ocean ecology and pollution. major ecological issues photic, aphotic zones all creatures in ocean,...

Download Ocean Ecology and Pollution. Major ecological issues Photic, aphotic zones All creatures in ocean, when dead, sink Movement of nutrients to the bottom

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  • Slide 1
  • Ocean Ecology and Pollution
  • Slide 2
  • Major ecological issues Photic, aphotic zones All creatures in ocean, when dead, sink Movement of nutrients to the bottom Upwellings bring nutrients back to surface
  • Slide 3
  • Shoreline issues Substrate type; sand, mud, rock Tidal exposure
  • Slide 4
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  • Figure 52.15 Oceanic Biogeographic Regions Are Determined by Ocean Currents
  • Slide 6
  • Areas of upwelling
  • Slide 7
  • El Nino effects on local weather Normal- currents cause upwelling along pacific coast upwelling brings nutrients to surface And cold water = rain
  • Slide 8
  • In el nino no upwelling, so No nutrient in water loss of fishery, and a lot of rain as surface water is hotter and condenses when coming on land.
  • Slide 9
  • Sea is warmer in el Nino = more rain in winter as greater temp difference water to land. La Nina years are colder ocean = less rain. Remember, rain in winter when land is cold.
  • Slide 10
  • Major environmental issues Humans can have major effects on the ocean Directly (overfishing, etc.) Indirectly (global warming many of these issues are not quickly reversable, or are due to population pressure
  • Slide 11
  • Global distribution of coral reefs = warm water
  • Slide 12
  • Coral biology Grow in clear water No nutrients Harbor algae in their tissues- algae make Food need sunlight.
  • Slide 13
  • Zooxanthellae in a coral give coral color
  • Slide 14
  • Threats to reefs dynamite to get fish cyanide to get fish collecting coral siltation river runoff algal growth = nutrients global warming coral bleaching = predicted that the great barrier reef of Australia will die in the next decade warming and acidity. Note that Caribbean coral reefs already dead.
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  • Overfishing over use of ocean resources hard to census fish ( do it by catch) wasteful fishing methods food chain effects. If fishing effort goes up and catch goes down, the fish are in trouble
  • Slide 18
  • Antarctic whale catch. see progression; biggest to smaller whales.
  • Slide 19
  • How to regulate fishing. 1) establish quota for catch. result a one day fishing season everyone goes out and tried to catch as many fish as possible 2. establish quota per fishing boat can catch any time during a longer season better for safety and marketing 3. must be international agreement in most cases 4. prohibit all fishing let stock recover. What do fishermen do?
  • Slide 20
  • Marine reserve system areas where no fishing so good reproduction hope is it stocks neighboring areas where fishing is allowed.
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  • History of the pollock fishery off the Aleutians
  • Slide 23
  • Crab pots crab fishing dead
  • Slide 24
  • Alaskan Pollock
  • Slide 25
  • Another case of overfishing
  • Slide 26
  • Food chain effects; Steller sea lion eats pollock
  • Slide 27
  • Killer whale eat seals
  • Slide 28
  • No seals- eat sea otters
  • Slide 29
  • Sea otters eat sea urchins Sea urchins eat kelp if lots of urchins, kelp cut loose from bottom Young fish hide in kelp (kelp is a nursery area)
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  • Switch from long line (cheap mostly developing countries) To purse seine (more technology developed countries)
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  • Catch of wild tuna goes down, farming goes up. Problems with farming pollution of organics.
  • Slide 36
  • Salmon farming issues escape and mating with wild stocks disease to wild stocks waste discharge fish food The farmed product is generally softer in texture and is an unappetizing grey colour. The latter problem is overcome by the addition of pigment to the food in order to colour the flesh a more- appealing red tone. Although some indicate the addition of such pigments is not a concern in farmed salmon, high doses of these colorants can harm the human retina (Baker 2001).
  • Slide 37
  • Potrugese Man-o-war, a floating jellyfish
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  • Jellyfish are a main food of marine turtles.
  • Slide 40
  • Storm water runoff.
  • Slide 41
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  • year 3 years 10 years Blue = U.S. origin, Red = Japanese origin Plastics in the ocean
  • Slide 45
  • Where is oil shipped? Where is the ocean most dangerous? Oil Pollution
  • Slide 46
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  • International convention for prevention of oil pollution of the ocean Doesnt apply to small vessels Doesnt apply to navies Doesnt apply to acts of God Doesnt apply if crew or cargo in danger. Originally, only applied to coastal areas. Is self reporting
  • Slide 49
  • Requires ballast cleaning on shore, not in ocean Requires safety equipment at on-shore facilities Switch to double hulled ships Allows damages for oil spills.
  • Slide 50
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  • Exxon Valdez 10.8 million gallons of crude oil
  • Slide 53
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  • Algal bloom in warm water and nutrients
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  • Solutions to sewage issue Give tertiary treatment (too expensive) Dump further out to sea Storm water runoff totally untreated still a problem. So; dump chlorine into ocean kill bacteria.
  • Slide 67
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  • Malibu La wants to add them to the sewage system, at a cost per household per hookup Malibu incorporates so as a separate city, they dont have to join the sewage system
  • Slide 69
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  • Enteromorpha (mermaids hair) as an indication of poor water quality.
  • Slide 71
  • Species diversity of algae in So. Cal. 1900 60 species 1960 27 species 1970 - 11 species Still clean on outside of Catalina, Inshore no so clean
  • Slide 72
  • Why are nuclear plants usually near water? Effects??

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