occupational health hazards. chemical hazard physical hazard biological hazard ergonomic hazard

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  • OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • HAZARD AND RISKHAZARD- any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone under certain conditions at work.RISK- the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard.

  • WORKPLACE HAZARDSSafety Hazards

    working conditions where harm to the workers is of an immediate and violent natureresult in broken bones, cuts, bruises, sprains, loss of limbs, etc.the harm results in some kind of injury to the workerassociated with poorly guarded or dangerous equipment and machineryHealth Hazards

    working conditions which result in an illness

    exposure to dangerous substances or conditions, such as chemicals, gases, dusts, noise etc.

    often, latency between exposure and disease

  • CHEMICAL HAZARDS

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • Chemical HazardsRoutes of entry into the body

  • Chemical HazardsRoutes of excretionGastro-intestinal (feces)Renal (urine)Respiratory (exhalation)Skin (sweat, hair, nails)

  • Chemical HazardsClassification of Toxic Effects

    Local toxicity- occurs at the site of chemical contact

    Systemic toxicity- occurs distant from point of contact, may involve many organ systems

    Acute toxicity- occurs almost immediately (hours/days) after an exposure

    Chronic toxicity- represents cumulative damage to specific organ systems; occurs many months or years to have recognizable clinical disease

  • Chemical Hazards Health Effects

    Renal DiseasesRespiratory DiseasesSkin DiseasesHematologic DiseasesCardiovascular DiseasesNeurologic DiseasesCarcinogenicTeratogenic

  • Chemical Hazards

    EffectsChemical AgentIndustry/ProcessRenal Diseases: acute/chronic renal failureMercury, cadmium, chloroformBattery, chemical industries, pesticideRespiratory Diseases: Irritation, inflammation Solvents, ammoniaChemical industries Pneumoconiosis Inorganic dustMining, construction, sandblasting, coal CancerChromiumPlating, metal refining

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • Chemical Hazards

    Blood Diseases: AnemiaLeadBattery mfg., lead smelting Aplastic anemia BenzeneSolvent & soap mfg.Skin Diseases: Allergic/contact dermatitisPlastic epoxidesPlastic, varnish Acne Cutting oils, greaseMachine-tool operators Skin CancerArsenic, tarPetroleum refinery

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • Chemical Hazards

    Liver Disease: Acute liver toxicityCarbon tetrachlorideCleaning fluids, dry cleaners Liver cancer Vinyl chloridePlastics & vinyl chloride mfg.Cardiovascular Disease: HypertensionLead, CadmiumBattery mfg. & recycling AtherosclerosisCarbon disulfideDegreasing, dry cleaning ArrythmiasFluorocarbon, trichloroethyleneRefrigeration, solvent workers

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • PHYSICAL HAZARDS

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • Physical HazardsNoise

    Vibration

    Extreme Temperature

    Illumination

    Radiation

  • NOISETypes of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Temporary Threshold Shift (auditory fatigue)temporary loss of hearing acuity after exposure to loud noise recovery within 16-48 hrs

    Permanent Threshold Shiftirreversible loss of hearing

  • Other Harmful Effects of Noise

    HypertensionHyperacidityPalpitations Disturbs relaxation and sleep

  • Segmental Vibration:Health Effects:Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS)tingling, numbness, blanching of fingerspain

  • Whole Body Vibration:Health effects:FatigueIrritabilityHeadacheDisorders of the spine

  • Health Effects of Heat Stress

    DisordersClinical featuresPrickly Heat (Miliaria rubra)Pruritic rashHeat crampsCramps in the body, usually legsHeat exhaustionDizziness, fainting attack, blurring of vision, cold, clammy and sweaty skinHeat strokeCyanosis, muscle twitchings, disorientation, delirium, convulsions

  • Frostbite: reddening of skin, localized burning pain and numbness. Fingers, toes, cheeks, nose, ears are most susceptible. trench foot or immersion foot: numbness, pain, cramps, ulceration and gangrene.Health Effects of Cold Temperature

  • Inadequate IlluminationHealth Effects Visual FatigueDouble VisionHeadachesPainful irritation LacrimationConjunctivitis

  • RADIATION

    Non-ionizingUltraviolet

    Infrared

    Laser skin redness, premature skin ageing, and skin cancer corneal and conjunctival burns, retinal injury, cataractSkin and eye problem

    TypesSourcesHealth EffectsIonizingX-raysGamma raysCancer, congenital defects, death

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

  • Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations

    Agent / DiseaseOccupationColds, influenza, scarlet fever, diphtheria, smallpoxMay be contracted anywhereTuberculosisSilica workers, people exposed to heat and organic dusts, and medical personnelAnthraxAnimal handlers and handlers of carcasses, skins, hides, or hair of infected animals, including wool carpet processors and handlers.

  • Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations

    Agent / DiseaseOccupationRingworm (in horses, cattle, deer, pigs, cats, dogs, birds)Pet shop salesmen, stockmen, breeders of cats and dogs, and other animal handlersTetanusFarmers (spores in soil) or anyone in contact with manure.

  • Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations

    Agent / DiseaseOccupationPsittacosis (in parrots, parakeets, pigeons, ducks, turkeys, chickens, etc.)Pet shop personnel, gardeners, housewives, veterinary surgeons, and researchers.HookwormMiners, agricultural laborers, planters of sugar, tobacco, tea, rice and cotton, and brick and tunnel workers.

  • Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations

    Agent / DiseaseOccupationRabies (e.g. dogs, bats, rats, pigs, cats)Veterinarians, letter carriers, laboratory research workers, agricultural workers.FungusFarmers, outdoor workers, animal handlers

  • Body Fluids with High Viral LoadBloodSemenVaginal and cervical mucusBreastmilkAmniotic fluidCerebrospinal fluid

  • ERGONOMIC HAZARDS

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • ERGONOMICS

  • Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS

  • Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS

  • Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS

  • Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS

  • Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS

  • STRESS

    BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

  • STRESSManifestations of StressPHYSIOLOGICAL Heart rate Blood pressure Indigestion

    BEHAVIORAL Drug use Alcohol intake Heavy smoking Impulsive emotional behavior Poor work & family relationship Social isolation Family abandonment Sleep problemsPSYCHOLOGICALFatigueAnxietyTensionIrritabilityDepressionBoredomInability to concentrateLow esteem

  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

    BOSH Training 2009BOSH Training 2009

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