nucleophilic substitution “ns” lab #4

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Nucleophilic substitution “NS” Lab #4

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Post on 12-Jan-2016




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Nucleophilic substitution “NS” Lab #4. Substitution reaction:. A reaction in which one atom , ion, or group is substituted for another. It is the reaction of an electron pair donor (the nucleophile, Nu) with an electron pair acceptor (the electrophile). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Nucleophilic substitutionNS

    Lab #4

  • Substitution reaction:A reaction in which one atom, ion, or group is substituted for another.It is the reaction of an electron pair donor (the nucleophile, Nu) with an electron pair acceptor (the electrophile). e.g. HO: + CH3CH2-Br CH3CH2-OH + Br:

  • Good nucleophile:

    1- have free pair of electrons (-ve charge ). e.g. OH 2- the nucleophilicity is decrease while the electronegativity increase. e.g. OH > F , I > Br > Cl > F

    3-higher molecular weight will be higher nucleophilicity. e.g. I > Br > Cl > F

  • Leaving group:

    Any group that can be displaced from a carbon atom.

    Good leaving groups are those capable of forming stable ions or molecules upon displacement from the original molecule.

  • SN2 mechanism (single step)

    there is simultaneous formation of the carbon-nucleophile bond and breaking of the carbon-leaving group bond (concerted).

  • SN2 mechanism (single step)

    Energy :

  • SN2 mechanism (single step)

    Energy of the molecules (average energy )

    Increase the energy by heating to reach the transition state(kinetic energy).

    Eact= kinetic energy + average energy

  • SN2 mechanism (single step)

    Rate: depend onTemperatureSolventThe concentration of the reactants R + Nu

  • SN2 mechanism (single step)

    Example :

  • Example :SN2 mechanism (single step)

  • SN1 mechanism(a multi-step)

    In an SN1 there is loss of the leaving group generating an intermediate carbocation which then undergoes a rapid reaction with the nucleophile.

  • This pathway is multi-step process:

    step 1: slow loss of the leaving group, LG, to generate a carbocation intermediate (rate determining step).

    step 2: rapid attack of a nucleophile on the electrophilic carbocation to form a new bond

    SN1 mechanism(a multi-step)

  • Example:



    SN1 mechanism

  • Energy:SN1 mechanism

  • step1: enough energy must be supplied to break the c-x bond (Eact) & give the carbocation (intermediate). step2: need lower Eact

    SN1 mechanism

  • Rate :Depends on1- the concentration of the reactant R2-temperature3-solvent

    SN1 mechanism

  • Reactivity order of -R :(CH3)3C- > (CH3)2CH- > CH3CH2- > CH3- 3 2 1

    Stability: the key step is the loss of the leaving group to form the intermediate carbocation. The more stable the carbocation is, the faster the SN1 reaction will be.

    X X SN1 mechanism

  • Which substitution mechanism might operate?

  • Nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halidesReactions :SN1:

    X= halides (Cl , Br, I )R=CH3CH2O- =---> Leaving group---> electrophile (e acceptor)---> nucleophile (e donor)

  • Nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halidesProcedure (SN1 reaction):

    1- label 5 clean, dry test tubes from 1to5.2-add 3drops of one of the following halides in test tube and immediately stopper with each addition:(1) 2-bromobutane.(2) 1-chlorobutane.(3) 2-chloro-2-methylpropane.(4) 2-bromo-2-methylpropane. (5) bromobenzene.

  • Nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halides3-in each test tube add 1ml of (1% AgNo3 in ethanol solution) then immediately stopper the test tube.

    4-mix thoroughly and record the times for each reaction to form a precipitate or cloudiness. 5-after 5 minutes, place any test tubes that do not contain a precipitate in 100C water bath, after about 1 minute of heating, cool the test tubes to room temperature and note whether a reaction has occurred.

    NOTE: consider the alkyl halide to be unreactive if no turbidity or precipitate appears after 10 min

  • Nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halides