on the operation of daemons - psellos

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Demonology, Psellos

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Page 1: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

Page 2: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos
Page 3: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

Page 4: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

The SourceWorks of Ceremoninl Magic series:

Volume I - The Practical Angel Magic of John Dee's EnochianTables - ISBN 978-0-9547639-0-9

Volume II - The Keys to the Gateway of Magic: Summoning the SolomonicArchangels & Demonic Princes - ISBN 978-0-9547639-1-6

Volume III - The Goetia of Dr Rudd: The Angels & Demons of LiberMalorum Spirituum seu Goetla - ISBN 978-0-9547639-2-3

Volume IV - The Veritable Key of Solomon- ISBN 978-0-9547639-8-5(leather) also available as 978-0-7378-1453-0 (cloth)

Volume V - The Grimoire of Saint Cyprian - ISBN 978-0-9557387-1-5(cloth) ISBN 97 8-0-9557 387 -4-6 (limited leather edition)

Volume VI - Sepher Raziel: Liber Salomonis (English grimoire 1564)

- ISBN 978-0-9557387-3-9 (cloth) - ISBN 978-0-9557387-5-3

(leather)

For further details of forthcoming volumes in this series, editedfrom classic magical manuscripts see www.GoldenHoard.com

Page 5: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

(r;e; uo6 qllm) 1r1 aunlo1 - sluouroles raqlT :lalzeu raqdag

n atunlon - ruraFul sr^el3 - uerrd.,{3 }ules Jo arrourrrD aql

AI arunlon - uourolos Jo da; alqellra1 ar{I

III alunlon - ppnu rcl Jo erlaoD aqI

II arunlo1 - rr8e141 ;o iezvraleD aql o1 sday

I atunlon - salqeJ uerqf,oug s,aaq ur{ol rCI Jo rr8eyl la8uy lerr}rerd

aut4ua>l plaaQ Lfilm w)MS

drlauoaS parJes

drueruoaD Jo al)ero

[8rry srruer{ r{}lm] snrueper}soN

aJrlJerd pue droar{I ul drueruoag

[pattpa] d8o1or1sy s,daluvror3 ra]sralv

[drnrq ill^aN r{}lm] sexerqv roJ r{rreas

0002 asd.,(lerodv :sarraqdor4 tunnruallr17r1

[pal1pa] dalmor3 ra]sralv to sarrerq lerr8eytr

[8rU sr)uerC q]lm] rr8elq q8lff ;o sanbruqral

,,{ruetuoaC {q uor}eurlr q :,{3o1orlsv Ierr}sarraJ

[poodel ppuoc 'rC rl]lm] .,(.reuoqrrq uen{rouE a1a1duo3

lpal1pa] dqdosopqcl ]pmg Jo Toog {}rnog s,eddrr8y

ssedtuo3 InqS Suag aql ol aplnD

salqel s,uerlr8eytr ala1duof, aql

.rauutys uaqda$ fiq uo4rpatl Juatros7 unlsaM at4l uo s4oog raLfiO

Page 6: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

"It is said that nature or natural reason, persuades the sacreddemons, and in a word, all that proceeds from the God who is goodin Himself, to be beneficent."

- George Gemistos Plethon in his Commentary on the Chaldaean Oracles

Page 7: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

0T07,,

sslrud auvoH Nrra-roD

rauuDIS uaqdals

dq p"ltpg

uossqlo) snJrEIN

dq >1aa;3 pur8rro aql ruorJ palelsuerl

suourec Jo uolleradgaq+ uo anSoFICI

snllasd IaeqrIIAtr

Page 8: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

Published by Golden Hoard Press

PO Box 7073Robinson Road POSingapore 902123

www.GoldenHoard.com

First written in Greek circa 1050

First Greek & Latin Edition 161,5

First Published in English 1843

Second Edition in English 2010

@ May 2010 Stephen Skinner

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced orutilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includingprinting, photocopying, uploading to the web, recording, or by anyinformation storage and retrieval system, or used in another book,without specific written permission from the authors, except for shortfully credited extracts or quotes used for review purposes.

ISBN: 97 8-0-9557387 -2-2

Printed in Malaysia

Page 9: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

'lxal snll Jo anlen ar{l }no Surlurod lsrlJ roJ ra1eg tull ol sTueqldytr 'nrqeg rorlo{ yo zvrol ao7 ,{q }xal sFI} 1o Surlrpaqns Sur4elsuredpue palrelap aql pue 'dlrs.ranrun daupds ln sa4rnb4uv Jo runasnnuoslorlrrN aql Jo JJ€ls arn Jo ssaup;dlaq aql a8payvrou>Ire ol qsrm I

sluarrra8 p al.^v\ou>l JV

Page 10: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

Page 11: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

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Page 12: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

Page 13: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

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to aJJnos aql ag ol paullsap Jalel sean rt8eru aulluez,tg 'sla8ue ualleJpna dlpJrsurJlur se suoruap Jo rwall uerlslJr{J Ja}el aql pue 'atuasard

lenlrrrds Surprn8 lerJrJauaq e se uoruep ar{} Jo rvrarn leJrsselJar{} uaamlaq a8puq e :era aulluez'lg alel ar{} ;o dSolouoruep puedqdosopqd 'd8o1oar{} aq} pue s}xal JI}auraH pue JIlsouD 'rruo1e14-oaN uaamlaq a8prrq ar{} serw snllascl 'dldurs arour lI +nd ol rO

,,'JISelupue rusrr4sdu Jo plalJ aql q srrsselr ar{l aram }er{} $lro1v\ pu€ sror{}neaql 'sl lerll r'sapato uaaapvL!) a+l ol Jo n'uttlu.targ aUV aQ ,snlJord olu'pqsaSl aql pue snuerrrJv snqn{ o1 ,'aulatunH a:q+ pue snJslSausrr;sauJaH ol saJuaJa1ar due sa)Jnos aurluezdg ]uelxa uI pulJo1 1nd preq aq plnoM auo 'drnluar r{}ua^ala aq} ur sollasd Jo le^Irrear{l pue qlulu aq} ul zsor}oqd Jo alur} ar{} uaa/v\}a8 'ua}}o8ro1 se pooSse uaaq 3uo1 peq aJualsrxa asoqm $looq pue sror{}ne }lnrro yo dno.r8arrlua ue 'peap ar{l urorJ }sotule 'Treq Sur8urrq roJ alqrsuodsar seryr

aq 'dlpapueq-a18urs '1eql sr sollasd ]noqe 3u1ql dreurp;oerlxa aq1-,

,:d1;nq uqol dq dn paruruns dlleau sr uosear aqlZTrorvr arnrsqo raqler pue palralSau 3uo1 sn{l SuHsrlqnd aul,r. are dqm

uorlJnpoJlul

Page 14: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

On the Operation of Demons

Up until the arrival of the Arabs in the 7th centrny, tlne Byzantineempire was regarded as one of the strongest economies of Europe,particularly known for being the primary western terminus of thefamous silk road from China. Its intellectual legacies derived fromclassical Greek philosophy and mythology, Orthodox Christianity,and the long Greek occupation of Egypt, which brought with it a mixof Graeco-Egyptian magic. These influences later helped luy thefoundations for the Italian Renaissance, and also of the grimoiretradition.

Psellus was a man of great intelligence, serving as a political advisorto a succession of Byzantine Emperors. He became the leadingprofessor at the newly founded University of Constantinople,bearing the honorary title, 'Consul of the Philosophers', and was thedriving force behind the university curriculum reform designed toemphasize the Greek classics, especially Homeric and Neo-Platonicliterature, rather than Christian theology and apologetics. Pselluswas adept in politics, astronomy, medicine, music, theology,jurisprudence, physics, grammar, magic and demonology.

We are lucky that Michael Psellus (1018-1096 C.E.) not only wrotehistories of his own time, but also included a large amount ofautobiographical material as well. He was born in Constantinople toan aristocratic family which included members of the consular andpatrician elite. He was given the name Constantine, a family namewhich also recalled the Emperor Constantine, who made Christianitythe state religion of Rome. It is interesting that when he entered theBithynia monastery, he chose Michael, the name of the Archangelresponsible for controlling demons, &s his monastic name. Hereceived a classical, as well as Christian, education in Constantinopleand Athens. His teacher, john Mauropus, was well connected andenabled the young Psellus to meet with students who later becamePatriarchs (Constantine Leichoudes and John Xiphilinos), and evenEmperors (Constantine X Doukas).

For a while he served in the provinces as a judge, but his career was tobe primarily at the Imperial Court, punctuated by short spells in amonastery, when he was temporarily out of favour. Before 1042 he

12

Page 15: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

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'11 Iseg Jo u8ral arl] uoJJ 'aurl] umo ,snllasd Surpamrd drryual aqlSurrnp 'sassardrua pue sroradura auquezt{g uaaunot aq} Jo drolsrqe ;at4datSouottq3 slr{ q sTooq asar{} Jo umouT tsaq aqI 'pa^ras puedleuosrad zvrau>1 aq ruoqm 1o dueru 'sralnr aurluezdg aq] Jo sarJolsn{sH aram $lrom luegodur lsoru sH leq+ IaaJ duepsarro+srH 'I

t:s1v\olloJse pasrJo8aler aq ueJ d"ql 'palurrd uaaq lou aner{ pue ldrrJsnueurur ureruar s>Irom sIrI Jo due141 'snor8rpord sem 1nd1no dreralq ,snllasd

'960L se qrns satepra+€l pasodord aneq srelollrs ralllo q8noqlF 'gL1l ul IIA IaeqrIINJo IIeJ aql raue uoos palp snllasd lelll suearu uoqeruroFur Jo aJuasqe

s1{l }eqt >Iu1r{} srelol{rs ,{ueyq 'pasear all}erreu plqderSorqolnesH pue 'paue,nn ram,od prrlrlod sH uar{zvr sglgl-pp aql rulsroradtuil Jo uorssaJJns E anras ol panuquor snllasd 'fitOt) s€>lnoq

IIA Iaeqrlntr ot sauaSorq Al souetuo5 ruorJ urc8e ua{} pue 1(6991)

se>lnoc x auquelsuoJ puarrJ plo slr{ ol souauuro) reesl uorJ uar{l:tSOt ur souauuo) I reesl o] IA IaeqJrW ruorJ ramod Jo uo4rsuerlaql ur alor prrlrlod alrsrrap e Surdeld '[en aq] paqloorus aH

'aq lq8rur leqtJanaorl^nvr'qlreuour Suru8rar aql Jo sarlrrorrd aql Jo uorsuaqardde srq

Jo ssau>ltmb aql q8nor{} sl{} pa^arqre aq ler{+ dl"{ll arour sI ll lnq'rarapeg alrnJas e uaaq aAeL{ }snur aq s}Il alarqJe ol leq} p1es uaryosl lI 'pa8ueqo daql uaqm aruangur Ierqrlod sItI 8urso1 dlluareddetnor{}lm rosrnpe pcrlrlod Sur4uer-q8U e se sassardurE pue sroraduEanrssaJJns alJas ol alqe sem aL{ se qJnu se ur d;eurproeJlxa sr snllasd

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pau8rar) soqreruouory XI auquelsuo3 roradtug ol rosrlpe pt4qodFrluanlprr ue auro)aq ol dprder uoqrsod srtll ruory asor ap1 'drallaJueqJ

prradun aql q drela.rras e arueJaq aq aJarIM 'aldouquelsuo3 ol pauJryal

snllasd laeq)rlnl

Page 16: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

On the Operation of Demons

the "Bulgar-Slayer" (976-1025) till the 1070s. This work also includesextensive autobiographical material.

Historia Syntomos was another shorter historical text from his pen inthe form of a world chronicle.

2. A large number of scientific treatises on astronofir/, anatomy,medicine (one notable medical essay listed hundreds of symptomsand illnesses), music, psychology, geography (a topography ofAthens) and physics.

3. Philosophical and religious treatises. Of these, the present text, DeOperatione DemonLtm, is probably the best known. His commentaryon Aristotle's Philosophy, Peri Hermeneias was also well known. Hisstudies of laography, of old customs, particularly folkloric andreligious also fit here.

4. Texts on jurisprudence, stemming from his time as a provincialjudge, including a poetic compendium of law and an explanation oflegal terms.

5. Funeral orations (epitaphioi) over the patriarchs MichaelKeroularios, Constantine III Leichoudes, ]ohn Xiphilinos, and hisown mother.

6. Speeches and panegyrics often addressed to the ruling Emperor orhis current court patron. These included works against the Bogomilsand Euchites. His fascination with these heresies also surfaces in thepresent work.

7. Satirical and epigrammatic verse and essays, including didacticpoems on formal topics such as grammar, Greek dialects and rhetoric.

8. A fragmentary encyclopaedia, called 'Manifold Teaching'(D idaskalia P nnto dap e) .

9. Literary works like a paraphrase of Homer's lliad.

10. About five hundreds personal letters.

He was truly a Renaissance man equally at home with the intriguesof the court, or the subtleties of philosophy and religion (both paganGreek and Christian).

14

Page 17: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

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olur la8 lq8rtu srapear sn{ leqt Surureldxa 'spelap anr8 o+ paurlJapaq 'anlels e ur aJrl asnfur ol s1enlrr rr8rnaql +)arroJ aql pue (qr;nr{faql ,{q uodn paumorJ) d8o1or1se Mau{ aq leql Surllrrupe ailr{M'd8rnaqt pue dqdosopqd ue8ed 'd8o1or1se ul lsaralur snopaz ranosn{ JoJ pale)runruuroJxa }sotu1e sem snllasd }urod auo le pue 'ra1e1

aql uer{} JaqleJ JaruJoJ ar{l ul lsalalur ralear8 e peq aneq ol suraasaH 2,,'sarnldrns ueqsrJrlJ Jno ol paleurpJoqns a^er{ pue sapa,Lo

uaaappLl) aql urory ua{el a^eq I seapr asor{I,, se ruaql pasrJa}JeJeqJ

aLI q8noqlp 'saur4rop ueqsrJLIJ luaJal alour Vllrr,r, sraqdosollr{d

luarrue aLIl pualq ol paldurape qrlqm 3ur4u1ql sFI Jo prrddlsr luaruruoJ ]eql ',,8urqreal uerlsrJr{f Jo IInJ pue l)aJJoJ,, arc sapatoaql leqt '1sara1ur sry dlpsnf ol uoua alqaal e ul 'sluaunuor snllasd

r,,'sar+rurllp Jo aruasard aql Surperlle JoJ

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ol Japro ur sarlrap rrprads Jo sanlels pasn lsr8rnaql aql 'so11as4dq paqddns uorlerurolul o1 Surprorce ure8e'1en1rr;o adfi raqloue uI,,

:rr8eur 1o sanbruqJal aql L{}lzvr alaldar sr qJrqm uorldr.rmape ur d8rnaql ur lsaJalu ,snfiasd sau{}no dJJrC 'rr8eru aurlrpro d8rna4 pue 'slrrrds pue spo8 yo dqrrerarq'dSolorusor 'dqdosopqdIo arnlxnu s+I {lpt '(suerp{ orvr+ aq+ ot pa}nqrrile 'il'f d.rnluacpuoras aql errrr ruorJ 1xa1 e) salrato uaaappq) aql paroldxa snllasddleurg 'snlrord pue snqrrlquel 'drdqdro4 'snur1o14 slsruoleld-oau aLIl ol ruH peal allolslrv pue oleld ul lsaralur srH 'srar{dosopqdrruoleld-oau pue rruoleld aql pue spo8 ue8ed aql roJ pre8arqBU e peq snllasd 'ue4srrq3 xopolluo ue ll Jo areJ aql uo q8nor{tlv

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Page 18: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

On the Operation of Demons

trouble if they used it. He does however hint at the part perfumesplay in the process:

"From my reading of Hellenic literature I know that perfumes(aromata) give off a vapour which drives away evil spirits and whichat the same time restores to the materials affected by it the presenceof more benign spirits. In the same way, in other cases, stones andherbs and mystic rites induce apparitions of divinities."l

Such procedures designed to conjure apparitions of divinities comedirectly out of second century Graeco-Egyptian magical texts. Ritualsused to vivify the statues of angels (particularly the angel Michaelwho was worshipped as a god in his own right in Asia Minor) aresimilar. At a practical level it was sometimes difficult to distinguishthe two.

