nwtc general chemistry ch 06

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Chapter 6 Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry 10e John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein, Scott Pattison, and Susan Arena Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds This seashell is formed from the chemical calcium carbonate, commonly called limestone. It is the same chemical used in many calcium supplements

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NWTC General Chemistry Ch 06

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  • 1. Chapter 6Nomenclature of Inorganic CompoundsThis seashell isformed from thechemical calciumcarbonate,commonly calledlimestone. It isthe samechemical used inmany calciumsupplements forour diets. Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry 10eJohn Wiley & Sons, IncMorris Hein, Scott Pattison, and Susan Arena

2. Chapter Outline6.1 Common and Systematic6.4 Naming Binary CompoundsNames6.5 Naming Compounds6.2 Elements and IonsContaining Polyatomic Ions6.3 Writing Formulas from6.6 AcidsNames of Ionic CompoundsCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 3. Common and Systematic NamesCommon names are arbitrary and are often related tothe physical or chemical properties of the compound.Systematic names precisely identify the chemicalcomposition of the compound.Formula Common Name Systematic NameN2O laughing gas dinitrogen monoxideHCl muriatic acidhydrochloric acidCaCO3 limestonecalcium carbonateNaCltable salt sodium chloride Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 4. Element Some elements do not exist as single atoms when they are not in compounds. Diatomic molecules exist as two atoms bonded together. Polyatomic molecules contain more than two atoms.The air you are breathing is 78%N2, 21%O2 and 1%Ar. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 5. Forming CationsMetals lose electrons to be stable.Metal ions are positively charged because they have more positive protons than negative electrons. potassium potassium ion K K+ + e- Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 6. Naming CationsCations are named the same as their parent atoms, asshown here: Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 7. Forming AnionsNonmetals gain electrons to be stable.Nonmetal ions are negatively charged because they have fewer positive protons than negative electrons. chlorinechloride ion Cl + e- Cl- Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 8. Naming AnionsMonatomic anions use the stem of the elements name and the ending changed to ide.Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 9. Ion ChargesMetals on the left side of the periodic table form onlyone ion.Many metals form more than one ion. Often these arethe transition metals.The charge of a nonmetal is group number -8.Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 10. Your Turn!Calcium is an element in group 2A. Which of thefollowing statements is correct about calcium formingan ion?a. Ca gains two electrons, forming Ca2+b. Ca gains two electrons, forming Ca2-c. Ca loses two electrons, forming Ca2-d. Ca loses two electrons, forming Ca2+ Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 11. Your Turn!Phosphorus is a nonmetal in group 5A. The charge onthe phosphide ion isa. -3 because the element lost 3 electrons.b. -3 because the element gained 3 electrons.c. +3 because the element lost 3 electrons.d. +3 because the element gained 3 electrons.Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 12. Ionic Compounds Compounds are held together bythe attractive forces between thecations (positive ions) and theanions (negative ions). Formulas are the simplest wholenumber ratio of each element. Solids at room temperature. NaCl Conduct electricity whenmolten.Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 13. Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds1. Write the formula for the metal ion followed by the formula for the nonmetal ion.2. Combine the smallest numbers of each ion needed to give the charge sum equal to zero.3. Write the formula for the compound as the symbol for the metal and nonmetal each followed by a subscript of the number determined in step 2.Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 14. Zinc Oxide1. Write the formula for the metal ion followed by the formula for the nonmetal ion. Zn2+ O2-2. Combine the smallest numbers of each ion needed to give the charge sum equal to zero.1 Zn2+ to 1O2- is neutral. 1(+2) + 1(-2) = 02. Write the formula for the compound as the symbol for the metal and nonmetal each followed by a subscript of the number determined in step 2.ZnOReview Question 2: Does the fact Copyrightelements combineInc a one-to-one ratio mean that thethat 2 2012 John Wiley & Sons, incharges on their ions are both 1? 