obstacle avoidance robot project report final

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Mini Project Report 2012

OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

1. INTRODUCTIONAn embedded system is a system which is going to do a predefined specified task is the embedded system and is even defined as combination of both software and hardware.

A general-purpose definition of embedded systems is that they are devices used to control, monitor or assist the operation of equipment, machinery or plant. "Embedded" reflects the fact that they are an integral part of the system. In many cases their embeddedness may be such that their presence is far from obvious to the casual observer and even the more technically skilled might need to examine the operation of a piece of equipment for some time before being able to conclude that an embedded control system was involved in its functioning. At the other extreme a general-purpose computer may be used to control the operation of a large complex processing plant, and its presence will be obvious.

All embedded systems are including computers or microprocessors. Some of these computers are however very simple systems as compared with a personal computer. The very simplest embedded systems are capable of performing only a single function or set of functions to meet a single predetermined purpose. In more complex systems an application program that enables the embedded system to be used for a particular purpose in a specific application determines the functioning of the embedded system. The ability to have programs means that the same embedded system can be used for a variety of different purposes. In some cases a microprocessor may be designed in such a way that application software for a particular purpose can be added to the basic software in a second process, after which it is not possible to make further changes. The applications software on such processors is sometimes referred to as firmware. The simplest devices consist of a single microprocessor (often called a "chip), which may itself be packaged with other chips in a hybrid system or Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Its input comes from a detector or sensor and its output goes to a

Dept. of ECE

1

ICET, Muvattupuzha

Mini Project Report 2012

OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

switch or activator which (for example) may start or stop the operation of a machine or, by operating a valve, may control the flow of fuel to an engine.

As the embedded system is the combination of both software and hardware

Fig1.0.1: Block diagram of Embedded System

Software deals with the languages like ALP, C, and VB etc., and Hardware deals with Processors, Peripherals, and Memory. o Memory: It is used to store data or address. o Peripherals: These are the external devices connected o Processor: It is an IC which is used to perform some task Processors are classified into four types like: 1. Micro Processor (p) 2. Micro controller (c) 3. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) 4. Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC)

Micro Processor (p): It is an electronic chip which performs arithmetic and logical operations with assistance of internal memory.

Dept. of ECE

2

ICET, Muvattupuzha

Mini Project Report 2012

OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

ALU CONTROL UNIT MEMORYFig1.0.2: Block Diagram of Micro Processor (p)

Micro Controller (c): It is a highly integrated micro processor designed for specific use in embedded systems.

ALU CU Memory

EEPROM, ADC, DAC,Fig1.0.3 Block Diagram USART, Controller (c) Timers, of Micro

Oscillators

1.1. Introduction to applications of embedded system: Etc.,Embedded controllers may be found in many different kinds of system and are used for many different applications. The list, which follows, is indicative rather than exhaustive. An item in the list may be relevant to a particular company because either (a) it is or involves a core process or product, (b) it is or involves an ancillary function or service performed by the company or (c) it refers to a product or service provided by a contractor under some form of agreement and the vulnerability of the supplier may need to be considered.

Some applications of embedded systems: Manufacturing and process control Construction industry3 ICET, Muvattupuzha

Dept. of ECE

Mini Project Report 2012

OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

Transport Buildings and premises Domestic service Communications Office systems and mobile equipment Banking, finance and commercial Medical diagnostics, monitoring and life support Testing, monitoring and diagnostic systems

Industrial functions of embedded systems: A manufacturing company has provided the following list of embedded systems: Multi-loop control and monitoring - DCS, SCADA, telemetry Panel mounted devices Control, display, recording and operations. Safety and security - Alarm and trip systems, fire and gas systems, buildings and facilities security. Field devices-measurement, actuation. Analytical systems -Laboratory systems; on-line/ plant systems. Electrical supply - supply, measurement, control, protection. Tools - for design, documentation, testing, maintenance.

Embedded systems compared with commercial systems: The Year 2000 problem in embedded systems differs from the problem in commercial / database / transaction processing systems (often referred to as IT systems) in a number of ways. Firstly the user's problem may much lie much deeper than packages or applications software. It may lie in and be inseparable from systems and operating software and from hardware, i.e. in the platform on which the application software is based. When users of IT systems have hardware or operating software problems they can and should be made the concern of the computer supplier: typically, this is not the case with microprocessors and devices based on them.

Dept. of ECE

4

ICET, Muvattupuzha

Mini Project Report 2012

OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

Secondly in embedded systems the concern is often with intervals rather than with specific dates: the need may be for an event to occur at 100-day intervals rather than on the 5th day of each month. This has the implication that Year 2000 problems may reveal themselves both before and for some time after 1 January 2000 and not at all on the date itself.

The lifetime of embedded systems tends to be greater than that of commercial data processing systems: they remain in use for longer without alteration to their software. Because their software may therefore be older they are rendered more liable to Year 2000 problems.

1.2. An introduction to the project (OBSTACLE AVOIDING ROBOT):A robot obstacle detection system comprising: a robot housing which navigates with respect to a surface; a sensor subsystem having a defined relationship with respect to the housing and aimed at the surface for detecting the surface, the sensor subsystem including: an optical emitter which emits a directed beam having a defined field of emission, and a photon detector having a defined field of view which intersects the field of emission of the emitter at a finite region; and a circuit in communication with the detector for redirecting the robot when the surface does not occupy the region to avoid obstacles.

Fig 1.2.1: Obstacle detection using sensor

Obstacle sensors are nothing but the IR pair. As the transmitter part travel IR rays from to receiver here also transmitter send the data receiver but these IR pair are places beside each other. So whenever the a obstacle senor got a obstacle in between its way the IR rays reflects in a certain angle. As they are placed side by each.Dept. of ECE 5 ICET, Muvattupuzha

Mini Project Report 2012

OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

2. BLOCK DIAGRAM

2.1. BLOCK DIAGRAMRIGHT MOTOR FRONT SENSOR MICROCONTROLLER MOTOR DRIVER LEFT MOTOR

Fig 2.1: Block Diagram

2.2. BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTIONMICRO CONTROLLER: Here we are using AT89S52 controller. This is used to control all the operations of a circuit to get the accurate result. The micro controller we use is of the 40 pins and of 4 ports. Each port consists of the 8 pins. Generally the controller works on the transistor transistor logic.

H BRIDGE: H-Bridge is used as a driver circuit for motors. To move the robot in four different directions we definitely need H-bridge as a interfacing circuit between controller and motors.

DC MOTOR: Motor are used for the movement of the robot. Here we use the dc motor as it has the principle of the speed controlling.

Dept. of ECE

6

ICET, Muvattupuzha

Mini Project Report 2012

OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

OBSTACLE SENSOR: The obstacle senor is used avoiding the robot from the clash to any external devices (or) that is like walls, any obstacle which comes in its way. Here we are using the IR communications .the transmitter and the receiver parts. The transmitter produces the IR rays and they are received by the receiver section.

Dept. of ECE

7

ICET, Muvattupuzha

Mini Project Report 2012

OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE ROBOT

3. HARDWARE DESCRIPTIONHardware Modules: The Hardware modules of this project are: Microcontroller H Bridge Motors

3.1 MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52):The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit micro controller with 8Kbytes of in-system programmable flash memory. The device is manufactured Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 micro controller. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable flash one monolithic http; the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful micr

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