Magic and Miracles

Magic and miracles share the same techniques even if not always thesame sponsorship. It is not sufficient to distinguish them one fromthe other by saying one appeals to the aid of angels (or God) whilethe other appeals to the aid of demons: both utilise the help of'spiritual creatures' to achieve something outside the realm of theaccepted norm. 2

How then is one to distinguish between magic and miracles? This isa problem that has bedevilled the Church from the earliest of times.Even during the life of Jesus there were often disputes, as to thenature of his miracles, and to their source. One group of Phariseeswere of the opinion that ]esus utilised Beelzebub to perform hismiracles.s In fact it is not sufficient to say that miracles are done bysaints and magic by magicians, or even to claim that miracles havealways have beneficial results and magic not always so.

I Psellus, Chronographia,BookVl, chapters 65-67 as quoted by Duffy.2 The term 'spiritual creatures' is used in the sense Dr John Dee understood it: thewhole spectrum of non-physical creatures from imps, elementals, spirits, angels,and demons. -Ed.3 Matthew 12:24-27 records this event. Interestingly, Jesus did not deny that he useda dremon, but simply asked the Pharisees which demon they or their children used.

-Ed.

16

Page 19: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

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'panlonur,saJnlealJ lenlrJrds,aql Jo oruos le Tool sn la.I 'sllnsal Jo srseq al{l uo aperu aq }ouueJsalJernu pue cr8eru uaamlaq uorlJul+slp ar{l }eq} aJoJaJaq} realJ sr lI

2,,'srallr) pue slsruosJ€ Ined ']S to saldnsrp aql pue /pooJ Jo

raprno;d e araLl sem uerJr8eru ue8ed aql 'deu lr se leq] ag "'uaqleaqaram surr+Jrl aq+ aJurs parylsnl aq [r{1+uaredde] plnor v}eappue uoqJnrlsap aql aseJ su.{} ul 'dpre1ra3 'uenr8eru ar{l paraprnwpue sluelrqequr sll r{}yw areled e pauJnq s}ur€s aLI} :a^rlJnr}sappue IanJJ sem alJeJnu ueqsrJr{J ar{} 'lser1uor ,{g 'pearq aruospaleq dlalerparuurr rararros aql urer8 sn{} urorl ldon e pacnpordrnoq ue uqllm leql plal; e 8ura,tos pue Surrrnold 'allerru alrlearrpue aueurm{ e sTJo1v\ or{1w JaJaJJos ue8ed aLI} q I aryo ,sorledrsogpue uose{ ur 'ralsazrldg ado4 }noqe pua8al ar{} a>llpn ,'sr.,(1reruuerlsrJr{J aqi pue uenr8eru ue8ed e uaam}aq }sa}uoJ e sluasardartlJlrl^ Jo aposrda lerlual aql 'sorledrsog pu€ uose{ 'saldnsrps,lned 'lS Jo o,lr+ Jo ,tuopr,,fireur pue uila, uwoul-aplll e sr araql,,

'rrBeupue salJerrur uo aurl uer+srrll] IerlrJJo aql ol asolJ dran dlqeqordse^A qreordde rraql os pue '(LZ,9L suuwoy) uarusuDl slq tuar{}

IIeJ ol se JeJ os luam uana ol{.t,r 'lne.I }S }o saldnsrp arueJaq qloqf".ll 'V:02 spv ur pauorluaur sr or{',w raledrsos arues ar{l aq o1 lq8noqlsI aH 'aJaaJD ur erpeJrv uJaqgou yo ged 'ereqty 'et7e4 Jo anrleue sem sorledrsog 'lne.I +S se^r se (fa1rn1 dep urapour ro rourtrAIeISV uI) snsJeJ uoJJ sem uose{ 'sorledrsog pue uose{ ,saldnsrp

>laaJD anqJe lsoru s,lned lS Jo orq 1sn[ Jo suor]f,e aql ]e >Iool sn ]a-I'Lunrluezdg >1aar3 lo 'arrdtug uerlsrJl{J

uralseg aql ul areld {oo} sn{t Jo r{Jntu pue /af,ual aql Jo saprs r{loquo srauoqqrerd uaaMlaq uorlrladruor Jo lol e se1v\ araq+ (tl le Tool olr{slm nod dezw ranar{Jn{zw) usrue?ed;o sdep tsel aq} ro 'dlruepsln{fJo sdep ,{pea aql ur }er{} sr d1urc1rar Wlrr,r, ples aq ueJ }eqM

snllasd IaeLIrrN

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On the Operation of Demons

Demons

Demons are amongst the spiritual creatures that are involved inworks of magic, and possibly also in the production of miracles. Inthis work Psellus introduces a classification system of demons.According to Psellus, this division dates back to Plato and before.There are six different types of demons:

L. igneous (fiery).

2. aerial (airy).

3. terrestrial (earthy).

4. aqueous (watery).

5. subterranean (underground).6. heliophobic (those adverse to sunlight).

In this categorisation you can see the four classical elements, Fire, Air,Earth and Water, plus a further two categories of demons who 'fleethe light'. t This is much simpler than the Hebraic Kabbalistic orgrimoire division of demons.2 The classical Greek view however isthat the demons occupy the space between the heavens and earth,and are therefore sub-lurrdrf r or'under the Moon'.

The Platonic view was that each person had a personal demon, whoacted to help and preserve that person. With the rise of OrthodoxChristianity, the concept of a personal demon transformed itself intothe idea of the Holy Guardian Angel, a concept which re-appears inthe practices of the 19th century Golden Dawn.

A more wide ranging view is that they acted as messengers betweenman and the gods. Plato explains the special powers belonging todemons:

"They [the demons] act, as interpreters and conveyers of humanthings to the gods, of divine things to men. They carry the prayersand sacrifices of men, the commandments of the gods and theirresponses to the sacrifices: Occupying a place between the two, they

' Often referred to as lucifugous.t For which see Stephen Skinner, The Complete Magicians Tables, Golden HoardPress, Singapore,2006, Tables K and M.

18

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6T

'1 e8ed'1002 'fe1e>1,reg'ssel4 €ruroJrleJgo flrsrenrun'sarpog aqqns 'sree4 uelD e'sndggo

dtttqa {q eq feu 1nq 'o}eld ot pelnqrrne sr txe} splJ 'Bgg 6-AVg6'suuourdg'o}eld z'EZ1T, 'wrusodtu{g 'oleld ur uorssncsrp s6eeu€lue6 Jo eur}or6l sseJeos orlJ r

aql osp sem lnq 'Tdtl3a uI paleraual seM Iaer{)rIN 'sla8ue ,ualle!, loJo /suoruap

Jo Janpqns e se pasrJalJeJer{J aJaqmasla sr or{lvr'1aeqcq1qse1w lueuodru lsoru aql asaql Jo 'larrqeD pue laeqdeS '1aeqrr/q:parueu aram aarql dluo 'luawa$al pIO aql ur pauorluaur sla8ueal{l Jo 'rre pue arrJ Jo pasoduro) aq ol pres uauo ara1v\ daql uulfp a>ll-I

€'salnlEarJ leluapuaJsueJlasaql Jo aruereadde aql Jo saldtuexa asranrp Jo IInJ sr puelsoq rrla8ue ue Jo aJualsrxa aql 3ur1e1s ur le)olrnbaun sr arnldrng

:1r slnd sraad ualD sy 'sla8ue ol saruaraJar tllla,r alaldar sr alqrg aql

sTaBuy

7,,'spo3 arua.rdns aLI+ ol pue rar{}o qJea o1 Surqldranayo sralardralur se lre daql 's8uraq Surnrl Jo IInJ sr [p1.rozvr d.reunl-qns],(1s aloqrt ar{}"'rl3norq} la8 .,{etu [uorlero.tur ro .ra,,(erd ;o] spromlq8rr aql leql rapro ur .raderd dq parnouoq ,{lenads aq o} aroJaraq}sI [uoruep ar{}] }l :uorlelardra}ur Jo lua8e ar{} sr pue 'spo8 pueuaur uaamlaq uor8a; alerpaurJalur aql sardntro puDl-uoruep aqJ,,

:ESJAA

aJrA pue spoS aql ol uaur Jo spJoM aqt Jo uorlelardJalur Jo sruJalur snlels Ja8uassalu Jraql sureldxa raqunJ otelcl 'sttuoutdT aql uI

'olelcl ,,{q pauoquaur aJaqosp sr uorleurnlp pue rr8etu ur aJueuodtur JIaLIJ ',saJnlean lenlrrrds,Jo runnurluoJ e Jo ged ale suourep pue sla8ue ]er{} aas ure8ealvr aJaH 'po8 pue ueru uaamlaq sra8uassalu 'ale sla8ue leqm dllrexasI leql ]ng 'sJaSuassaru se suourap sazrJalJeJeql olelcl os Surop u1

r.'pulT-uourecl aql q8norql areldsalel 'daa1s ur Jo alels 8uqe,,rn e ur Jaqlaq,ra. 'spo8 pue uaru uaamlaqasJaluoJ 11e 'ueur e r{}Izvr uorlelal a}erpaururr ou ser{ po8 V 'rr8eu pueSururnrp 11e 'prom e ur lsuoqelueJur pue salrJ lerrlsdtu pue saJrJrJJes

Jo Ue aLIl 'slsarrd 1o 1re a{} 'suearu rrar{l ,,{q areld sa>le} uor}eurlrpilV'aloq,vr luaraqor e aq ol asralrun aloqm aql asner pue de8 e dn p;

snllasd Iaeqrrl

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On the Operation of Demons

most popular angel in the Byzantine world, and an object ofdevotion in a cult of the Archangel Michael which rose toprominence at Colossae (later Chonae) in Turkey. The early Christianchurch struggled with a cult of the angels which they feared mayhave allowed pagan worshippers to equate their old gods withspecific angels. St. Paul's Epistle to the Colossians was specificallydirected against this type of angelolatry. Michael Psellus howeverwrote a work specifically praising his namesake Archangel, andclaiming to feel his presence near to his shrine at Colossae or Galatiain Turkey. 1 The worship of angels was sometimes consideredacceptable, sometimes heretical.

The Church's attitude to dremons was that they only had powergranted by god to trick people into following them, whereas thepopular, and indeed magical view, was that demons had the powerto do things in their own right. The generally accepted Byzantineecclesiastical opinion of the day was that demons were angels whohad fallen or been banished from heaven, rather than Plato's mucholder view of demons as guardians or messengers between man andthe gods. Once you have posited 'war in heaven', with a number ofangels rebelling, and the angel Michael routing and banishing therebellious angels, then you have created the possibility of a dualisttheology. The most pervasive dualist theology that was current inByzantium at that time was Bogomilism.

The Bogomils

The Slavic word 'bogomil' simply means 'dear to god' , althoughsome have suggested the existence a founder of the heresy with thatname. Bogomilism arose in the mid tenth century in Macedonia,which was then under Bulgarian authority. Because of their violentrule, indignation and dissatisfaction were inevitable and this made ita popular movement which had an anti-church and anti-feudal bias.Its members repudiated church and state control and desired to livea simple modest life, rejecting the Old Testament and the works of

I Psellus, Oratio in ArchangelumHagiographicae ', edited E. A. Fisher,

Michaelem in Michaelis Pselli 'OrationesStuttgart & Leipzig, 1994, pages 230-256.

20

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IZ

lou plnor aq raJJo ue /queg sn{t Jo sruopSuH aq} ile lsrJtl] srat}o aqarar{,vr alqlg ar{} uI a8essed aW dq parurrfuoJ sr plrom snl} Jo ra}seru se

Iaeueles ;o aceld aql 'ueles se prom srql Surlelsuerl dldurrs dq sn1as4ol aJrlJassrp e auop ser{ Jo}elsueJ} aqt os pue 'ue1es lo(tnLnK lou'1aeue1e5 yhmrtntw sr uos uroq-lsrl} sF{l rot TaarD leurSuo aqJ 'pueq

lq8rr srq uodn pauon{lua les Surlaqar aroJaq oLIM 'raq}eC aq} poD

Jo uos uroq-lsrlJ aql se1vl Iaeueles leql palels dSoloqldru puroSog

'uotuolos lo ryawuqsalaql q readde qJIqM suoruap aql Jo aruos Jo suorssaJuoJ aql u1 dnpamolloJ sl sILIJ 'sluer8 aram Surrds;1o asor{uvr.'uaur yo sralq8nep ar{lr{lla,r aleru ol rlueg o1 Surpuarsap s1a8ue ar{} Jo drols aql sllal qrlqM'saapqn[ pue LIJouT I 'g snaua) ur punoJ aq ol 'uorlrper] rrerqaH p1o ar{l

'suotuep Jo uorlealJ aq+ JoJ uorleueldxa Jaqloue asJnoJ Jo sI alar{I

'uorBrlarxopot{Uo t{q paramsue dpsea lou uo4sanb e 'po? p;rarvrod-1eauo dpo sr araql;r ',are1d lsrl' aql uI Iaqar ol palvrolp sla8ue aql aramzvror{, pue ,8uraq olur auro) ol pamolle IrAa se,vr ,vrorl to suo4sanbaql sa^los qreordde srql 'po8 peq e pue po8 poo8 e sr araql leql slasrtuard ]s{enp Jrseq aqJ 'lsalatut alqeJaprsuoJ Jo Jailetu e uaaq aner{

lsnur sarsaJar{ asaql }o slooJ lsrpnp ar{l /suourep pue sla8ue r{loqur lsaJalur 8uor1s e r{lI1V\ auoauros Joc 'slnuoSog ar{l pue a}n{Jn!Iaql Jo salsaraq lslpnp aql dq pa+eurJse' uaaq aleq ol suraas sn[asd

'snllasd dq uodn pa>lreuar sarsarar{ }s1enpJo sallual ozvr+ aql SuFearJ snt{l 'eruopare14 pue aJeJr{J o} ruar{tpaloruar dlqnrol Orc-eg6) sa4srtur) ue^I pue (glt-TVL) ruruordo;,1

A aurluelsuoJ sJesl aql os pue alels aql o] leaJr{} e se uaas se1v\ l)assHI 'eruaurJv ur alrlJe sem 'srueDlrlled aql paueu 's8urqJeal ls{enpsrruery to sluaruala SurlerodJo)ur '1tas JrlsouD e ,{rnluar qlualasaql uI 'sarrnlual aarql TrEq >lool ol a^eq a1V\ areJr{I pue eruopaJelur qlSuarls sll roJ uosear aql pue dsaraq sFIl Jo ur8rro aql roC

'drolsrq

'o asrnoJ aql aJuangur

ol se1w rusrreqleJ araqM 'aluelg uraqlnos o1 dleurJ pue dFlI ol uaql'etusog pue elre8ltg lnoq8noJql ISJIJ peards ursrlruoSog 'urnquez,{gol palJ spuoSog Jo raqtunu e 'uorlnlasrad Jo asneJag 'sraderd

lsour pue't{.te11g urSrrn aq} Jo }lnJ aq}'slures aq}'sraqte{ r{Jrnqf ar{l

snllasd laer{rrlN

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On the Operation of Demons

credibly make if they were not his to offer.t Satanael eventually triedto assume too much power and was ejected from heaven.2

After the Fall, Satanael created the world, with all its plants andanimals. He formed Adam from mud, but failed to animate him. Heappealed to god the Father who animated Adam with the divinespirit. This neatly explains how the body can be from one god butthe spirit from another. As their bodies were evil by nature,according to this doctrine, few men ever reached heaven.