15. Calcium Chloride1. Write the formula for the metal ion followed by the formula for the nonmetal ion. Ca2+ Cl-2. Combine the smallest numbers of each ion needed to give the charge sum equal to zero. 1 Ca2+ to 2 Cl- is neutral. 1(+2) + 2(-1) = 02. Write the formula for the compound as the symbol for the metal and nonmetal each followed by a subscript of the number determined in step 2. CaCl2 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 16. Aluminum Sulfide1. Write the formula for the metal ion followed by the formula for the nonmetal ion. Al3+ S2-2. Combine the smallest numbers of each ion needed to give the charge sum equal to zero.2 Al3+ to 3 S2- is neutral. 2(+3) + 3(-2) = 02. Write the formula for the compound as the symbol for the metal and nonmetal each followed by a subscript of the number determined in step 2. Al2S3 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 17. Writing Formulas for Ionic CompoundsWrite the formulas for the compounds containing thefollowing ions:1. Al3+ and F- AlF32. Ca2+ and N3-Ca3N23. K+ and Cl-KCl4. Mg2+ and I- MgI2Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 18. Your Turn!What is the correct formula for the compound berylliumfluoride? Be2+ and F-a. BeFb. Be2Fc. BeF2d. Be2F2Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 19. Your Turn!What is the correct formula for the compound silversulfide? Ag+ and S-2a. AgSb. AgS2c. Ag2Sd. 2AgS Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 20. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsBinary ionic compounds contain only two elements: ametal and a nonmetal.Compounds containing a metal that forms only onetype of cation1. Write the name of the cation.2. Write the name of the anion with the -ide ending.AlF3 aluminum fluorideCa3N2 calcium nitrideKCl potassium chlorideCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 21. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsCommon metals with only one type of cation: All metals in Group 1A, Group 2A, Al, Zn, Ag and Cd. Their charge is the group number.Name these compounds: 1. BaI2 barium iodide 2. Li2O lithium oxide 3. CaC2 calcium carbide 4. Ag2S silver sulfide 5. Rb3N rubidium nitrideCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 22. Your Turn!What is the correct name for CdF2?a. Cadmium flourineb. Cadmium flouridec. Cadmium fluorined. Cadmium fluorideCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 23. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsCompounds containing a metal that can form two ormore types of cationsStock System: The name of the cation is the name of the element with a Roman numeral in parentheses equal to the charge. Fe2+iron(II)Cu+ copper(I) Fe3+iron(III) Cu2+ copper(II) Sn2+tin(II) Pb2+ lead(II) Sn4+tin(IV) Pb4+ lead(IV) Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 24. Naming Binary Ionic Compounds1. Write the name of the cation.2. Write the charge on the cation as a Roman numeral in parenthesis.3. Write the name of the anion with suffix ide. CoCl3 cobalt(III) chloride Fe3P2 iron(II) phosphide CuO copper(II) oxide SnBr4 tin(IV) bromideCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 25. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsMore Practice1. CoCl3 cobalt(III) chloride2. K2S potassium sulfide3. HgF2mercury(II) fluoride4. AgBrsilver bromide5. Fe3P2 iron(II) phosphideReview Question 66. PbI4lead(IV) iodideBaCl2 Why not barium (I) chloride? Barium has 1 ionic stateCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 26. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsClassic System: the Latin name of the metal is modified with the suffixes ous and ic depending on the metal charge Fe2+ ferrousCu+ cuprous Fe3+ ferric Cu2+ cupric Sn2+ stannous Pb2+ plumbous Sn4+ stannicPb4+ plumbicSnF2 stannous fluoride Fe O ferric oxide2 3Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 27. Your Turn!CuCl2 is Cl-1 so 1*(-2) = -2a. Copper chloride So Cu must be ? to balanceb. Copper (I) chloridec. Copper (II) chlorided. Copper chloride (I)e. Copper chloride (II) Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 28. Your Turn!Review Question 1a. potassium + sulfideK2Sb. Cobalt (II) + bromateCoBr2c. Ammonium + Nitrate NH4NO3d. Hydrogen + Phosphate H3PO4e. Iron (III) + Oxide Fe2O3f. Magnesium + HydroxideMgOHCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 29. Naming Binary Molecular CompoundsBinary molecular compounds contain twoAtoms Prefixes nonmetals or a nonmetal and a metalloid. 1mono2di1. Write the name for the first element using3tri a prefix if there is more than one atom of 4 tetra this element.5penta2. Write the stem of the second element with 6 hexa the suffix ide. Use a prefix to indicate7hepta the number of atoms for the second 8 octa element. 