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<ul><li><p>N 4TlOhAL P A K h S ASSUCIA'I'ION 1. </p><p>O F T H E </p><p>AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY </p><p>"A National Park for the National Capital" - ~~ ~ ---- - -- - - - . </p><p>VOL. 1 No.2 June - July 1963 Subscription 6 / - ~~~~ ~- ~ - - - ~ - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - </p><p>pres ident : BurbidgeDr. B u r b i d B u r b i d g e g e ~ e T r e a s u r e r : Mr. Roy Tait. Box 73 P, 0, Manuka Secre ta ry : M r s A. J. Brand, Box 457 P. 0. Canberra City </p><p>-- --- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---- ~ ~-~ </p><p>As a n association, we a r e now approaching the end of our 3rd. year of existence. The annual meeting will be held on the 23rd July. I t i s mos t important that a l l members attend. Included in the agenda will be the election of office b e a r e r s , a r epor t on our National P a r k proposal and the selection of an association emblem. Don't forget that nomination of members for official positions in the association mus t be in the secre ta ry ' s hands no l a t e r than Tuesday L6th July. </p><p>The association now has a private mai l box at Canber ra City Pos t Office. Box number 457. </p><p>Pos t e r Competition In an effort to make children and adults aware that a l l native </p><p>f lora and fauna i s protected in the A. C. T., a poster competition will be held amongst school children during "Conservatinn Week" - 29th July - 3rd August. </p><p>The winning pos te rs will be displayed in the window of Cheshires Bookshop and i t is a l so hoped to display many other pos te rs i n Civic Square on Saturday 3rd August. Pr inted poster announcements will be sent to all schools. If you could help publicity by having the advert isements placed in shop windows, o r requi re m o r e information about this competition, please contact the Publicity Officer, Mr. A. J . Brand, 11 Dyson Street , Lyneham. </p></li><li><p>The follow in^ is a c o m m e n t by Dr. A. Costin. </p><p>The dec i s ion of New South Wales Cabinet not to oppose the ens inee r ing works of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Elect r ic Authori ty in the Kosciusko IPrimitiveP r A r e a i v e A r e a c o m e s a s a s u r p r i s e and a disappointment t o national pa rk suppor te r s . F o r the P r i m i t i v e A r e a i s s u e i s impor tan t not only i n the speci f ic c a s e of Kosciusko, the l a r g e s t of A u s t r a l i a ' s national p a r k s , but a l s o a s a p receden t f o r m o s t o the r p a r k s t h r o q h o u t the Common- wealth. </p><p>It now s e e m s c e r t a i n that p a r t s of the unique Kosciusko l andscape , which h a s no subst i tute on the mainland, will be modified by hydro-e lec t r i c developments f o r which t h e r e a r e o the r cheaper a l t e rna t ives . This is unfortunate news,. But t h e r e have a l s o been gains , both a s ac tua l ach ievements and a s l e s s o n s f o r the f u t u r e , and i t i s profi table to look a t s o m e of these . </p><p>'The S. M. H. E. A. h a s p romised to e x e r c i s e a l l poss ib le c a r e in the rehabi l i ta t ion of d i s tu rbed a r e a s and i s p r e p a r e d t o cons ide r replac ing sec t ions of the pipe-line aqueducts with s h o r t e r tunnels. It h a s a l s o offered t o a s s i s t i n obtaining sc ient i f ic d a t a f r o m s i t e s which w i l l be effect ively des t royed . </p><p>More impor tan t ly , a l a r g e sec t ion of the public and m a n y poli t icians both in State and F e d e r a l s p h e r e s have h e a r d the p h r a s e "p r imi t ive a rea" f o r the f i r s t t ime . It is being r e a l i s e d that the management of unique and outstandins l and- s c a p e s e s s e n t i a l l y i n the i r p r i m e v a l condition i s in s o m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s the b e s t poss ib le type of land use on account of t h e i r scen ic , sc ient i f ic , cu l tu ra l and insp i ra t iona l values. In i t s r e p o r t t o the P r e s i d e n t and C o n s r e s s i n 1962, the Outdoor Recrea t ion R e s o u r c e s Review Commit tee of the United States e n d o r s e d the " P r e s e r v a t i o n of scen ic a r e a s , n a t u r a l wonders , p r imi t ive a r e a s , and h i s t o r i c s i t e s of national significance" and u r s e d a s i t s f i r s t recommendat ion tha t F e d e r a l Government should accep t th i s ro le . In Aus t ra l i a t h e s e m a t t e r s should a l s o be F e d e r a l r e spons ib i l i t i e s and i n the light of Kosciusko we should examine how such object ives migh t be achieved. </p><p>The s u c c e s s of the e n g i n e e r ' s c a s e in the P r i m i t i v e A r e a c o n t r o v e r s y h a s e m p h a s i s e d the impor tance of good "public re la t ions" and sound organisa t ion. Ready a c c e s s to a l l </p></li><li><p>3; important newspapers and d i rec t min is te