The Euchite on the other hand have three gods, the Father and twosons, one with power over heaven and the other with power over theEarth and material things.

Pseudo-Psellus

A number of scholars, like Bidez and Gautier, are of the opinion thatMichael Psellus was not the author of the present work, but anotherwriter of the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century (specificallythe Palaeologan period). Accordingly the author of this work issometimes referred to as 'Pseudo-Psellus'. I prefer to reservejudgement on that issue till proof is forthcoming, or at least a

concrete suggestion of another candidate for authorship is made. It isoften the case that unknown authors will affix the names of moreillustrious writers to their works in order to sell more copies. On theother hand, it is also the case that critics will dismiss a work as notbeing by a particular author simply because it does not seem/appropriate' or in keeping with their private image of that author.

There is also some confusion with a non-existent Michael Psellus theElder, the product of an unfounded academic supposition.

It is worth mentioning that Psellus's name in Greek Yel")"oq also leadsto his name being transliterated as'Psellos' which is perhaps a morecorrect transliteration, but here we will stick to the more familiar andwidespread Latinised'Psellus'.

' Luke 4:5.

' So-e Bogomils identified the characteristics of Satanael with the god of the OldTestament.

22

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€z

'sreruruns en8eluolN,(q pelrpe '67,6I 'uopuolpeluudeg '9291 'runlepdruoc ruelorpelN snr.ueN pe hsorqury 'S 'pro unrcc€nDtuelr€lN runcsrcu€rg ruo4€rC nd'rryuntndsuoc Dtpawa"t Dpuot!^ oll! po cn 'ocg[auaa.

o"tado ulnuawnq snua8 ut otutsstpur{au onb xg 'wntncgfa1o1y wrupuadwoS r

,uosrlloJ, se ]nq 'sareld o1v\] ur ,uossrlloJ, pa[ads sr aq /uoqe]Ilqnd

luasard arll Jo uorypa lsrlJ aql uI uanf 'sfea,r luaralJlp ozvrl ur palladssr arueu sn{ leq} Surxaldrad raq}er sI }I 'Surqreard 1e puer{ srq parr}uana aler{ deu pue /Jaqsrlqnd pue JaJn}Jal /Ja}IJ,vt e se paqrJ)sap semaH 'saleM ulnoS lly\aN pue erFrlsnv r{}nos 'puelsuaano 'Surpnlour(ua{l aram daqt se) sauolor uerprlsnv ar{l pue pueleaz zvraN ;o spedsnorre^ ur pa^{ pue '9L8T-TV8T errlJ paqslrnolJ uossIIIoJ snJretr\tr

n+aFua.LI aql

',uoruap, pJoM ar{} }o asn aq} Surprone dldor dqaraq+ ',,s1a8ue

rou slnos papedap Jar{llau'1aue1d slt{} Jo s}ue}Iqequl alqISIAur ar{1il uodlr.roqlne ue s€ slrparJ aq oqm ,,snllascl Iaer{)IIN 'uelrlodoul+ue+suo3Jruoleld ar{1,, se ru1{ o} sraJal aq alaqzvr. 'nut,tu1111 luanuv aq+ lo au!>IaqJ uraod lda sF{ uI snllasd Jo a}ou Too+ s,a8prralo3 roldel Ianues

'da11eaq14 sluuaq a>lII

sJalrJM uJaporu Jo uorlJrJ aql olur pue 'arnleralll UeJJqJllrw uJapouotul dezvr rraql punoJ aneq >looq leql ur (dreur8eur lI Jo qrnu)saqJlrm Jo sarlrlrlre aql Jo suoqdrnsap aq] Jo due14 'suollnrasradrlJllzvr drnluar qtLL aql ro; Tooqlxa+ e arueraq pue 'suourap

Jo uorldrnsap paJnseaur ,snllasd ueql JaqunJ r{Jnru luam }xa}s tozzen) lng 'suoruap Jo uorleJrJrsselJ aql uo uoqeruJoJur Jo aJJnose se snllasd pasn ozzer.1'aruoJ ol sarJnlual Jot sale4sr8etu puesJapurJ-rlJllm uodn aJuanlFur Surrnpua ue a^eLI ol sem leql arunlo^e ,'Luntac{ataW wnryuadLuoJ snorueJul aql aloJm or{rw uellry ruoJJ

lsarrd uerPll tJe 'ozzenD erJeIN oJsa)ueJc paJuanlJur osle snllasd

'snllasd

dq paumo ddor aql tuort palrrap aram lxal leql Jo sldrnsnueru>laarD drnlual qltl aq] Jo lsoru leql >lun{} ula}suaz}rau a>Irl srelor{)slJeJ uI 'tunJqatutag snd,to3 aql Jo uorssrusu€Jl aql ol pue 'seaprrruoleld-oau pue f,ruoleld Jo uorloruord srq ur lueuodrur sea,r snllasd

snllasd laeqrrlN

fica&a1 s,snllascl

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On the Operation of Demons

on the front title label. One has to assume that the double 's' iscorrect as it is more likely that he proofed the interior of the book,but did not see the cover label till it was too late, given the mechanicsof the book publishing process.

Collisson appears to have moved from Sydney to South Australiasoon after publishing the Psellus translation, where he published twobooks in 1844-46: A Description of the actual state of the Colony, of itssources of wealth, etc and The Miner's Manual, dedicated to HisExcellency George Grey, Lieutenant Governor of New Zealand.

This indicates rather a wide range of publishing interests, andpatrons. Collisson is referred to in contemporary documents as aneditor and publisher rather than as a translator. Maybe theambiguous spacing of the dedication to the classicist Dr Nicholsonon the title page suggests that the latter had more of a hand in thetranslation than Collisson indicates.

Collisson had originally been expected to become a vicar in theChurch of England, and would have learned Greek for that purpose.It may have been that Collisson even flirted with Baptist belief, as asnippet in a recent Australian publication suggests:

"David Mclaren left the colony in 1841 and the congregation splitover the 'close communion' issue. W. Finlayson, in whose home theBaptist meetings were first held, along with a group of others, wentelsewhere. Angas sent Marcus Collis[s]on to take over from Mclarenin the church, but he proved quite unsatisfaCtory."t

South Australia's first purely religious newspaper appeared in 1845.It was simply called Australiana, apparently founded by u shadowyclergyman named Milne, and printed by the prolific George Dehane.It was later taken over by Marcus Collisson, and much of the contentof those issues consists of tirades against Roman Catholicism. It istherefore ironic that later in his life, in 1,876, a newsletter records

I 'scotch Baptists, Church of Christ and Disciples' in The Australian Christian, 4November,1995.

24

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9Z

'uosred eru€s eql sr ll leql lqnop elnrl sr ereql erueruns eqlJo 3ur11eds eql eydseq'0I e8e4'9191 6eol9lrqo)

IZ'ZVI e8ueln4'gI Ir{€re6 'plqDJ puopaz uaN t

arolaraql se1v\ uosloqrrN '9t8I ur raTeadS palrala se,/V\ pue /lrJuno]

anrlelsr8al aql Jo raqluau e pa+rala sem aq ffi8L ur ralel sreadualas 'runasnlN uerleJlsnv aql Jo aalsnJl e aurelaq pue 'dueduo3lq8rlseS uerlerlsnv aql Jo srapunoJ aL{} Suoue sem aq 9EBL uI

'saruedruor derr,r.per pue Surddrqs r{sllqe}sa padlaq osle aH'suorlels daaqs Surqsrlqelsa pue >IJols pue puel Surdnq ol uoquallesq palo^ap aq 'Uleap snl uo dlradord s,alrun slr{ Jo lsour pallral{ul3urne11 'sal€M r{}nos ,vraN ur sJaArU ra}unH pue drnqsa>1meH

aql uo Jaumo puel allsualxa ue sem oqm 'q8norsy sauef urelde3'a1lun I€uraleru sF{ r{lI1V\ a^rl o} ,,{aupd5 rot pales aq read teqt ra}eT

'€€8I ur Surlenper8pue 'puoJas ur SunuoJ 'srnolor SurdlJ .I+l^ passed pue 'q8rnqulpilJo dlrsranrun aql le aur)rparu parpnls aH 'aJIr{$lJoA uI }uneuapreu e f,q, dn lq8norq seM aq pue '8unod dran sem ar{ uar{m palpsluared q+og 'slueq)raru aram raqleJ pue raqlou sn{ q}oq Jo saIIRueJ

ar{I 'pue18uE 'puepaqurnJ 'qJnoturaTloJ uI uroq pue uos dpoue sem aH 'uerJrsdqd pue Jeloqrs '1srn8ur1 'rolJalloJ 'uetussaursnq'rauanopuel 'uerusalels e se^,vr (gOOf-SOSf) uoslor{rrN salreqJ rls

uoslot{rtN sal.ta%)

'sa8en8uel Jo lsaldrurs aqt lou sr TaarD auquez'{g pue 'uossr11o3 ue{}JeloqJS >IaaJD IeJrsself, e se uorlelndar luaunuord arour q)ntu e pequoslor{JrN se dlenadsa 'uossrllof ,(q pale}s sem leql uorlelsueJl aq}ur pueq e Jo arour per{ aleq }q8nu uoslor{JrN }eql uonrdsns ar{} sasrJe

uorlerrpap slt{l r{}lM 'uoslor{lrN salreqJ rcl o} uossrllo] snrrelntr,.(q palerlpap 't{e*t a8ue4s JaLI}eJ e uI 'sem uorlelsueJ} }uasard aql

,,'uorssarSSy pde6,, uo lalqdtued e pauorluaru aq deu syom JarlreasH ls8uorue pue 'satrpnfard ]rloq]e3-l]ue 8uor1s V]lm pa]ernpasem aH 'pue18ug Jo rlrrnq3 ar{} to ra}sruRu e aruoJaq plnoqsaq leql papualu sem lI "*ll auo le pue /urlqnq 'a8a11o3 .,{1rurr;

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r :rusr)rloqlef ol uorsJa^uof, s/uossrllo] snJJelnl

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On the Operation of Demons

the unusual combination of 'man of affarrs' and scholar, as he wasdeeply interested in the classics, history and education.

Nicholson's name is indissolubly connected with the founding of myalma mater the University of Sydney. "It was said that Douglassmoved Wentworth, Wentworth moved the Legislative Council, andNicholson moved heaven and earth; and between them, finally, onthe 1st October, 1850, success was achieved, the Royal Assent wasgiven to the Act of Incorporation" of Sydney University. Nicholsonwas appointed Vice-Provost of the University from 1851 to 1854 andProvost (later Chancellor) from 1854 to \862. He further benefited theUniversity through his gift of the Nicholson Museum of Antiquitiesto the University in 1857. This museum focuses to a large extent onGreek and Egyptian antiquities, which were his passion.

Later he acted for some forty years as the university's agent inEngland, selecting staff and adding periodically to the library and tothe Museum of Antiquities. In the same year, back in England, hesecured for the University of Sydney a Royal Charter (1357) givingits degrees equal status with those of the old British universities ofOxford and Cambridge.

His interest in Egyptology is reflected in the Museum and artifacts hepresented to the University. In 1855-58 he was in Egypt,where hevisited many archaeological sites. He was closely involved with theEgyptologists Sayce and Petrie and supported the EgyptianExploration Fund. In the early 1BB0s he took up the study of Hebrew,to add to his knowledge of Greek and Latin, and in 1891 hepublished a handsome volume entitled ,E gyptiaca, Comprising a

Catalogue of Egyptinn Antiquities now Deposited in the Museum ofSydney.

He became a leading member of the Royal Colonial Institute, theRoyal Society of Arts, the British Association, and many otherlearned and cultural bodies. He was knighted in 1852, created abaronet in L859, and held honorary degrees from the Universities ofOxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh.

