on procedures & operations: a dialogue with some basic programming concepts

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On procedures & operations: a dialogue with some basic programming concepts. SM2220 Generative Art & Literature January 23, 2006 Linda Lai. I. Review. 20 th -C art innovations: generative art & literature review of Week 01 discussion. Openness: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • On procedures & operations:a dialogue with some basic programming conceptsSM2220Generative Art & LiteratureJanuary 23, 2006Linda Lai

  • I.Review

  • 20th-C art innovations: generative art & literaturereview of Week 01 discussionOpenness: -Demarcation of art/non-art and the boundary of a work is fluid: stretchable, modifiable, invites participation

    Emphasis on Concept-a work of art doesnt have to be about something in the world out there; it can be about thoughts and abstractions-what is actual what is possible what is virtual

    Dematerialized art-Process-oriented-Set of instructions that govern the process of the making of the work(significance)Role of authorship co-authorship co-creativity

  • 20th-C art innovations: generative art & literaturereview of Week 01 discussionSerialism as our first examplePermutation / combinationRepetition / variation

    Mind-mapping based on the collaboration of divergent thinking and lateral thinkingAutomatismRule-driven-ness

    *Execution / the procedures (todays emphasis)

  • 20th-C art innovations: generative art & literaturereview of Week 01 discussion[#slide 32-33 from week 01]TWO kinds of generative systems in 20th-C art history (Diane Kirkpatrick):

    Closed generative systems:-fixed pool of elements-in each work a closed analytic structure is set up which becomes a generator for exploration

    (2) Organic generative systems:A work begins with creating one word or idea and uses that to generate the next, and the next and so on(creating generators)

  • II

    Processes & Procedures:Conceptual Structured

  • Generating a possible / virtual workShifts

    more humanistic input in the creative process conceptiondesign of rules and procedures

  • What is Generative Art?

    Generative Art performs the idea as process.

    Execution / the proceduresDesigning the procedures and the set of instructions becomes the core activities

  • Algorithms: procedures in computingAlgorithm is the systematic procedures that computer science adopts to final correct solution to complex problems.

    Algorithm is a procedure for solving a problem in terms of:

    1) the actions to execute2) the order in which these actions execute

  • Setting workable procedures

    Generative principles the technical procedures

    Sorting out solutions for a problem doing the actual scripting with a certain programming language

  • Algorithms: actions in orderrise-and-shine algorithm[source: H.M. Deitel & P.J. Deitel (2005), C++: How to Program 5th edition, p. 121](1) Get out of bed(2) Take off pajamas(3) Take a shower(4) Get dressed(5) Eat breakfast(6) Drive to workConsider other sequencing possibilities and the qualitative change in narrative meaning, e.g.:(1) (2) (4) (3) (5) (6)

  • Algorithms: actions in orderSetting actions in the right order in a computer program is called program control.

    Structured programming:Concerned with sequential execution, that is, the execution of statements one after the other in the order in which they are written.

  • Actions in order: Structured ProgrammingBhm and Jacopini (1960s) demonstrated that all programs could be written terms of only three control structures for sequential execution:Sequence structure: about successionSelection structure (OR decision structure)ifa single selection statement (conditional performance) ifelse a double selection statement (conditional performance) switch a multiple selection statement(3) Repetition structure looping statements OR loops (loop-continuation condition) for () while ()iterationrecursion

  • III.Recursion? Iteration?preliminaries

  • Generating a possible / virtual workShifts

    more humanistic input in the creative process conceptiondesign of rules and procedures

  • An illustration of RecursionRecursion is one class of algorithms

    Recursion: the process of solving a large problem by reducing it to one or more sub-problems which are:Identical in structure to the original problems; andSimpler to solve

  • An illustration of RecursionHow to collect $1000 in a fundraising event in which coupons are printed at $1 per piece:

    One way to do it is to find one person who can donate the total amount

    [Source: Eric S. Roberts (1986), Thinking Recursively, pp. 1-4]

  • How to collect $1000One way to do it is to use an iterative solution:

  • How to collect $1000: a recursive solutionPrinciple: to break down the problem into identical, sub-problems that are simple to solveEnlist 10 people, each in charge of raising $100.Each person asked 10 volunteers who will raise $10 each.Each volunteer will find 10 others who agree to raise $1.

  • How to collect $1000: a recursive solutionThe use of recursion here is a divide-and-conquer method.

    The original problem divides to form several simpler sub-problems, which branch into a set of simpler onesuntil the simple cases [the simplest case(s), base case(s)]

  • How to collect $1000: recursive solution

  • More illustrations on the use of RecursionMondrian-like computer art

    1907-1914: Cubism (a modern art movement) flourished in Paris[nature should be represented in terms of its primitive geometrical components, e.g. cylinders, cones, spheres etc.]The Cubist community was dissolved at the outbreak of WWI ideas influenced and shaped the development of abstract art, e.g. works of Piet Mondrian, characterized by rigid patterning of vertical and horizontal lines.

  • Iteration? Recursion?Theres a Hole in the BucketTheres a hole in the bucket, dear Liza, dear LizaTheres a hole in the bucket, dear Liza, a holeThen fix it, dear Charlie, dear CharlieThen fix it, dear Charlie, dear Charlie, fix it

    With what shall I fix it, dear Liza, dear LizaWith a straw, dear Charlie, dear Charlie

    But the straw is too long, dear Liza, dear LizaThen cut it, dear Charlie, dear Charlie

    With what shall I cut it, dear Liza, dear LizaWith a knife, dear Charlie, dear Charlie

  • Iteration? Recursion?Theres a Hole in the Bucket (contd)But the knife is too dull, dear Liza, dear LizaThen sharpen it, dear Charlie, dear Charlie

    With what shall I sharpen it, dear Liza, dear LizaWith a stone, dear Charlie, dear Charlie

    But the stone is too dry, dear Liza, dear LizaThen wet it, dear Charlie, dear Charlie

    With what shall I wet it, dear Liza, dear LizaWith water, dear Charlie, dear Charlie

    But how shall I fetch it, dear Liza, dear LizaIn a bucket, dear Charlie, dear Charlie

    Theres a hole in the bucket, dear Liza, dear Liza,Theres a hole in the bucket, dear Liza, a hole

  • To be continued next week*Comparing iteration and recursion*Generative Grammar, an introduction

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