r ia l representat ion a t the Federa l level have ensured wide and favourable publicity for the S. M. H. E. A. Hundreds of thousands of pounds have been spent in "selling" the Snowy Mountains Scheme to the Australian taxpayer and i n convincing him that his money i s being spent wisely and well, Tha claim that engineering works in the Primit ive Area a r e essent ia l therefore finds ready acceptance, despite considered scientific s ta tements by the Australian Academy of Science and unbiassed economic appraisal i n l a s t issue of the Current Affairs Bulletin that the continuation of the Upper Snowy works m a y not be in the best national interests . </p><p>By contrast , national park opinion is poorly organised and has no minis te r ia l representation ei ther i n New South Wales o r i n the A. C. To In the Primit ive Area controversy only a small fraction of the l e t t e r s sent to the newspapers was published and none of the edi tor ia ls which appeared adequately represented the Primit ive Area case. Fo r example, the fact that the Primit ive Area was proposed a s e a r l y a s 1946, yea r s before the advent of the S. M. H. E. A.. was never given publicity, and the probability that thermal power could be produced for half the cost of Snowy power has been ignored. </p><p>Better organisation of national parks opinion, sound national parks legislation, and full minis ter ia l representat ion a t State and Federa l level should be pr ime objectives of National P a r k Associat- ions throughout Austral ia and in par t icular of our A. C. T. Branch. - The various branches of the National P a r k s Association, the Wildlife Preserva t ion Society of Australia, and other naturalist </p><p>. t organisations co-operate on many issues . But to a considerable </p><p>extent these groups work independently of each other on m a t t e r s of national concern as well a s on their m o r e local problems. Regular meetings among group representat ives should be held to formulate national objectives, and a federal executive should be appointed t o publicize and work fo r these a i m s through the p re s s , radio, </p><p>d television and special publications a s required. Among the main objectives of the executive group would be </p><p>the enactment of national parks legislation in those s ta tes including the A. C. T. which a t present possess none, and the standardization of legislation throughout the Commonwealth according to modern standards. Such legislation would protect national parks to the extent that only another ac t of parliament o r an amendment to a n ac t could admit non-conforming uses. </p></li><li><p>Full min is te r ia l representat ion should be sought s o that the use of land for national parks and nature r e s e r v e s i s given the s ame s ta tus a s the more conventional uses such a s agr icul ture , grazing, fo re s t ry and engineering development. In this move we should be m o r e far-sighted than the other main u s e r s of land by working a l so for the establishment of a Bureau of Natural Resources with the responsibil i t ies of evaluating land use on a national bas i s and defining pr ior i t ies in specific regions. </p><p>Unless we can achieve these objectives the Kosciusko experience will be repeated and national parks will r ema in the Cinderellas of land use. </p><p>&gt;*:kk:g \k* *at**** </p><p>A Proposal f o r a National P a r k in the A. C. T. </p><p>After s eve ra l months of expiatory work i n the Cudgenby Kelly a r e a collectins evidence and preparing maps and inform- ation, the proposal for a National P a r k i n this a r e a was finally collated and presented to the Minister for the Inter ior e a r l y in June. </p><p>The boundary of the suggested a r e a commencing a t Mt. Kelly, follows the Cotter catchment a r e a boundary, towards Cotter Gap, turns and encompasses Mt. O r r o r a l a t approx. 4 , 000 ft. , cuts a c r o s s Rendezvous Crk. to Middle Ck. past Yankee Hat a t approx. 3 , 5 0 0 ft. to Bogong Ck. then in a s t ra ight line past Gudgenby a c r o s s Naas Ck. and over Sentry Box Hill to the A. C. T. IN. S. W. Border. The border i s then followed back to Mt. Kelly. The initial a r e a proposed includes only leasehold property. </p><p>One of the f i r s t tasks was to define what we understand by the t e r m "National Park" a s there i s some divers i ty in the definitions and interpreta t ions of the t e r m i n different places and different countries. The definitions we a r e using for our purpose a r e a s follows:- </p><p>The express ion "National Park" shall denote an a r e a 3) placed under public control, the boundaries of which shall </p><p>not be a l te red nor any portion be capable of alienation except by the competent l e ~ i s l a t i v e authority. </p></li><li><p>b) Set aside for the benefit and en'joyment of the general public a s f a r a s this is compatible with the propagration and protection, of wild animals and wild