26

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LZ

'lnoq8noJql sa+oulooJ ueruo1 satull q4rr,r en8rluy {oog uI palapuaruaaq seq lxal ar{} aslmrar{tO 'paqsrlqnd lsrr; sem uollelsuer} aq} uar{tvr

"-Il aql le uorlrnpord >1ooq Jo rnolelJ aql anr8 o1 'alqrssod se dlasop

se ol paraqpe uaaq seq a8ed allll pur8rro ar{t Jo dqderSodft aq1

'Surpear Jo aseo alelrlrJeJ ol parnpoJluldlluaps uaaq aleq sTearq qder8ered aruog 'lxal leut8rro ar{} ul aramdaql se '1uoy ueruo5 ureld uI Ual dldrurs ro sTreur alonb uI pasolJuaSuraq ue{} raq}er 'dltrep roJ paslJrplr d1pf,I}euralsds uaaq a^eq sallp>Ioog 'Jolelsuerl a{} dq ro Joupa aql ,{q suorsuedxa qJns uaamlaqaperu uorlJurlslp ou sr alaqI 'drnluar r{luaa}auru a{l ur aJaM ,{aqluet{} Jamol qJmu arp uol}eJnpa Ie)ISSelJ }o spJepuels ar{} se 'paluer8JoJ ua>Iel aq rwou ueJ slJafqns qrns yo a8palmouT ssal se 's1a>perqarenbs ur suorsuedxa r{Jns aJour paJnpoJ}ul seq Jollpa luasardar{I '}xa} aq} Jo Surpuelsrapun IInJ e ro; dressarau lq8noqt lnq />laarD

pur8uo ar{l ul lou sprom aleJrpq o} rolelsue4 aq} dq parnporlulaJaM sla>l)eJq arenbg ,'pi1-, Jo uoqrppe ar{} dq palerlpul aJe Jo}Ipa

luasard aql dq paJnporlur saloulooC 'qoquds ra88ep ro $Islralse,{q palerlpul Suraq uet{l raq}er paraqunu are sa}oulooJ }eql ldarxaaram daql se dllrexa parapuar uaaq aleq rolelsuer+ aql dq saloulooC

snllasd Iaer{rIIN

suo4uaauo3 3u4ry7

Page 30: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

Page 31: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

6Z

'suoruap Iorluor ol raMod aql qlllvr palrparr ueaq sdElv\I€ seq pSuEqrrv slqJ.'rern6l tqrerqlv dq uo8erq aql lsup8e tq8g s,laeqr[Atr '+S la8ueqrry aql

%".m *p $p{ffi*

Page 32: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

Page 33: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

'IIITXCJSAIAI

rufit'rffif

'peq eq ,{eul {Jo.^r. eq} tuoqlA Jo.gJICCO.ISOd IIHI iIIISOddO .EJICCO.SV-IIV IIHI IV .HJTfl1Y\ .T .CI

Ag CIIIINIUd

CINV.UENOIJVIS CINV US-IT!IS)OOg .DDIIJ

SiIruVf Ag CIEHSI-ISNd

:AENCIAS

firfiFffi+

.NOSSITTOJ SNJUVIAI

Ag

, S EIOT{ HII/K CIEI\ilUJ SfITTI

CINV

.)EitT[D TVNIDIUO IIHI I^IOUC

H S ITOITfl OIN CIEIYT S T{\ilUI,EIAtrII

JSUIC EHI UOC .A\,ON

lgr{oruvaf,o Nrorrruf,doEHI NO

ENOOTVIC .SIITTESd

Page 34: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

The Translator is willing to devote a few hours daily to privatetuition. His course of instruction would include, besides theClassics, a general English Education. Communications addressed toMARCUS coLLISSoN, may be left at either Mr. Tegg's, Bookseller,Mr. Welch, Printer, opposite the Post-office, or Mr. Sands, Print-seller,George-street, [Sydney].

Subscribers are informed, that owing to the work being enlarged byadditional matter in the Introduction and Notes, the price will beTwo Shillings.

[Original advertisement in the 1843 first edition]

32

Page 35: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

ccQQ

'NOS-tOHf,rN SE-IUVH:)'UC

.UOJV-ISNVUJ IIHI

'luenragalqtunr{ }uarpaqo pue pa8rlqo rno1

'rIS

'aq ol Jnouor{ aql aleq I'roJ IIeJ ol tuaas slduane dreralrl lsrlJ qllqm aruaSlnpur leql pualxa

IIIM nod Surdoq 'luatu8palmou>lJe 1n;a1er8 Jo ua>Io] araJurs lnq'1eurs e se 'suoLune uo anSo\urc ,snllascl Jo uoqelsueJJ sFIt aleJrpapol aru aJnpur 'arnleralrl IeJauaB ;o luatua8ernoJua umouT-llam rnodpue 'aqo13 aql yo dlnuarlxa sql 1e ra8uerls e ol ssaupurT rno1

'dIS

'wgL 'finruqa7 'fiauplig

Page 36: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

Page 37: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

9g

'u€rrotsrq pue reloqcs e se,^A ('g'C ESI I-t901) eueuuro) euuv z'pE - ('iI'J 0601'c - VL01'c) ro;edrug-oc eurluez(g ,

'elrqrnE ar{} Jo s8urpaarord lanas dreurpJoeJ}xa aq1 dlalnulu }soruSuqrelap slr ruorJ Suqsaralur raqunJ sl ]I 'anrlrsrnbur dran sallastuaqlumoqs dleraua8 aneq purTueru qJlr{rll. uo 'lrafqns s]r dq se IIaM se

'aJrels dlSurpaaJxa lvt.ou Suraq 'dlrsorrnr dreralrl e se Su4saralul sI lI,'{oog uaploD al}tlT aqJ, 'al}ll alqernouoq ar{} wlm snlr{ueg paurealar{l dq paqsrn8upslp sem pue '090I lnoqe 'C 'V uanrrm sezvr (ssarpqsrlSuE ue ur paqs{qnd au4 }srlJ aq} roJ r,r.ou) Trozvr ar{I

,,'suorlJnpord snorua8urpue paurBal Iera^as ur palerlsnllr pue paqsrllaqua aq qr}{,\'al+olslrv ;o tualsds aql .,{Felnrrlred pue 'dqdosol}Id Jo dpnls aqluaurdrlunoJ sn{ o1 {lurem papuaruruoJal ueur lear8 sILIJ 'a8e srq uru1v\ouT aJaM ler{l uoFrpnra Jo spuDl snorJe^ aq} ile ur pasJan dldaappue 'lradsar drana ur snorrlsnlll ueru e 'sn11ascl Iaer{JrI I selvr drnluarqtua^ala aLI] ul sralla-I ;o rrlqndau aql Jo ]uarueuro lsalearS aql lLB.,,

-:rluo1v\ slr{ol alnqr4 SuranolloJ aql s{ed 'uerrolsn{ IeJqsersalJJa aql 'rulal{sontr'8uog s,uoruolos pue stulusrl lo 4oog" ar{} uo sarJeluaruuoJ pue'fi4doso1nld s,aI+olslrv Jo uorlrsodxa ue aloJm aq's1"rol JaLIlo aprsafl

('^ 'ql 'sopamaly) srxaly roradura aq+ Jo ralq8nep 7'euauluo3 euuy dqrup{ uo passed tunrSolna aLIt ruoJJ sreadde se 'ylastuFl o} lrpalJ lear8WI'r,r ,'selnq aurluelsuo3 Jo uos 'laeqJrlN aJurr4 Sunod

"qt ol Jolnl

Jo arrJJo aql pallr] pue 'reloqrs pue '"raqdosopqd '1sr8o1opqd luaunuaue sem 'suorueq Jo uorlerado ar{} uo asqeaJ} alnll sFIl Jo Jor{}nvaLIl 'drnluar qlua^ala aq] ul par{srrnou or{/v\ 'snTTEScI TEIHfII I

EfVCHUd AUOTfNCIOUJNI

Page 38: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

On the Operation of Demons

otherwise called Massalians t (which, it must be admitted, is a

desiderntum), and it seems to determine the true meaning of theexpression "doctrines of demons" (1st Timlothy]. iv., 1).

We may further remark respecting the work, it may beconsidered a fair specimen of the manner in which heathenphilosophy was blended with Christian theology in the auth or's day,and of the plausible reasonings with which the most absurd theorieswere supported; and it goes far to show that certain terms, which byecclesiastical usage have obtained a harsh signification, had notacquired such harsh signification so early as the period for whichPsellus' dialogue is laid. It relates also an instance of demoniacalpossession which cannot be accounted for on the supposition thatsuch possessions were imaginary.

The propriety of apprising the mere English reader of thedistinction between a demon and the devil suggests itself here.zThe

I Both terms refer to the same group of heretics called Euchitre in Greek and calledMassalians in Syriac, which translates as 'people of prayer'. They were foundedlate in the fourth century C.E., probably in Thrace. They believed in ecstaticcommunion with the Holy Ghost, although the orthodox churchmen of the time sawthat as demonic possession. Psellus begins his book as a diatribe against theEuchitre because of their supposed commerce with drmons. Dimitri Obolensky inhis book The Bogomils is of the opinion that Psellus only had a vague idea of thedoctrines of the Euchite. Maybe Psellus introduced the heresies of the Euchit& as away of launching into a discussion of demons from a theologically respectableposition. -Ed.2 Properly speaking, the Pagan mythology, though it taught a future state ofpunishment, had nothing analogous with the hell of [Christian] revelation. NeitherCharon, nor Pluto, nor.lEaens, nor Rhadamanthus fthe gods and guides to the Greekunderworld], thus bears the slightest resemblance to that apostate being who isvariously designated Adversary, Tempter, and Traducer [i.e. the Devil]. The localarrangement, too, or the Pagan hell, and the administration of its punishments,essentially distinguished it from the hell of the Christian system. The Pagan hellwas ludicrously divided into compartments, in which men were punished accordingto their respective demerits, and had, besides, attached a region called the ElysianPlains, to whence heroes (first-rate characters, in the Pagan's estimate) wereadmitted immediately on their decease, and minor offenders after they hadundergone a purgatorial process. It is true the Latin Christians adopted the ternInferni to express hell; yet that was rather because it was more convenient to adopt

36

Page 39: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

t2

'pE * 'sapD"nry uo uottDt,tassle V'(g6Ll-6IL1) 11eqdule3 e8roeg.rq , 'pE - elqlg aql q uortelsuerl-s1u rorllo .(ue sdeq;ed uuql Surre;gns pue ured'qstn8ue 'uotsryuoc eJoru pesnec seq 'Surueatu yeur8rJo Jreql Jo sselpJe8e; .p,lep,se uollelsueJl uuoJrun Jreql pue 'suuel lueJeJJrp o,/y\1 eql qsrnEurlsrp of oJnlreJ slIJ I

'pepuelur eepr eql r(enuoc o1

tuJel eql ur sseulg I€Jnleu gcntu sellr eJeql osneceq ueql 'lueurqsrund Jo elels eJqnJe Jo eepr or{l popnlcur 'uorlecgruSrs lsepld,\ sll ur 'qcrq,u, pue 'esn lereue8 ur uuo} €

'dlluanbary srnrro laruowtupl nrnordrng Iernld aql 'raqgng

'salrurJapul IIe o] preSar ur aSesn aql sI sF{l'>1aar3 se IIaM se 'qsr18ugur pue !!o ualods dpeaqe leq+ 'dlarueu 'uoruap aql 'nornodrngor pa1fts sr aq 'uourep aures ar{} Jo aperu ure8e sI uorluau drolsar{} Jo ssarSord aq+ ul uaqm +nq :fuoqouqlaLlra aunaud oq] AoxongnXo

ndognl or. ro 'fuotuouttzp otl Aomorhng ox ralau llrrrds uealJun ue

'fuopaqqaLpa autnaud] Aoxonenxn ndognl, Jo 'uoluap Jo 'fuotuowtop]Aornodlng dldurs palleJ sr 1r 'patueu lsJr; sr uorssassod e uaqm snr{I'alrurJapur d1]r1rls sl leql rural e Jo pasn aq alrrue aq+ 1eq1 a.rrnbaruorlrsodruoJ Jo salnJ dreurpro arp uaLIM dpo sr leql 1nq 'altrge at{ldq papua+le sarurlatuos sr lr leql lnq lou :alrurJap sr 'pnap '5o1oflrngruJa+ aLIl se atrurJapur dlluelsuoJ se sr 'uoruep 'Aolnorlrng tuJa] al{l

Jo asn aqJ 'palldde os naau sr 'pnap 'fsopquryl 5o1oflnlg prom aq+ lnqlpasoddns Jo IeaJ 'suorssassod o1 aJuala;ar ur sdemle pue 's1adso3aql uI dlluanbar; sJnJf,o 'uotuep 'fuotuou,napf nornodrny,,

-:(g S 'I 'd 'ut'fsuotqutrtafsxq) sanrasqo rrlrrr alnreslrq+'luotuowrup] nomodlng pue luowtopl ncorlrng uaamlaq a)uaraJtrpalq4darrad due dlarrers sr araql leql 8u1>Ireruar rarye ltralqns sn{l uouallrrm d1pnn1 os seq . llaqdure3 'rcl leqm alr) ueql rapaq op louueraM 'uorsJal uerlell s,llleporq pue 'urapour pue luarJue 'suoqelsueJluI+eT ar{l 11e 'uorsJal rerrdg aq+ '{q'razraanoq 'panrasard dlpr8rruaaq se{ }I r'[uor1e1suer1] qJuarC e^auaD ar{} Jo 'raq1n1 Jo ueruraDaql 'uollelsueJl pazrJor{lne Jno Jaqlla ur lno parJJeJ uaaq lou seq'arnldrros uI palJasqo dlqerrelur q8noql 'ruaq+ uaamlaq uorlf,urlsrpaq1 lsnoJarunu ale suoruap aql seaJaLIM'IIAap auo lnq sr aJar{l leqllJeJ aqt ue{} arnldrns uorJ paJurla dpeap arour aq ueJ Surqlou pueldrqsrozvr. rrar{} o+ pa}rrppe pue 'suoruep tlllan palurenbre llallt q8noql'llrap ar{l Jo JaAa}eqM Surqlou zvr.au>I 'yed lsoru al{l JoJ 'ppoan ue8e4

snllasd IaeqrrlN

Page 40: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

On the Operation of Demons

applied to the same order of beings with the singular; but what setsthe difference of signification in the clearest light is that though bothwords, 6toBol"o c, ldiabolos] and 8atpovtov ldaimonion], occur oftenin the Septuagint,l they are invariably used for translating differentHebrew words; 6tuBol"o c, ldiabolos] is always in Hebrew either '1ts

tsar,2 enemy, or liU, Satan, adversary, words never translated8atpovtov ldaimonionl. This word ldnimonion), on the contrary, ismade to express some Hebrew term signifying [either] idol, Pagandeity, apparition, or what some render [as] satyr.

What the precise idea of the demons to whom possessionswere ascribed then was, it would, perhaps, be impossible for us withany certainty to affllrr.; but as it is evident that the two words6ropotrog and Sotpovrov are not once confounded, though the firstoccurs in the New Testament upwards of thirty times, and thesecond about sixty, they can by no just rule of interpretation berendered by the same term; possessions are never attributed to thebeing termed o 6topol,og lo diabolos], nor are his authority anddominion ever ascribed to demons. Nay, when the discriminatingappellations of the devil are occasionally mentioned, 6topovtovfdiamonion] rs never used as one.

It may be proper to subjoin here the most striking instances ofthe term being mistranslated in the authorized version [of the Bible].

Acts xvii., 18: "Others said he seemeth to be a setter forth, ofstrange gods," should be [translated as] strange demons.

'Lst Corinth[ians]. x., 20, 21: "The things which the Gentilessacrifice they sacrifice to deails, and not to God, and I would not thatye should have fellowship with deails; ye cannot drink the cup of theLord, and the cup of deails; ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's tableand the table of deails." Here in every instance the word rendered

' The ancient Koine Greek translation of the Jewish Scriptures or Hebrew Bibletranslated in Alexandria between the third and first centuries BCE. Sometimes simplyreferred to as the 'LXX' in reference to the 70 scholars who are supposed to havelaboured on the translation -Ed.'Printed as'l! in the first edition, but obviously mean to be -tI.

