Performance enablers in several UK police services ............................................................. 21

    South Yorkshire Police ................................................................................................................ 21

    Metropolitan Police .................................................................................................................... 23

    Policing in Wales ........................................................................................................................ 24

    Strategic performance management enablers ........................................................................ 26

    Organisational capital .............................................................................................................. 27

    Quality Management ............................................................................................................... 27

    Excellence models of performance (EFQM) ........................................................................... 27

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) ........................................................................................ 30

    Risk assessment and crime prevention .................................................................................... 32

    Clear vision and strategy ........................................................................................................ 33

    Information technology and automated software ................................................................... 34

    Human capital ........................................................................................................................... 36

    Statistical Analysis .................................................................................................................. 36

  • iv

    Leadership............................................................................................................................... 37

    Incentives ................................................................................................................................ 39

    Education and Training .......................................................................................................... 40

    Social capital .............................................................................................................................. 41

    Relational aspects of staff control mechanisms (punishment) ................................................ 41

    Relational aspects of religious faith and values ..................................................................... 42

    Summary .................................................................................................................................... 43

    CHAPTER 3: THE ABU DHABI POLICE FORCE (ADP) ................... 45

    Organisational capital .............................................................................................................. 45

    Human capital ........................................................................................................................... 48

    Social capital .............................................................................................................................. 49

    Importance and Use of Service Outcome Performance Indicators ...................................... 49

    Service outcomes of performance enablers in the ADP ......................................................... 50

    Summary .................................................................................................................................... 54

    CHAPTER 4: METHODS AND METHODOLOGY .............................. 55

    Research strategy ...................................................................................................................... 55

    Validity ....................................................................................................................................... 56

    Research methodology .............................................................................................................. 57

    Epistemological stance ........................................................................................................... 57

    Ontological stance .....................................................................................................