vegetation and the preservat ion of objects of aesthetic geological, prehis tor ic , his tor ic , archaeological o r other scientific interests . </p><p>c ) i n which the hunting, killing o r capturing of fauna and the des t ruc- tion o r collection of f lora a r e prohibited except under the control of the park authorit ies and then only for bona fide scientific purposes. </p><p>The above definition i s based on one given in the Report of the Secre ta ry General of the United Nations Economic and Social Council i n the 3 l s t Session (1961). </p><p>The Summary provided a s a preface to the text of the proposal outlines the points ra i sed in the text and i s given i n full below: </p><p>The t e r m "National Park" i s defined ( a s distinct f rom municipal r e s e r v e s o r formal parks). World opinions of the need for and value of National P a r k s a r e given. The his tory and growth of the concept a r e touched upon f rom the creat ion of the f i r s t national park in the U. S.A. i n 1872 to the prest ige and importance of the national parks of the present day. </p><p>The pressing need for a national park in the A. C. T. i s pointed out i n the light of the expanding population, the present inadequacy of locally available r e s e r v e s , and the distance of even the nea res t r e s e r v e s in N. S. W. A proposal is made for the creat ion of a national park of approx. 36 sq .mi les among the mountains in the south of the A. C. T. near Gudgenby and about 40 mi l e s f r o m Canberra. </p><p>As the creat ion of a National P a r k would entail legislation t o ensure the protection, administration, maintenance and management of the a r e a , these aspec ts a r e t rea ted in some detail. The policies and expenditure of some of the s ta tes a r e se t out for guidance and the view put forward that the park could be developed gradually t o avoid the imposition of a heavy financial s t ra in . I t i s pointed out that the financing of a national park i s a government responsibil i ty and that a high s tandard in the facil i t ies i s a basic requirement. </p><p>The scenic beauty and the natural his tory of the proposed a r e a a r e outlined and attention i s drawn t o the aesthet ic and scientific values. Notes a r e provided on the b i rds , mammals , plants, f r e sh - water invertebrates , entomology and geology. The text of the prop- osal was supported with maps , appendicies covering natural his tory and photographs. A copy of the full proposal will be available a t meetings for inspection by members . </p><p>Miss J. Henry Convenor-National P a r k Proposal Committee * -. - </p></li><li><p>- - - - - -- - - -~ </p><p>- </p><p>-- </p><p>6. PLANT NOTES - by Dr. N. B u r b i d g e </p><p>EYES OK NO EYES? No. 2 </p><p>In the A. C.. T. t h e r e a r e two common s p e c i e s of mis t l e toe growing on yunltrees. . Both .ire s p e c i e s of the yenus Amyema (A-MY-E-MA) though i n s o m e books they a r e placed i n the genus Loranthus . Both have l e a v e s shaped l ik: those of the hos t t r e e but the l e a v e s a r e opposite ins tead of a l t e r n a t e on the s t e m s . If you look c losely you will f ind that the </p><p>f l o w e r s ( o r buds)in the a x i l l a r y c l u s t e r s a r e a r r a n g e d in t h r e e ' s . In one kind the c e n t r a l f lower of e a c h s e t of t h r e e h a s no stalk. This one i s ca l led A m y e m a pendulus ( s e e ske tch A). It was ca l led "pendulus" becanse of the way the s t e m s and the l e a v e s hang down but a s the second kind grows the s a m e way th i s c h a r a c t e ; does not help t o s e p a r a t e them. In the second kind a l l the t h r e e f lowers i n e a c h group have l i t t le s ta lks . Th i s s p e c i e s i s cal led Amyema miquel i i ( s e e ske tch B.) Somet imes plants f lower out of s e a s o n but </p><p>even if you cannot find ful ly grown f lowers yo11 will be able to s e e the d i f fe ren t c h a r a c t e r whil only buds a r e present . A th i rd kind of mis t l e toe grows on she-oaks. h a s n a r r o w l e a v e s l ike thick need les and the f l o w e r s a r e s m a l l and covered with g r e y h a i r s After the peta ls f a l l off the f r u i t containing the seed b e c o m e s f l e s h y and st icky. When r ipe i t m a y become s tuck to the beak o r f e e t of b i r d s that feed i n mis t l e toe and i n th i s way be c a r l :.; t o another t r e e . If you br ing s o m e r ipe s e e d home you will find i t s t a r t s to grow s t ra igh t away and does not need to wait until i t i s wet. So when a b i r d r u b s one off on to a branch i t s t a r t s to send a roo t into the b a r k quite quickly. </p><p>N. T. B. </p><p>-- -- -- - p-~ ~ - - - - -~--A - - -- -. </p></li><li><p>MEETINGS </p><p>J U N E - Date : 25th June at 8' o 'clock </p><p>P l a c e : Ins t i tu te of Anatomy </p><p>F e a t u r e : Gues t Speake...</p></li></ul>


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