38

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6t

duap ol aru roJ alqrssodrur sI lI 'alrasqo dgensn daql qJlr{rvr lJnpuo)aql ruorJ uaTel sapnlllnuls pue 'uraql o1 dpeqntad paqlrJse suotssedpue saJrsap purJ I uaqm - Jo pasodsrp dlenlre aram daql lvrot{ uanr8slunorre pue 'uorslndxa rraql rarye tuaql ;o psodslp ar{l o1 pre8arur JaruJoJ ar{} f,q plaq suoqesJaluoJ 'passassod uetu aql to lel{lruoJJ paqsrn8upslp dlssardxa os uorlJe rra{} 'suotssassod relnrrpedur suoru€p Jo Jaqrunu aLI+ Jo aperu uorluatu puIJ I uaqM '+nqlalqeqordur 1ou lseal l€ uoqeueldxa srq lq8nor{l a^er{ ppot{s 1 [uaqll'lw 'futaUaqya] mayyot'xe 'luratpa uotuotutatr] maXa nornodrr:g saserqdaql uala to 'lsouaruoztuotutupl Sonerlo)rnorirDg arueu ar{} ueq} uorurdouolrruoJ aql to JnoAeJ ur lrJM paJJes ruoJJ an8re ol aJoru ou uaaq

peq araql JI leql 'Surssed ur 'des dpo ileqs 1 'aur.4rop s1t{} Sutu.raruo3l'aseasrp IeJnleu e Jo pasn pue 'attpnfard relndod o] dltuuoyuorur dlaratu paldope sem' padoldua arar{} a1fts ar{} }eq} 1nq '1adso3aql ul pauorluaru sJeruoruap aql uI uorssassod par ou se,vr aJaq]

ler{} aJurla o} uoqepasslp a}eJoqela ue ua}UJrvr set{,, '11aqduef 'JCl

sanJasqo ,,'(ratureC'JCil Joqlne snorua8ul pue pauJeal alel V,,

-:(Of S 'I 'd 'ln'lsuo4a4n]sslg) lrafqns s1rlt uo s>lreruar s,1aqdue3'rC ueql luaurl.rad arour aq ueJ SurqloN 'a8e rrlolsode aqt uI lseal1e 'suorssassod IeJeruoruep Jo dlrpar al{t uol+sanb ut IIeJ o} 'uo4uapedreurpro r{llrr,r }r spear pue 'a.rnldrrtg Jo qlnrl alqllleryI aql salarlaqd1+nqdul or{,nvr. auo due JoJ alqlssod 1r aAIaJuoJ ,{1preq uet azvr 1ad

'palerrluaqlne {1np }ou sr aser relnrlued letll +eql pa}ralqo aq deu 1r

'paapur 'q8noqlle 't{teut?etul aJaM suolssassod qrns teq} uoprsoddnsaq+ vll1\^. alqelrJuo)alJr sr rlJlr{1v\ pue '4roan ,snllasd ur papJoJaJuorssassod IeJeruoruap

'o a)uelsur aql ol lradsar r{}IM

'suoruap alnlqsqns ,,1a1qtuarl pue a^arlaq osle spaap aql tlarulsaop not{} lpoD auo sr araq} }eql }sa^allaq nor{J,, :6L '' 1 sawa[

'suoruap aq plnoqs ,,'sltaap Jo aurJlJoppue 'slrrrds Sunnpas o] paar{ 8urnr3,, :L ''nl 'lfrqqoltutl qsy

'suotuep pear ,,lsltaap drqsro^nn lou ppoqs daql teql'spueq rraql Jo $Irozvr aql Jo ]ou paluadar 1ad 'san8eld asaql dq paruIlou aram qJIqM uaur aLIl Jo lsar ar{J,, :02 ''xl '[uo4a7a]aa21

'suoruap parapuar aq plnor{s sI^ap

snllasd IaeLITIIN

Page 42: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

On the Operation of Dremons

their existence, without admitting that the sacred historians wereeither deceived themselves in regard to them, or intended to deceivetheir readers. Nay, if they were faithful historians, this reflection, Iam afraid, will strike still deeper."

Without consenting to all that Psellus advances on the origin,nature, modes of action, and occasional manifestation of demons,yet, believing implicitly the sacred Scriptures, we can have no moredoubt of the existence of such beings than we have of our own. Dr.Campbell also observes, (Dissfertationsf. vi., p.1,, g 11):-

"Though we cannot discover with certainty, from all that issaid in the Gospel concerning possessions, whether the demonswere conceived to be the ghosts of wicked men deceased, or lapsedangels, or (as was the opinion of some early Christian writers, Iust.M. [St Justin Matyr] Apolfogial.

1) the mongrel breed of certain angels (whom theyunderstood by the sons of God, mentioned in Genesis, ch[apter]. ,ri.,

2) and of the daughters of men, it is plain they were conceivedto be malignant spirits.t

They [the malignant spirits] are exhibited as the causes of themost direful calamities to the unhappy person whom they possess -dumbness, deafness, madness, palsy, and the like. The descriptivetitles given them always denote some ill quality or other; mostfrequently they are called nveupcrrq crxqOqorq lpneumata achathnotaf,unclean spirits; sometimes rrveDlrctrcr rovrlocr lpneumata poneoal,malign spirits; they are represented as conscious that they aredoomed to misery and torments, though their punishment be for awhile suspended. 'Art thou come hither, poorovooor rlposlBastanasai emas], to torment us before the time?' Mattlew). vrii.,29."2

I "That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they tookthem wives of all they chose...There were giants in the earth in those days; and alsoafter that, when the sons of God came in unto fcopulated with] the daughters ofmen, and they bare children to them..." Genesis 6:2,4. The children were theNephilim. -Ed.t Befote moving on to more modern theological opinions about the nature ofdremons, it is worthwhile to quote one more Classical source. Calcidius (c. 300

40

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LV

'pE-'suoluop oruoceq ot ue^Boq tuoJJ IIoJ pue poD pe}celor lBq} sleSue e{J z'pg- 'serrdtue1 uo esrleeJl e eloJ^\ osle eq gVLl q 'suoruep lnoqe qcnu elor,lA oql\

uerSoloeql pue {uoru eur}crpoueg qcuerC e (LgLI-T,L1} teruleJ urlsn8ny sro6l r'pE-'u€ru ropurq "ro dlaq'pren8'1ce

'ru-rog IerJeleu-nues e elel ueJ suotusp '[.ye8ue,;o Surueetu leJe]rl eql] s-re8uesseru

lsnl e;e sle8ue lsllq^A l€ql uorlcurlsrp lercruc egl qlr^\ 'sle8ue eql e{rl 1sn['ueneeqpue u€tu uee^ueq serJerpeuuelur sB lce suoruep oqt spJo^\ Jeqlo uI '.uoru*p,

Jo peelsur .uourep, sesn rot€lsuer] eql ereql( 6€-89 seSed '(LL6l) gaog eeg ',.s1e8ue

[e1e1sode ro ue11eg] fe,u,euru eql esues lcrrls e ur suoruep relrurs pue esoq] II€c uetuetuos 'lnos polJr,tr aql peller sluercuv eq] qclq^\'regetu qlrrn drqsreuged olrssocxeu€ el€q ,(eqt pue quee eql Jo flrurcrrr eql Jo llnseJ € se uolssed ,{gUee ue fqpeqcnol e:e .,(eqt rog iprocce u^\o rreql Jo unq uego f:en osle f,t.{J 'ecrlsnf euIAIp

Jo uorlJu€s aql ol Surprocce ,Qeldtu1 pue setuuc;o sre8ueleJ eql se 8ur1ce osle uogo'f,poq lnols € Jo qllg eql ueql qlrrvr Surrvrerp 'se8eurr sselpoolq Jo sturoJ fnopeqseql ur se^lasueqt eqlolc osle ,(eq1 'sedeqs SurSrerup olur eSueqc feqt uoq^\'pe^Jesqo eq uec Keql seurletuos 1nq 'elqrsrnur sfe,trl€ lou ere ,(aql pue 'flpuerrgos rou alqepn€l os reqlreu er€ suoruap eql Jo tser eqJ 'uorssed ol lst tl] peldepeoJoru eqt 'quee aql ol sr lr reJeeu oql pu€ Jre eql ur seprqe uotuep sn{} }eq} ldecxe'uouep Ierroe oql roJ ploq osle IIr^\ uorlruuep etues srql 'fsuerprenS] sprenE se

suourep eqt fueur] uenr8 seq oq^\ 'pog Jo IIr.^& eql Jo uos€er '(q uau Jo erec 3ur1e1

ifreqtae aqt tuo"r; pe,trrap] '{poq s}l Jo ,911enb eqt ro epoqe sll Jo esneceq leerer.{tepelleJ sr 1r ialsep Sur"rnpue lnoqlr,t\ ep€tu eq u€c ecroqc ou pue slcegeJ 1r esn€ceq

'eArlrsues leues eql sesn sr(em1e 1nq 'reqloue JoJ {poq euo e8ueqc }ou seop }lesn€ceq 'legourun ilueprud sr lr esneceq '[4urqt o1 elqe] Ieuorler lfpoq e Sursn lnose sr ll esneceq'8ureq 8urru1 B sl 1I'uetuJo e;ec 3ur4e1 Sureq 8urnr1 'leeJeqle'[sasueso^g eql Surneq] elrlrsues 'legounur 'yeuorler u sr uorusp e :s,ln.olloJ se eq IIIA\.uourep, Jo uorlruuep eql os,, :leql '9g1 reldeqt'smtoluawwo) slq ul elora ('g'c

II^ap ar{l sp 'ler{l ae ol sreadde uoruIdo prnldrDs aql 'paapur luaqtroJ paredard luauqsrund aruaJlxa ar{l Suunpua +ad ale suoruepar{l rou ueles raqlrau leq+ r€adde pp6ar ll saSessed q)lq1y\ uorJ,,:sla8ue stq pue UAap aLIl JoJ pafida,Ld'al; SurlselJa^a olur pasJnJad gedaCl, 'lualu8pn[ arnlnJ aq] Sulra^rlap 'sdes proT rno lslr{zvr

(62 ''Wn 'fmal4aayvg) ,,oM?4 a4q an{aq sn }uarurol ol atuor nor{t lry ,,

'qreordde srpJoT Jno uo '1no drt eJepeD le suoruap r{}lm passassodaLII ']uaruJol aJnlnJ ol pauqsap se paluasaldar are sla8ue alelsodeaql pue daql r{}oq se pue 'sse1o lJurlsrp e se ur8rro rraql ol uorsnlplsaloruar ar{} }ou pul} arvr se dlenadsa aloru aq} 'sla8ue alelsodeaL{} r{}lrr,r, arues aq+ aJaM uorssassod leJeruouep wlzvr pa}Jauuo)araM se q)ns ler{l a^a{aq lnq louueJ art 7:s1a3ue ale}sode aq} H}Ia,r

IeJrluapr aJe suoruep aq+ leq+ uorurdo Jo aq ol suraas r latule3

snllasd laeqrrlN

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On the Operation of Demons

walketh about like a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour,going to and fro in the earth, walking up and down in it, so hisemissaries, the apostate angels, the demons, roam through everypart of it, inflicting diseases, tempting to sin, and blasting physical as

well as moral good.

If it be said that such a supposition is irreconcilable with thepower and beneficence of the Divine Being, will those who makesuch objection venture to deny the existence of moral and physicalevil? And if that be reconcilable with the power and beneficence ofthe Supreme/ why may not the doctrine just laid down? Will it besaid that such a supposition is irreconcilable with the immutabilityand permanency of the Divine laws? Will those who make suchobjection assert, that the superficial knowledge they may haveacquired of nature's laws warrants them in saying that theyunderstand the Divine laws? - Who can tell aII the causes that leadto any one, even the most insignificant, event? - And who can tellbut that the laws of nature, without our perceiving it, are controlledby demonic agency? We only see a few of the links - we cannot see

all the links of the chain that lead to any one result.

It may be proper to examine here the Heathen notion of theword demon, by which means (mutatis mutandis)t *" will be betterable to understand its scriptural application. Its etymology conveysthe idea either of an acute intelligence or of an appointed agent; butas these may exist separately, in distinct beings, or combined in thesame being, it is obvious mere etymology cannot guide us to a safeconclusion in our enquiry.

Homer applies the epithet demons, in more than oneinstance, to the dii majorum gentium 2 (lliad, v. 222); but whether heregarded the dii mnjorum gentium as an inferior order of beings,subordinate to a superior intelligence, or heroes advanced to this

I All other things being equal. -Ed.' The 12 main Olympic gods of the ancient Greek pantheon, Jupiter, Juno,Minerva/Pallas, Vesta, Ceres, Neptune, Venus, Vulcanus, Mars, Mercury, Apollo,and Diana. Gods that you might have expected to be in the top twelve, such as

Saturn, belong to the Dii Selecti. -Ed.

42

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8V

'pE- 'esJe Lu porlJ Jo uorl€lsuerl LruoJ-eeg eJou e poqsllqnd 'regtsren pue lll.ru'e11o141 €l ep uepnoH ElLIul rele-I 'sotllrc s,retuoH o1 .(1de: e s€/y\ qclq^\ ecegetd

e r.llr^\ pDltl eI{} Jo uottelsuerl fpeloqcs e peqsllqnd :erceq etuepelN 6691 vI z.pg_'pnrfl e\l

ur Jeelc eperu lou sr ll lnq "{or1

Jeeu JoArJ eql repueuecs pue po8 eqt se,{l. snqluexleql elqrssod sr 1I 'po8 JoAIJ e ';epuetuecs JoJ e(u€u {eerD eq} se,^A snq}uex r

('xnatq sae'aryedapuoJas 'anb4u3 aI ae) ,,'smouT plJom aqt 11e [se] 'urrq uaAIS uaryo

os 'dlq8ru ]sour 'snorle.r8 lsotu 'snunxaut 'sruanqdo 'slar{}Ida uI}eTaq1 d;qsnf suoqre sFI IIaM ultoH Zpoor{ueru Jo a8e aq} }e panrrr€ uaq}uaaq peq daql JI 'tu1r{ pauonl}ap a^eq plnom pue 'turq uodn rean

aperu or{ll,r. sluet8 ar{} Jo ro 'pooqplltlr slq ul rug ;o a8reqr peq ol{zw

sqdurdu aq] Jo ro 'sraqlorq slq'olnlcl pue aunldaN yo 'ayran srr{ pueJalsrs srq 'ounf ;o ro 'uaneaq Jo lno anoJp aq tuor{uw 'urnleg Jaql€J

u1v\o slr{ Jo raq+eJ aq} urlr{ {uH} aq plnof zuatu pue spoS 1o .roleaJJ

aql aq ol ralrdn{ a^arlaq dlsnotras rauroH plnof iler{M,,

- alrsodde dran arar{ sr z rarreq au€pehtr ol dldars,apotr\tr eT aC ,,2s7uraq lo paq pua $awa8 a4q 'LtaLLL puu spo? {o n4qa{aLIq,, slaod aql dq pa1fts sr otlzvr pue 'palnqlJ+le aJe uoluFuop atuardnspue ramod dlq8Fule ruoqm o1 'raltdn{ - eapl s1r{} rapun papnlrulaq Jlasurrq ralrdn I uet,, 'pa1ra[qo aq detu +I 'sura] alqluanuoJ alespo8 pue sluarJue 1eq1 sdes lsorup aq 'rantr aql paleu8rsap slualJueaqt qJIr{1V\ ,{,q arueu aq} Suraq snr{luex 1 ,,'.tapuerueJs uaur lnq'snqluey IIeJ spo:) aql r{Jn{1t,, 'nodgnnrlnx3 ag Sadgnn 'rosg looo3YD)AogAnX AO 'sdes aq 'apeor; aql uI JaAIJ e to Surleads 'araqm.

