obstacle detctor robot report

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  • 1.IR OBSTACLE DETECTOR WITH VACCUMCLEANER ROBOTProject Report Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for The Award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication Engineering ofRajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (MP) ByHarish Bhute (0178ec091030) Mukesh Kumar Sharma (0178ec091048) Nikita Kaushal (0178ec091055)Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringJai Narain College of Technology & Science,BhopalJune 2012i

2. DECLARATION We, Harish Bhute , Mukesh Kumar Sharma, and Nikita Kaushal thestudents of Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics and CommunicationEngineering), Jai Narain College of Technology and Science, Bhopal herebydeclare that the work presented in this Minor Project is an authentic record of ourown and has been carried out taking care of Engineering Ethics under theguidance of Prof. Amit Sawaskade.Harish Bhute (0178ec091030) Mukesh Kumar Sharma (0178ec091048) Nikita Kaushal (0178ec091055) ii 3. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the work embodied in this Minor Project entitled IRObstacle Detector With Vacuum Cleaner has been satisfactorily completed bythe students of final year, Mr. Harish Bhute, Mr. Mukesh Kumar Sharma, andMiss. Nikita Kaushal. The work was carried out satisfactorily under thesupervision and guidance of the undersigned in the Department of Electronics andCommunication Engineering, Jai Narain College of Technology and Science,Bhopal for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of degree of Bachelor ofEngineering during the Academic year 2011-2012.Prof. Amit SawaskadeProfessor and Project Guide,Electronics and CommunicationDepartmentApprovedProf. Ashok Agrawal Dr. B D ShuklaHead of DepartmentDirectoriii 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This gives us a great pleasure to express our deep sense of gratitude to ourproject supervisor Prof. Amit Sawaskade, Associate Professor of Electronics andCommunication Engineering for guidance, suggestion, support, help andconstructive criticisms throughout the period of project work. Without his ableguidance it would not have been possible to complete the project in time. We are greatly indebted to Prof. Ashok Agrawal, Head, Department ofElectronics and Communication Engineering for his keen interest in this work andtime to time guidance, encouragement and providing required facilities forcompleting the project work. We are grateful to Dr. Meghna Dubey, Principal,JNCTS for his guidance and critical comments which improved the quality ofthis report. Thanks are due to Dr. B D Shukla, Director, JNCTS for providingnecessary help and time to time necessary guidance in completion of this task. Then other faculty members, friends, etc, may be added accordingly in theacknowledgement to which the students want to acknowledge for their help andguidance in the project. Harish Bhute (0178ec091030) Mukesh Kumar Sharma (0178ec091048) Nikita Kaushal (0178ec091055) iv 5. CONTENTSDECLARATION iiCERTIFICATE iiiACKNOWLWEDGEMENTS iv1. INTRODUCTION 012. REWVIEW OF LITERATURE 052.1 Construction 072.1.1 Hardware Unit 072.1.2 Software Unit 132.2 Basic Parts Of Project 292.2.1 Sensors 292.2.2 Microcontroller 292.2.3 Driver 302.2.4 Motors 302.2.5 Blower 312.3 Problem Faced In Making Project 312.4 Testing 322.5 Applications 332.6 Future Scope By Improvement 333. COMPONENTS 343.1 Microcontroller ATMEGA8L 353.2 IC L293D 363.3 IC LM324N 373.4 IC 7805 383.5 Resistor 383.6 IR LED 393.7 Photodiode 404. RESULTS 415. REFERENCES... 426. APPENDICES 436.1 Datasheet 436.2 Program 48 6. LIST OF FIGURSFigure 2.1 Block Diagram of Project... 06Figure 2.2 IR Sensor circuit ... 10Figure 2.3 Controller Circuit... 12Figure 2.4 PCB layout of sensor18Figure 2.5 PCB of Controller Circuit ... 19Figure 2.6 Final PCB Layout... 20Figure 3.1 Microcontroller ATMEGA8L... 35Figure 3.2 IC L293D... 36Figure 3.3 IC LM324N 37Figure 3.4 IC 7805 38Figure 3.5 Resistor 39Figure 3.6 IR LED 39Figure 3.7 Photodiode 40Figure 6.1 ATMEGA8L Pin Diagram 45Figure 6.2 IC 7805 Pin Diagram 46Figure 6.3 IC LM324N Pin Diagram 47Figure 6.4 IC 293 Pin Diagram 48 7. 1. INTRODUCTIONRobotics is part of Todays communication. In todays worldROBOTICS is fast growing and interesting field. It is simplest way for latesttechnology modification. Now a days communication is part of advancement oftechnology, so we decided to work on robotics field, and design something whichwill make human life simpler in day today aspect. Thus we are supporting thiscause.Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design,construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application ofrobots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and informationprocessing.Obstacle detection and avoidance robots are intelligent robots whichcan perform desired tasks in unstructured environments by finding andovercoming obstacles in their way without continuous human guidance.In robotics, obstacle avoidance is the task of satisfying some controlobjective subject to non-intersection or non-collision position constraints.Normally obstacle avoidance is considered to be distinct from path planning inthat one is usually implemented as a reactive control law while the other involvesthe pre-computation of an obstacle-free path which a controller will then guide arobot along. A practical real-time system for passive obstacle detection andavoidance is presented. Robot Sensors are essential components in creating autonomousrobots as they are the only means for a robot to detect information about itselfand its environment. As little as one sensor is needed by a robot, thoughincreasing the number and variety of sensors tends to increase the robots abilityto get a more thorough understanding of the world around it. There are a wide variety of sensors available which are capable ofmeasuring almost anything, from environmental conditions (distance, light,sound, temperature) to angular and linear acceleration, forces and distances. The 01 8. first sensor often incorporated into a mobile robot is a distance sensor, which isusually in the form of an infrared or ultrasonic sensor. In both cases, a pulse (oflight or sound) is sent and its reflection is timed to get a sense of distance. Usuallythese values are sent to the controller many times each second. Robot Shop offers a wide variety of sensors applicable to almost anyrobotics project. If you are looking for a distance sensor, we offer them in avariety of configurations and optimal distances to suit almost any budget. If youare looking for a more professional solution for measuring distances, take a lookat our selection of scanning laser rangefinders, which are able to scan over >180degrees (and less than 1 degree of accuracy) in well under 1 second.IR Pair isused as sensor to detect the presence of objects. IR LED is used for detectingobjects.In this project mainly when ever robot senses any obstacleautomatically diverts its position to left or right and follows the path. Robotconsists of two motors, which control the side pair wheels of each and help inmoving forward and backward direction. Robot senses the object with help ofobstacle sensor. IR pair is used for detecting the obstacle. The two basic parts forworking with IR are the emitter and the detector. The emitter is typically an LEDthat emits near-infrared light. Infrared (IR) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelengthlonger than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible redlight at 0.74 micrometers (m), and extending conventionally to 300 m. Thesewavelengths correspond to a frequency range of approximately 1 to 400 THz, andinclude most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature.Microscopically, IR light is typically emitted or absorbed by molecules when theychange their rotational-vibration movements.Infrared light is used in industrial, scientific, and medical applications.Night-vision devices using infrared illumination allow people or animals to beobserved without the observer being detected. In astronomy, imaging at infraredwavelengths allows observation of objects obscured by interstellar dust. Infrared02 9. Imaging cameras are used to detect heat loss in insulated systems, observechanging blood flow in the skin, and overheating of electrical apparatus.IR LED IR detectors are specially filtered for Infrared lighted are notgood at detecting visible light. On the other hand, photocells are good at detectingyellow/green visible light, not well at IR light.IR detectors have a demodulator inside that looks for modulated IR at38 KHz. Just shining an IR LED wont be detected, it has to be PWM blinking at38KHz. Photocells do not have any sort of demodulator and can detect anyfrequency (including DC) within the response speed of the photocell (which isabout 1KHz).IR detectors are digital out - either they detect 38KHz IR signaland output low (0V) or they do not detect any and output high (5V). Photocellsact like resistors, the resistance changes depending on how much light they areexposed to.A photodiode is a type of photo detector capable of converting lightinto either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. Thecommon, traditional solar cell used to generate electric solar power is a large areaphotodiode. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except thatthey may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with awindow or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of thedevice. Many diodes designed for use specifically as a photodiode use a PINjunction rather than a p-n junction, to increase the speed of response. Aphotodiode is designed to operate in reverse bias. In this project we develop arobot such that it will be moving according to path assigned to it if at all there isany obstacle in between then the robot stops and change its direction. This sort ofproject is very much useful in the industries where the automat


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