9nona10 decaCO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxideCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 30. Naming Binary Molecular CompoundsName the following compounds:Atoms Prefixes1 mono1. P2O5 diphosphorus pentoxide2 di2. N2O dinitrogen monoxide3 tri3. NO2 nitrogen dioxide 4tetra4. SF65 penta sulfur hexafluoride6 hexa5. S2Cl2 disulfur dichloride7 hepta6. SiCl4 silicon tetrachloride8octa9 nona 10 decaAl2O3 Aluminum Oxide metal and nonmetal Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, IncReview Question 4: Why different? 31. Your Turn!Arsenic pentachloride isa. AsCl5b. As5Clc. As2Cl5d. AsCl Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 32. Acids Derived from Binary CompoundsAcid formulas begin with the element hydrogen.The acid name refers to a solution while the puresubstance is named using the previous rules.To name binary acids in the aqueous phase:1. Write the prefix hydro- followed by the stem of the second element and add the suffix ic.2. Write the word acid. HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 33. Acids Derived from Binary CompoundsName the following compounds:1. HBr(g) hydrogen bromide gas2. HBr(aq) hydrobromic acid3. H2S(aq) hydrosulfuric acid4. HF(aq) hydrofluoric acid5. HI(aq) hydroiodic acid Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 34. Naming Binary CompoundsCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 35. Your Turn!V2O5 isa. divanadium pentoxideb. vanadium pentoxidec. vanadium(II) oxided. vanadium(V) oxide Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 36. Your Turn!Sulfur dioxide isa. SOb. S2Oc. SO2Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 37. Your Turn!A solution containing HF should be nameda. hydrogen fluorideb. hydrofluoric acidc. hydrofluoride acidCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 38. Polyatomic IonsA polyatomic ion is an ion that contains 2 or moreelements. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 39. Polyatomic IonsMany polyatomic ions that contain oxygen are calledoxy-anions and generally have the suffix -ate or -ite. Learn the names and formulas of the ions that end in-ate.2 sulfate SO 4 nitrate N O 3 The ions whose names end in ite have one lessoxygen. 2 sulfite S O 3nitrite N O 2 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 40. Polyatomic IonsSome elements form more than two oxy-anions. FormulaAnion NameClO4-perchlorate per- means one more oxygen than -ate ionClO3- chlorateClO2- chlorite hypo- means one less ClO- hypochlorite oxygen than -ite ionThese additional prefixes are also used by bromate(BrO3-), iodate (IO3-), and phosphate (PO43-). Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 41. Polyatomic IonsSome polyatomic names end in ide:hydroxideOH-cyanideCN-hydrogen sulfide HS-2peroxide O2Only one polyatomic ion is positive: ammonium NH 4 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 42. Writing Formulas with Polyatomic IonsUse parentheses around the polyatomic ion if you needto add a subscript to balance the charge.Example: Ba2+ + N O 3 Ba(NO3)221.Mn2+ + CO3MnCO32.Sr2+ + OH Sr(OH)223.K+ + C rO 4 K2CrO434.Cu2+ + PO 4 Cu3(PO4)2Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 43. Naming Compounds ContainingPolyatomic Ions1. Write the name of the cation.2. Write the name of the anion.Name these compounds:Hg(ClO2)2mercury(II) chloriteZn3(PO4)2zinc phosphateNH4NO3 ammonium nitratePb(C2H3O2)2lead(II) acetate Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 44. Your Turn!Sulfate is SO42-. Name the compound FeSO4.a. iron sulfateb. iron(I) sulfatec. iron(II) sulfated. iron(IV) sulfateCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 45. Oxy-AcidsOxy-acids are neutral compounds that begin with H andend with an oxygen-containing polyatomic ion.The name of the acid ends in ic acid if the polyatomicion ends in ate.sulfateSO42- H2SO4sulfuric acidchlorate ClO3- HClO3chloric acidThe name of the acid ends in ous acid if thepolyatomic ion ends in ite.sulfiteSO32- H2SO3sulfurous acidchlorite ClO2- HClO2chlorous acid Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 46. Oxy-AcidsWhy are there 3 H in phosphoric acid?Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 47. Oxy-AcidsTable 6.9 Comparison of Acid and Anion Names Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 48. Naming Compounds ContainingPolyatomic IonsCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 49. QuestionsReview Questions Did in classPaired Questions (pg 210) Do 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 15, 21, 27, 29, 31, 35 Practice later 2, 6, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 34Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 1-51