'auII q+VL'pulll aql Jo Tooq puZZ ar{} ul aAEL{ azvr suolurdo alenrrd srq

Surlenursur Jo derw aArlJnJ sn{l Jo aJueJsur Suoprls d"ran auo

'sluarur+uas

sFI zwone ol dpado lou parep aq q8noqt '1urod sql uo uorurdos1{ Jo sasdurlS ane8 ,{lleuorseJJo pue 'ur8uo uerunq Jo sassappo8pue spo8 aql I1e paraprsuof, raruoH ler{l papens.rad aq }nq louueraM '(ZZZ '[a]srar 'LILL '[drn]qelue3 'puru '[ra]ruog) pauortuaur

lsel 1v\ar^ aqt rno^eJ o+ sruaas lse{or{Js aql 'FFqnop }eqMaruossr 'rapro IsJIJ dran arll Jo s8uraq o1 'alua8rlalur alnJe ue Jo asuasdreturrd stl q 'a1qe1rns se ruJal sgl parldde dlaJaur Jo 'a)uaunua

snllasd IaeqJrw

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On the Operation of Demons

On the whole, we are rather inclined to think that Homerconsidered all gods (the dii majorum gentium not excepted) utdemons of human original. Hesiod follows next in order of time; heseems decidedly of [the] opinion that all gods were demons, andoriginally human; he intimates that the demons are the men of thegolden age, who lived under Saturn, and avers that they are theprotectors of mankind, <pul,oXog rov 0v+Trrrrv qv0pcoTT'r,lv [phylachas tonthneton anthropore]. (Vide Scholiast on Homer's lliad, A.222.) Socrates'sentiments on this subject, as also those of Plato and his immediatedisciples, ffidy be gathered from the following extract from Plato'sCratylus: -" Socfrntes]. What shall we consider next?

Hermogenes.Demons, to be sure, and heroes, and men.

Socfratesl. Let it be demons, then, and with what propriety they areso named. Consider, Hermogenes, if I say ought worthy of yourattention as to what might have been the sense of the word demon.

Hermo glen e sl. Proceed.

Socfratesl. Are you aware that Hesiod says certain [men] are demons?

Hermoglenesl. I don't remember it.

Soclrates]. Nor that he says the first generation of men were golden?

Herm[ogenes]. I know that, at all events.

Soclrates]. Well, then, he speaks thus respecting it:

'When destiny concealed this generationThey were called pure subterranean Intelligences t fDaimonesl,Excellent, Avertors of evils, Protectors of mortal men.'

Herm[ogenes). What, then, pray?

Soclratesl. I think he calls a generation the golden [generation], not asthough produced from gold, but because excellent and glorious; and I

t We have rendered this word, 8crrpoveg ldaimones], [as] intelligences, and will [doso] throughout. Were we to render it dremons, it would be impossible to convey theagreeable play on the word which afterwards occurs.

44

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9V

J€eu Iuoq lsr,,(esse pue uerJolsrq 'lsruoleldoeN €

.PE_'IqdIOCI

se,,!\ ['E'J 0Zl-9V] qcr€tnld I

al{l leql pue luaru palJlap o} palelrdordde ae o} atuer spremrarye

1nq 'rapro lsrrJ dran aql Jo sa4rap ol saruq lsarlJ€a aLI+ ruory parlddedlpuorserro sem 'arua8qlalut ue asuas +JeJlsqe sll uI Surdpu8rsse 'uotuep pJoM aLIl leql apnl)uoJ arw etep asaql ruoJC

'suoruap pue spo8 yo qloq srnouot{ pallunaql SupraJal 'spreanrarye snqJJeg pue salnJJaH aJaM se 'spo8 olurpa8ueqr anurl nal{l roJ aram sITISO pue sIsI w:qt'(T9g'd'stttso p slslap) ateld Jaqloue ur sdes Joqln€ arues aqJ ,,'uoseal lt18rr o1 SurproJJe

lnq 'uor1n1r1sur prrlrlod due ,{q }ou 'spo8 o}ul pallexa are daql'par;und dl.radord are daq+ 1 lsuotuep Jo TueJ aLIl ol paJue^pe areuaru snonurl Io slnos aql 'arpsnf pue aJnleu aurnlp e o1 SurpJoJJV,,

:suoruep to aurJlJop slt{ se

Surrvrollot aql sanr8 'drnluar puoJas aLIl ul pallsrrnolJ oLIM 1'qcre1n14

- ,,'aJua8qlalur ile paller dllrarrorsr pue 'pn1ra11alq sI 'peap ro Surrrrl JaLIlaqM 'aures ar{} }er{l pue'ueur poo8 drana sr ueru lua8rlalur ar{l leql JaAe I Jauueur aures aql uIeruopsrm slr{ ol Surzwo snt{l u4rl Surteu8rsap 'arua8r11a1ur ue sauroJaqpue 'dlru8lp pue '1o1 snorrolS e surelqo aq 1eq1 'sa1p ueru poo8 e

'uaqm. €urdes Jo llqeq aLIl ul a;e 'oo1 'duetu rvroH 'snt{} dlalerrdo.rdderuatll sller 'os1e slaod raqlo dueur lnq 'polsapl dpo lou dlSurprorry'sJnJJo pJozvt aql qJaads luanue Jno ur pue 'lua8qlalul pue asIM

[are daql] asneraq saruaBIIIa+uI ruat{} paleu8rsap ar{ 1eq1 'sarua8r1a1u1Surlmdsar sa+eruqur dlpnads aLI 'aroya.raql 'slrlJ 'lsaryt)cog

'asla auou 'asrm ar{J 'lsauaSolwtag

aaslm aql lnq luallarxa are oqM 'fsaryllcog

'aruaraFur Iernleu aql lnq sr 11'lsauaSoluuag

p3e uaplo8 aqt ol paBuolaq aq '1ua11aoxa arama8e luasard aql yo auodue y't{es plnom aq'uaq} '{uItI} no^ 'lsaptlcog

'Lllnrl aql des no1 'lsauaSoluttag

'uor+eJaua8 uorr ue aJe alt sdes aq suosear snoSopue JoJ sr lr arnlraluoc

snllasd IaerIrrIN

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On the Operation of Demons

heathen (philosophers excepted) believed in no being identical withor bearing the slightest resemblance to our [Christian] God. In thelanguage of one who cannot be suspected of any partiality toChristianity, they were " a kind tf superstitious atheists, whoacknowledged no being that corresponds with our idea of a deity." (Naf.Hist. of ReI., sect. iv.) t

The heathen did not pretend to be acquainted with all theexisting demons or intelligences. So sensible were the Greeks oftheir ignorance on this head, that they actually had, in [St.] Paul'sduy, an altar at Athens with the inscription, "To an unknown God."They thought by this contrivance to obviate any bad results thatmight accrue from their ignorance, and secure to every demon orintelligence a due share of honour. Paul accordingly, with ingeniousartifice, takes advantage of this circumstance to introduce Jesus totheir notice as a demon 2 or intelligence they were unconsciously

I David Hume, Natural History of Retigion. -Ed.t It seems probable that the line of conduct pursued by the Apostle [Paul] on thisoccasion was suggested by the remark of the Athenians themselves,"he seems to bea setter forth of strange intelligences," (usually rendered drmons); because hepreached to them tov Ipoouv Ko,t tqv Avoaro,ol, Jesus and Resurrection, theyconceived Jesus to be a male intelligence, and Resurrection; Anastasin, [to be] afemale intelligence, according to their custom dei$zing abstract qualities, andmaking them gods and goddesses as suited the gender of the name. Nor can thisconduct of the Apostle be termed with any propriety "a pious fraud". 'Tis true thatthough the term drmon in its primary use signifies intelligence, his auditors

[listeners] would be very apt to take the term in its more extended sense. TheApostle, however, could not justly be held responsible for the acceptation in whichthey choose to take his words; yet it must be admitted that the Apostle did not inthis instance state the whole truth, but merely so much as suited his immediatepurpose of extricating himself from the power of their fanatical philosophers. Hisprincipal object seems to have been to show that on their own principles, whichadmitted a multiplicity of gods, and regarded without jealousy the gods of othernations, they could not in justice or consistency punish him for preaching a Godthey had never heard of before, even Jesus. With a similar tact the Apostle rescuedhimself from the malice of the Jews, when arraigned before the high priest, byavowing himself a Pharisee, and insisting that the doctrine of a future resurrectionwas the great matter of dispute; but this, as in the former instance, was not thewhole truth; it answered, however, the Apostle's purpose by creating a division inhis favour. Surely this was the wisdom of the serpent, without its venom.

46

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LV

eql peJeprsuoc e^eq lsntu puB'eceeJcJo5crodsroenolhngrorsg eJo.ry\ feqt leqt

'pE-'elqeqceordde ororu,(1e1rugur 1nfl r',{relueurlduoc ftq8lq e8en8uel s.el}sodvselets reqlo eql ueqt fsuo"ra1sauowloplslapllcBJ eql ur perrolS suerueqtv eqJ v

'sse1l aql luasardar o1 dlarrdord qllm paraprsuoJ aq deur slopr tnq'arualsrxa ou aleq ltlSrtu Iopl aql dq papualul uourep relnJrl.redaql dlqrsso4 ,,'suorleluasardar lerrloqruds are slopl ar{l qJIqM

Jo /suoluap ol aJrJrJJes daql aJItIJJes sallluaD ar{} qllr{rrn s8ulqlaql ]er{l urelureur IIIIS I 'slq} luerS I allq1vl 1nq 1'rrp ',1ou aas pue'daql a^eq sada ro1 'Surqlou sr IopI ue lerll smou{ lsln{f Jo Ioor{JSaql ur ordl lsarral al{t lsuearu ou dg 28urq1due fiT1uctsuttqut sI

IopI ue ler{t uasse ol ueaur I op ,,'pIes perl al}sodv aq} JI sv

,,isuoruep ;o dnc aLIl pue 'pro-I ar{} Jo dnr aql TulJplouue) aA 'suoruap Vlyw drqszwolla; aler{ plnoqs nod leq} louplnol I pue 'poD ol lou pue 'suotuap ol aJrJrJres daql aJIJIJf,es

salrluaD ar{} qrrqrt s8urq} aL{} }eq+ des 1 1ng 2SuIWdue slopr o}arrJrrres ur paraJJo sI r{rlr{,vr }eL{} ro '3urq1due sI Iopl aql ter{J 2ua{l'1 des ler{M,, (02 '6L ''x 'fsuatt4qut],to3 1s1) >peurar s,a11sody aql }oaJroJ at{} aII o} sruaas slr{} uI r'aurardnS ar{} ol rorraJur dlpassa;uooaJalvr 'dreur8etur Jo IeaJ Jaqlar{M 'r{rlr{rvr s8uraq 'suotuapro sraddrqsrom pallel aq dlarrdord Hlluvr daql lq8rur 1a[. 'uowapnlnJqnd ,{ue drqsro.,rn o} pres aq }ou plnor daql q8noql '8urop os

ur pue lsuorleur8etur umo Jraql ul lnq aJualslxa ou peq oLIM s8uraqSurddrqsroM d11ear aram 'suotuep se uaru palJlap SurddrqsromuaLIM 'uaqleaq arll leql +nq pauoqsanb aq dlpreq uer lI

'acua8r11a1ur

ue Jo dldurrs lnq '8uraq lueu8rleru ro arndrur ue raqlla Joeapl aql danuoJ Jou saop uoruep prom aql dSolode srql q ,,:r'o.f,.olun I aJelJap urIH 'dnlstom frpuu,tou?t nor{. aloJaJaql ruor{,vr ,,!pogumou4un ua o+,, 'uorqdrJJsur s1ql r{tlm Je}le ue puno; 1 'suor}onaprnod plaqaq pue ',{.q passed I se roJ lG 5crodgroanorlrnglol3g5co nLunu nrn>r) suotuep Jo dnqsnm atl+ ul ssad.tns leqmatuosnod Surql drana ur ter{l anrarrad 1 'sua{lV Jo uaur ol.,,

-:fi2 'II^x slrv)'lllH s,retrAi uo sazrSolode sn{l all '3urddrqs.ror,r,

snllasd IaeqrrlN

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On the Operation of Demons

viz., beings intermediate between God and man, inferior to theformer, but superior to the latter; " for to all who come under thisdescription, real or ima ginary, good or bad, the name demons(intelligences) is promiscuously applied.

The reality of such intermediate order of beings revelationeverywhere supposes, and rational theism does not contradict.Now it is to the kind expressed in the definition now given that thepagan deities are represented as corresponding, and notindividually to particular demons, actually existing. To sdf rtherefore, that the Gentiles sacrifice to demons is no more than tosay that they sacrifice to beings which, whether real or imaginary,we perceive, from their own account of them, to be below theSupreme." (Campb[ell], Dissfertation on Miracles]. ,ri., p.1, S 15.)

It may be asked, of what practical utility is a work of thisnature of what practical importance can it be whether webelieve or disbelieve the existence of demons? We humblyconceive it is not optional with us to treat any portion of divinetruth as unimportant, because we cannot see its practical bearingupon the conduct. If it can be unequivocally shown from the Wordof God that demons exist, [then] the belief of the fact belongs tous, [and] the utility of it to Him that permits it.

At the same time, we cannot forbear observing that, if it bea work of utility to throw light, in the least degree, on any portionof the Word of God, and to rescue a term or a passage from aperverted use, then we flatter ourselves such ends may be in somemeasure effected by the publication of Psellus' work; but if therewere no other reason for its publication than a desire tocommunicate the arguments with which, in those comparativelyearly times, men of a philosophic turn of mind fortifiedthemselves in the belief of demoniacal possessions (as well in theApostolic age as in their own time), we conceive none could justlycondemn such a laudable motive. Surely a supercilious contempt

48

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6V

ero,^(t pue setull IecIJolSIq olul peAII ueJpllqc

Jo sroqSnep eq] pue I'urlrgde5l lo (sreqclea,rreql leql uoqrpe;l'-L;Til :i:ileql Jo uerplrqc oro^\ Iur>l€uv e{J ,

[uossr1o3 snrre141]

'a8e luasard aLIl ul ruopsrm ro dlrleraqrlJar{lla to TJeru ou sI 'uotnrlqo o1 s8urlu1v\ Jraql u8rsuoo ro 'preaquntua{} aJnsual plnom qJIqM 'alnlela}Il }ual)ue Jo rruDleuv ar{l JoJ

snllasd laeqrrlN

Page 52: On the Operation of Daemons - Psellos

urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

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I9

'pE- 'tltsorsnqrug panS"tauE uo,,{esse srq e}or,{& eq uaq,^& pupu ul peq ,(e1,Lro"r3 relsrelv leq^A sr srq} teqt f1ery1 s1 }I e

'x'qll''lcryqnlqnday ep

'ol€ld fq pesn snq] sr pue 'q;eno;d e olur passed ese.rqd eql 'sessfln ,(q luetuesntue

.snourclv JoJ peJenrlep se,lrr se elrleueu e qcns 'a't 'enrleJJeu (snourclv pelleceg o1 eruec 'sernluenp€ snollenr€tu qlrl\ pellg 'eAr1€ueu 3urf1 ,{ue ecue11 'sdoycr{3

pue 'suo8ulsel 'r8eqdolol eql ls8uoue sernluelpe slq Jo elrl€xeu snorlllcge Surnr8 ,(q esuedxe srq l€ Jlesurq pesntue 'ecue;ou8r s.qcJ€uou eql uo Sururnse;d'suetceoqd eqlgo 3ur1 .snoulclv q1r.tr Surlseeg'sessr(ln

-'avlz"trDu ,snomll7 z'pE-'ellqcng eqlJo seuulcop

eql Jo ecrnos eqt ,{1Ued eJe,^d qJIg^rK 'S,4AoIA lecltoJeq pu€ cllsllenp slq roJ 'E'C

9LZ q pelncexe 'luen leqdord eql se,ln. sou€IAI 'eloulooJ .re1n8e.t e uuoJ o1 e3"re1 oo1

se,{n' o}ou s1{J 's}lqcng pu€ seu€l eqt Surureldxe looq eql Jo pue eql t€ olou eeS r

lou nod aleq - € slsersnqlug'urar{l ler duelu s€ 'ro 'elrqrng asor{}

- sJalJeJeqJ snordrur VlIm alerf,osse ol paureJlsuof, allLIM 'parnpua1 Surql drarra pue '+e luasard sem 1 Sugql .,fuana azlJelnJrped olpa8rlqo tue I Jr z alrleJJeu ,snourJlv asrlap ]snur 1 1.,r,rou 1sn[ raansueol 3uo1 oot aTel plnom ]nd nod suorlsanb aqJ 'NVIfVUHJ

23uo1 os ,ie.,vre no.,( arazw

'ssaursnq leqM ur pa8e8ua pue '{r{^ pue /araqm }ng - 'AHIOI III'peorqe uaaq a^eq I

:alour ro 'sdeqrad sread o,,rn1 ldqlotulJ, '3uo1 sr 1r 'sa1 - 'NVI]VUHI

erunrluez,{gpalrsrn nod aJurs 'uerlerql '3uo1 }l sI - 'AHTOI IIJ

I e+l4Jnz a%tr pua sauaw sns,raA

,SNOhIiylCO NOIJVUEdO EHJ NO,NVIfVUHI CNV AHJOI^trII

NEEMJEg

,ENDO-IVIC,SN-I-IHSd TiYHf IIAI

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On the Operation of Demons

heard of them at all?1

TIMOTHY. Why, I understand that there are amongst usindividuals as godless as they are absurd, and that in the midst of thesacred quire 2 (to speak in comedian style;) but as to their dogmas,their customs, their laws, their proceedings, their discourses, I havenot yet been able to learn any thing about them; wherefore I beg ofyou to tell me most explicitly whatever you know, if you aredisposed to oblige an intimate acquaintance, I will even add, a friend.

THRACIAN. Even have it So, friend Timothy, though it be

enough to give one a headache if he but attempt to describe theoutlandish doctrines and doings of dremonry; and though youcannot possibly derive any advantage from such description - for, tfit be true what Simonides says, that the statement of facts is theirdelineation,3 and that therefore the statement of profitable facts mustbe profitable, and the statement of unprofitable facts quite theopposite what possible benefit could you derive from mydelineating their seductive statements?

TIMOTHY. - Nay, but I shall be greatly benefited, Thracian; surelyit is not unserviceable for physicians to be acquainted with drugs of adeadly nature, that so none may be endangered by their use: besides,some of the particulars, at all events, will not be unprofitable. Wehave our choice, therefore, either to carry off from your disquisitionwhat is profitable, or to be on our guard of it if it have anythingpernicious.

THRACIAN. - Agreed, my friend; you shall hear (as the poet says)truths certainly, but most unpleasant ones: but if my narrative advert[refers] to certain unseemly proceedings, I require of you, in commonjustice, not to be angry with me who relate them, but with those who

t The Euchitre came from Thrace, so it is significant that one of the speakers is aThracian, who can therefore be expected to know more about the Euchitre thanTimothy. -Ed.'In holy orders.3 The statement of facts is their delineatio The following is an expression notonly of Simonides, but Democritus, l,oyoq epyou oKrn, the narrative of a fact is itsshadow.

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'slllqo$arur 'rur(uoufs eql se'Eurfoldrue 'sro1e1su€r1 urlel eqt r(q pecu€uelunocsI A\erA srql :pesJncce segru8rs qcrq,l 'loLo.todaf corndnus se,l ''9141 leur8r-ro eql ul'plolt eql ]egl pue 'requcsu€Jl eruos Jo JoJJe ue Jo 'Jo.tre lecrqde"rEodfi e Jeqlre srql

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e 3o po8 eq1 pesoddns Sureq eq 'lpq8unq agl Jo poD 6qnqezleeg otur ll peueluoc'ueree11 Jo poD 8ur,fru8rs 'lnqozleog pro,{A eq} uo 8ur,{e1d 'sme1 eqJ 'luercue

f-rarr sr Suruund yo uorlducsep srql :lso1uauaut noy soruauory o,rod] 5ornsnndoor 5ornsnn141 ndnu sp€eJ >leeJD eql iuorlelsueJl eql ur eJnseoru eruos ur err.ress"rd

ol peJnon€epue el€q e,r qcrq,& 'saue141 pJo,/y\ eql uo Keld e flsnornqo sr oJeql eJeH r

aLIl sueaq rrar{} ur aurJLISua pue 'uos leqsala) ar{} Jo drqsJoM aqt uoJJraqlaSolle Merpr{llzvr 'dlardurr ur {uns raqpnJ are oqm 't{1rcd prlr{}ar{l aFqM ldrnlur uaq] op ol razrtod sFI uI ll seq oLIM auo Jo se 'urrq;opren8 rraql uo are lnq /uos rapla aql uppsrp dlalnlosqe lou op daqt1ad pue lqpea aql JaAo dlalerpaurq spualxa qJlr{rvr 'uor8ar rorradnsaql Jo rourarroS al{l Suraq se uos raSunod aql a^Jas sJaq}o lng

Bunrds are daql asnera- |i5H::ff 'if Jiil,:"E'il:::30"T,;Tiare qloq leql lad 'aruerren 1e are daql q8noql leln 'Surureluretu'suos r{}oq o1 drqsrom. plard auros :sarged aaJql olur sluaru8pnf Jrar{luI papwp aJe lurod sH+ LuoJJ ]nq lsluaturluas Jrar{l ur snourrueunare re1 sn{} 'uorlepunoy uailor slr{l p1el Surneq 'ualu papunu-uailoJ asaql 'sped aaJql olur lno pauoruod sr as.ralrun ar{} qJrqmo1 Surprorre 'dSoloqldtu >1aarD aql ruorJ Surqlou ur sraJ;rp r{rlr{l'vrdroaql e - plrom aql ur s8urql Jo tuauurano8 aql rapla a{l ol pue'uor8ar rrraqdsoule aLIl uos ra8unod aq+ o1 'd1a1os uor8ar auepunru-erdns ar{l pau8rsse aler{ daql raq}eJ aql ol lur8uo rorunf aq]pue roruas aql aTetu 'Jar{leJ Jraql {llm 'suos om1 'ruar{} ol Surprorcelur8rro prllll v lad paldope aleq etrqrnll Iereruoruep aql lng

'sFrlsalof aql Jo ralnu snoalunoqaq+ ol 'slerrlsaual aql Jo ssaupaTJrm aql Jo ralnr e poo8 drana

Jo rolear3 at{l 'poD o1 'pna }o roq}ne a{} 'po3 e pasoddo 'dlardturssalasuas Hllan 'atl :s8ulql IIe Jo sur8r.ro o1v\+ aJaM aJaql .'saue14pasJnJJe aql ol Surprome 'to! lurelunoJ pI+oJ e ruoJJ se umoppa1vlolJ a^eq surSrro snourpnlllptu [s,elrqrng aq+] rraqt ruFI uror]

'leruetr41 a{l r sauel4 v}lrvt asrr slr peLI aurJlJop alqerraxa sIqJ 'uraq} op

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earthly alone, even Satan[ael],r dignifying him with the most augustnames, as, the First-begotten, Estranged from the Father, the Creatorof Plants and Animals, and the rest of the compound beings.Preferring to make suit to him who is the Destroyer and Murderer,gracious God! How many insults do they offer to the Celestial,whom they pronounce envious, an unnatural persecutor of hisbrother, (who administers judiciously the government of the world)and aver, that it is his being puffed up with envy [that] occasionsearthquakes and hail and famine, on which account they imprecateon him, as well other anathemas, as in particular that horrible one!

TIMOTHY. By what train of reasoning have they broughtthemselves to believe and pronounce Satan[ael] a son of God, whennot merely the Prophetic Writings, but the Oracles of Divine Trutheverywhere speak but of one son, and he that reclined on our Lord'sbosom (as is recorded in the Holy Gospel), exclaims, concerning thedivine l,oyog flogos], "the Glory as of the Only-begotten of theFather," whence has such a tremendous error assailed them?

THRACIAN. - Whence, Timothy, but from the Prince of Lies, whodeceives the understandings of his witless votaries by such vain-glorious fiction, vaunting that he will place his throne above theclouds, and averring that he will be equal to the Highest; for thisvery reason he has been consigned to outer darkness: and when heappears to them, he announces himself the first-begotten son of Godand creator of all terrene [earthly] things, 2 who disposes of

' The original Greek is Zaravaq,), Satanael, not Zaravaa Satan, here and in allsubsequent mentions. The ending '-ael' or '-iel' in Hebrew mythology oftenindicated an angel, as 'El' was the divine suffix and one of the names of god.Psellus would have been aware of this, and used'Satanael'advisedly. So here thetranslator might be doing Psellus an injustice. See the section on the Bogomils inthe Introduction. -Ed.2 This, it must be admitted, is the true character of Satan, so far as regards his lyingpropensities; he was a liar from the beginning. "When he speaketh a lie he speakethhis own, for he is a liar, and his (the liar's) father." But whether there be anadmixture of vanity with mendacity, or his lies be uttered purely with a view todeceive, is not so easily determined; yet certainly his mendacious address to theMessiah, "All this power will I give thee and the glory of them, for that is delivered

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q9

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"troeql IqlcueJ

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'relc€J€qc

Iryls€oq € Jo e{€ued ol sruees ..'lr eArB I IIIA\ I Joloosruoq^\ o} pue 'eu olun

zuorlJnJlsapureual uo SurqsnJ pue r'sJaLIleJ Jrar{} ruoJJ pa^raJal uor8rlar aur^rcaq+ Surrnfqe ruor] alrrap daql op ]lJord 1eqr,r. 1ng 'AHJOIAIIT

'salelsode-o) srl pue tury roJ paprnord uaaq 3uo1 seqrIJIr{rw arrJ leql o}ur sanlasruaql alelrdnard pue zwolloJ 1ad daql (sdesqra^ord aq1 se) ,,'orII aql qll/v\ aq daql qSnoql paqJroJs,, 'sarnlearJ

11e ]o ]rafqe Jsoru aq+ poD yo aceld aql o] palrala aler{ pue /llamareJ

ralselntr rraql prq asaql ]nq ,,'lItJ s,JalseLu Jraql pue Jalsetu Jlaql/V\ou>l sse aql pue xo aql,, 'sdes laqdor4 aql sV 'raq1a3o1 s8urql 1espulq r{rlrlm (fstsoua] Sroclna) ssauauo pue luarua8uerre auo wq+ aq

lou plnom aJar{l 'sloleall alrsoddo oml aJaM alar{l JI leqt 'Suruoseardq 'razrolsrp Jou 'qlnrl arues-ilas aql Sur;epap dlrurn8uesuoJd;an leql Jeaq Jou 'ro1ear3 auo lnq sr aJaql leql 'aJnleu IesJalrunJo dlrurn8uesuoJ aql uroJJ 'anrauad louueJ daql a)urs 'auesurar{l pue 'leap aqt pue 'pullq aql alqtuasar daql 'lanaanoq 'luasard 1y'paderlaq Surderq sll 'uoII e a>lII reor o1 paldualle tI uaqm 'qrFlrvr ul{ss,uorl ur sse aql ueql Ja]]aq ou +no uJn] IIIM aq'sasnuo.rd padauoq sF{poo8 Suqeru snl uo lsrsur daql il rq 'ter1 e Suraq Jo ru1tl lf,rluor olraa,rod Jlaql uI aq uoos IIIM ll 'lalanoH 'asou aq+ dq uaxo a>Irl lnoqepal aq o] sa^lasuaql Surra;;ns pue 'sdes aq Surqldrana Surnarlaq

Jo pealsur 'suorsualard snodurod sH alnJrprJ vllaa. paulaqmJalo pue'pooqasle1 Jo aturrd-qJre aql pue geS8etq dldua ue urn{ paraprsuoraleq ol lq8no oqm 's1oo; aql sleaqr 'qlea Jo alqloJ reqnradaq] dn Surrvrolloy 'suearu sF{} ,{q pue 'pporw aql ur Surqldrana

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THRACIAN. - As to profit, I do not know that they derive drrlr but Irather think not; for though the demons promise them gold, andpossessions, and notoriety, yet you know they cannot glve them to any:they do, however, present to the initiated phantasms and flashingappearances,l which these men-detesters of God call visions of God.Such as wish to be spectators of them, gracious Heavens! How manyshameful things, how many unutterable and detestable [things] mustthey witness! For everything which we consider sanctioned by law, anda doctrine to be preached, and a duty to be practised, they madlydisregar d, ray, they even disregard the laws of nature; to commit theirdebaucheries to writing would only befit the impure pen ofArchilochus,2 nay,I do think that were he present he would be loath tocolrunemorate orgies so detestable and vile, as were never witnessed inCreece, no, nor in any barbarous land; for where or when did anyoneever hear that man, that august and sacred animal, ate excretions,whether moist or dry - a monstrosity whictu I believe, not even wildbeasts in a rabid state are capable of committing, and yet this is but thepreliminary proceeding with these execrable wretches.

TIMOTHY. - What for, Thracian?

THRACIAN. oh, this is one of their secrets they know bestwho do it: however, on my frequently questioning on this point, all Icould learn was, that the demons became friendly and affable ontheir partaking of the excretions. In this particular I was satisfiedthey spoke truth, though incapable of speaking it in other matters;since nothing can be so eminently gratifying to hostile spirits as tosee man (who is an object of envy), man who has been honouredwith the Divine image, fallen to such a state of degradation: this is

' This wording has echoes of the phraseology of the Chaldaean

2 n, 35 Oracles. -Ed.' The impure pen of Archilochus. - Archilochus was paying his addresses to the

daughter of one Lycambes, and was accepted as a suitor; but a richer candidate forthe lady's hand presenting himself, [and] Archilochus was dismissed. Upon thisArchilochus lampooned Lycambes in Iambic verse, and that with such effect that ina fit of vexation he [Lycambes] committed suicide. Horace, in his Ars Poetica (v.79), in allusion to this circumstance, says:- '(Archilocum proprio rabies armavitIambo."

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L9

ro slrqcng eril pue .rleJell'I "ro rlsoug eql 'slueprsoJd Jo rolelseoJd eql

- sosselc

eorqt olul pepr^rp ero^\ slrqcnE eql leql'sr eSessed e^oqe eql uror; aerp plno^\ e,,vr

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"(lrunuuoc eql ur slces rc lnsa"nnl 5rs5edrn eleeJc o1 uorlrsodsrp

eql s€q lseol 1e ;o '1ces e Jo JopunoJ eql sr orl^\ ouo 'ueeru eJoJeJeql lsntu fsodo"tqtuosoyryatrcl 5ouodgnn 5oxrradry, 'porruoJ er€ serged pue slces leql ,(qe.reqlsI lr s€ 'uorsuessrp Jo uorsrlrp glrl!\ sr uorlceuuoc elerporurur slr ige ry uorurdo qlrmuorlceuuoc fresseceu ou suq'esn lernldrJcs ur 'lnsa.uol5r5sdrn prol\ eql leql u1(oqseleq oA\ s€eJeq/( isnorcrured tng snoeuorle ,(1uo 1ou uor8rler ur suorurdo surepelueor1l\ euo serldur sfe,lle qclqr\\ 'cr1e;eq pJoly\ qsrlSug Jno ol re,t.rsue lr seop sselqcnu ',{relces pJoly\ Jno o} luelerrrnbe }ou sr os pue 'rynol {uo lo snonsuoJun eq ,letaoqrr '1ces n lnsatm] h5sdtn u€ Jo raqruoru e ueeru lou soop eceld srql ur lsotp1a"uol5ovrrgdrn pro^\ eql teql 'e8en8uel eql Jo snrue8 oql tuolJ 'ure1d sl tI

-:(l I 's

'V 'd 'e 'lsa1co.u1tg uo uottoualsnq) se^rosqo ',(cerncce pue ssouolnce lensn slq qlla'11eqdue3 'rq lurod tsel srql u6 'e8en8u€l eql Jo ernlcruls pu€ snrue8 ,,{-re,r eq1 qlrmecuerJel le sr 11 1nq 'seur1 enrlnuud ur u,{\oulun sel\ qclqr\\ 'osuos Iecrls€rselccepue uepout e 'lso4qa,nof 5ovrrsdrn pro,^& oql q qc€1l€ 1r seop fluo 1ou rog 's.,(e.ro.^Al ul uorlslsuerl-slu € sr srqJ '(l I '0I 'tn 'lsnftlJ)

- .Jlesurlq Jo peutuopuoc

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e Jo eurJlcop eql sse;dxe o1 eler"rdorddeur "reqle8ol1e s€,^A ]r '.lces, pJo./y\ eql sse-rdxe

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mystical sacrifice,l God preserve me! who could describe it? I blushto repeat the shameful things I witnessed, and yet I am bound torepeat them, for you, Timothy, have already prevailed on me; I willtherefore skim over them lightly, omitting the more shamefulproceedings, lest I should seem to be acting a tragedy, [rather thangiving a plain statement of facts.] z

Vesperi enim luminibus accensis, quo tempore salutarem domini celebramuspassionem, in domum prescriptam deductis, quas sacrilegi sacris suisinitiaaerunt, puellis ne lucem execrnndi quod designnnt, flagitii testem habeant,

cum puellis libidinose aolutantur in quamcumque tnndem, seu sororem, seu

propriam fliam, seu mntrem quilibet inciderit. Siquidem et hac in redamonibus rem gratnm facere arbitrantur, si leges diainas transgressi fuerint,in quibas cautum est, ne nuptia cum sanguine cognato contrahantur.3

Having perfected this rite, they are dismissed; on the expiry of ninemonths, when the unnatural progeny of an unnatural seed is aboutbeing born, they meet again at the same place, and on the third dayafter parturition, tearing the wretched infants from their mothers,and scarifying their tender flesh with knives, they catch in basins thedripping blood, and casting the infants, still breathing, on the pile,consume them; afterwards, mingling their ashes with the blood inthe basins, they make a sort of horrible compound, with which,secretly defiling their food, liquid and solid, like those who mixpoison with mead, not only they themselves partake of these viands,but others also who are not privy to their secret proceedings.a

TIMOTHY. What end do they propose to themselves by such

Praying-men, who formed perhaps the uneducated and largest portion - the last

being most generally known, and the most numerous, the whole body might have

P-: called by the general name, Euchitre.' This expression the Euchitre derived from the Christians, who designated theLord's Supper the mystical, i.e., symbolical sacrifice. This seems to indicate thatTransubstantiation [of bread and wine] formed no part of the primitive creed.t NOTE. - Wherever brackets are supplied thus i ] the words included are not theauthor's, but are merely inserted to make the sense more explicit.3 Basically a description of various incestuous sexual relationships.o This sounds like the worst kind of Christian propaganda against the Euchitre,which was seen as fair game, being a heretical sect. -Ed.

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os JoJ 'pa8undxa pue ]no ]snJW are slnos Jno ur paqrrJsur sloqrudsaur^rp aql sueau sllll dq leul papensrad are d".{J 'NVIfvuHJ

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live worse than wild beasts, for now Antichrist 1 is at hand, even atthe doors, and evil precursors in the shape of monstrous doctrinesand unlawful practices, flo better than the orgies of Bacchus, mustusher in his advent. And whatever things have been represented bythe Greeks in their tragedies, as Saturn and Thyestes 2 and Tantalusdevouring their offspring, CEdipus debauching his mother, andCinyras e his daughters, all these fearful enormities will break inupon our state; but see my son, and be on your guard, for know,know for certain, that not only individuals from the illiterate andunpolished class, but many also of the learned,a will be drawn awayinto the same practices." These things, if I am to judge from theresult, he spoke prophetically; but I, when I recall to mind his words,which are as fresh in my memory now as when he uttered them, amsurprised at what you tell me.

THRACIAN. - And well you may be surprised; for, many as are theabsurd nations described by historians in the far North, and the partsabout Lybra and Syrtes, yet I venture to say no one has ever heard ofsuch impiety being practised by them, rLo, nor by the Celts, nor byany other nation near Britain, though [it is] destitute of laws and in asavage state.

TIMOTHY. It is afflicting to think, Thracian, that such horriblepractices should take up their abode in our quarter of the world. Buta perplexity of long standing respecting demons distresses me;among other things, I should like to know whether they aremanifestly seen by the demoniacal wretches [who evoke them].

THRACIAN. - Not a doubt of it, my frien d, for this [result] they all

lAn being who resembles Christ but does not give true salvation, who appearsclose to the end-time, as mentioned in Revelations. -Ed.t Atreus cooked and served Thyestes' sons to him. *Ed.

'King of Cyprus, son of Apollo. -Ed.o It is somewhat remarkabl. thut heresy (we use the word in its present acceptation)has always originated with the learned. We doubt if there can be adduced a singleinstance of an illiterate heresiarch [founder of a heresy], which would seem to showthat its rise is not owing so much to the ignorance of the multitude as to a daringspirit of innovation and depraved ambition in men of learning.

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L9

'sle8ueJo 1€q1WI.^.r uos eqlJo r(llroqne pue re,u,od rouedns eql sls€r1uoc eylsodyeql ereql( 'osre^ LltL'sMarqag laqt o7 afltsldg [o le1]deqc lsl eq] ur 'Surueetu pu€ocJoJ Jo elnlrlsep '{1"re11n

eq III/K }f "{e,,rr

srq} uI eSessed eq} e{el e,r sselun 'sr 1r uregec

..lerg Jo or.u€U e sJelsrurw srq '[spurlr ;o] 's1r.rrds sla8ue srq qle{€ru e11,, 'uorsJoAposuoqln€ eql q peJepuer ,(I}ce.uoc e8essed eql reprsuoc lnq louu€c e^A 6('slu€AJossrq eJU Surweg eql 'sre8uesseru srq spur.& eql qle{eur e11,, 's;epuer ('sas,lno)ste

lD)1utouo"4st, sH e^erleq arrr) 'sryo/\\ slq Jo ouo ur sreul€qJ 'J(I 'eSessed slr{J e'lurod reil€l srql qsrlqslse ol rE seo8 'uorsu€tu elq€lrns

e se lnq 'esnoq uosud e w lou 'f,poq eqt ,(dncco llll\ Inos eql ueqa 'uorlceunseleql lB fpoq pu€ Inos eql Jo uorun eql llll pelerutunsuoc eq lou IIr^\ sseurddeqs6re^erleq eql leql lceJ oqJ ',(uedord SurperSep e ssessod ol stuees ll leq} 'u€ruuell€J qlld\ pel€rcosse Sureq sll ol Sur.nno fle.reu sr 1r ilrlds ernd e qlr^\ uorun roJ llslgun fylerour qclq^\ Eurqlou

- ll ul Surleurueluoc Surqtou seq JelJetu 'pereprsuocflpelce4sqv ',{poq e qcns erreq ,(eu sle8ue l€q} uorlrsoddns eq} ul leuorlerrr Surqlousr eregt 'sseurddeq pue ecr^ros lenlurds elqrssod lseq8rq eqt roJ peng eg il€qs qclq^\euo lng 'f,poq luese;d eql sserddo leql slu€1r\ eql ol 1cefqns rou 'ssor8 rou 'pergeq reqlreu ileqs qcrq,r fpoq e (VV ''nx lsuotqtull,toS 7s1) ',(poq l€rn1eu e se IIe^\se 1en1r-rrds € sr eJeql,, 'sr(es ellsody eql se gr '1er{ ieunurelep o1 sdeqted }lncUJIpsr 1r 'ecuereodde Jo uors€cJo cgrceds eql q pelrns uuoJ B ur ro 'ernleu redo-rd ;reqlur pe;eedde feql reqleq^\ 1nq luorlela^o5 ur rolerleq frene ,{q pellrulpe eq }sntu'ru.ro3: elqrsr^ ur pe-reedde el€q 'uoru 01 pog Jo sre8uessal4l 's8ureq IerlseloJ $VI z

'pE-'eer€seeJJo doqsrq ('g'C 6LE-08il IIS€g'1S r

JoJ /os uana aq spaau lsntu ll puv 2,,'atl1 Jo atuelJ e sJa8uassaru stt{pue /slrrrds sla8ue sF{ qlaTeu oH,, 'Surdes 'slaqdord aqt Io palerqalarlsoru 'pl^ecl 1o duorupsal aql sarnppe aq snlt Jo yoord ur pue tslrrrdsaJnd pue /lerJae 'u1ql Jo Uos e Suraq 7'sarpoq aleq sla8ue aJnd aqluala lnq /suotuep aq1 u{laraur }ou leql '}l surelureur (sada dreurpro o1

JealJ lou lseal 1e ro) s8uryl alqrsrlur plar{aq oqm 1'snrpseg aurrup aq}pue lurol dUpoq e ur uraql ol pareadde suoruep aql rworl Surlelar oo1dueu rear{ aM 'sarr}rerd prr8eru o1 dl4reaq JIasurF{ }rlppe dpo auop 'uor8rlal Jno to sJallley ,,{1oq aq} uoJJ uala uJeal deru auo qJrqm's8uraq parodroJ qllm luesJaluoJ aJe pue 'dpoq e aAeL{ aglq uourepaql llearodrorur lou are daql 'puauy poo8 du '1ng 'NVIfVUHJ

asue8ro 1ensrl aqlr{ll1\^ uaas aq 'parodrorur Suraq 'daql uer uaql /v\oH - 'AHJOI trIJ

srl{r 'or

praq aIe 'slrar{r," "::il:Ht:ffiilT:"":"#1fft# 'alr;rlles pue aSelquasse rralll [rol] lureur pue 1q3Ru [rl]l1v\] 'anrrls

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when the ministering spirits are despatched to their respectiveemployments t (ur the divine Paul says) they must needs have somebody, in order to their moving, becoming stationary and apparent;for these effects could not be accomplished otherwise than throughthe medium of a body.

TIMOTHY. - How comes it then, that in most passages of Scripturethey are spoken of as incorporeal.

THRACIAN. It is the practice both with Christian and profaneauthors, even the most ancient, to speak of the grosser description ofbodies as corporcal; but those which are very thin, eluding both thesight and touch, not only we Christians, but even many profaneauthors think fit to call incorporeal.

TIMOTHY. But tell me, the body which angels have by naturalconstitution, is it the same with that which demons have?

THRACIAN. - What folly! There must be a vast difference, for theangelic, emitting a sort of extraneous rays, is oppressive andintolerable to the visual organs: but as to the demonic, whether itwas once of this sort I cannot say, but so it would seem; (for Esaias

[Isaiah] disparagingly calls Lucifer "him that had fallen") now,however it is an obscure and darksome sort of thing, saddened inaspect, divested of its kindred light; but the angelic nature isimmaterial, and therefore is capable of penetrating and passingthrough all solids, being more impalpable than the sun's tays, which,passing through transparent bodies, the opaque objects on this earthreflect, so as to render its stroke endurable, for there is somethingmaterial in it; but nothing can interpose opposition to an angel,because they present opposition to nothing, not being homogeneousrvith any thingi on the other hand, the bodies of demons, thoughconstituted indistinct by their tenuity; are yet in some measurematerial and palpable.

TIMOTHY. - I am becoming quite a sage, Thracian, (as the proverb

' The passage referred to, plainly is, "are they not all ministering spirits sent forth tominister to those who shall be heirs of salvation."

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'lpg - y2 e?ed llrou]'e8ed

qLV eqt ur '.$1cu1 snolncrprJ, spJoA\ eql uo elou ees 'eserqd I€cruqcel € sr srgJ ,'[,{-reqcee"rl

1ea.r8 le{} roJ snou€J ere.r suerur8eque3 er{J] 'sapt{ o)lund eqt Jo preeqseg euo f"rerrg

- (('serlleq A\ols 'slseeq prre 'uer1 s,(e,u1e eJe sueloJC eql,, 'qlru] slr

Jo uorluqordde qtlm 'ueq1.;to uorlducsep seprueurdE 1eo4 eq] setrc ('T,l 'I [;e1de]qc)'srulJ o7 altsldT eqt ur Insd ellsodv

"qt 'lerqreno-rd eueceq qlleJ peq rreql t€qt os

qcntu os 'serlrsuedo-rd 3urf1 Jroql JoJ elqelJeureJ erel\ suurJruoqd pue su€leJJ e,{I ,'o1pepnlle qre,to"rd eql oq ol stuees pue o.'qcnu 8uru.rea1 fltuelsuoc ,(q p1o euoceq

1,, '5onsdoXooglg oyyou r3D .g olXondtrl" :uolos Jo uorsseJdxa ue sr 8uuro11oJ egJ r

wunbnnb quawalJxa wanbut '4sa alqtpanul ry 'quuanotd aqawtads

uapsonb satutaa p lun+rwa tunna qlnuuou uwtads p wnpowpauanj

'aq prcs ,ilI lo lenop e loN,, 'uotssed Ierulue ;o alqedeJ ala1v\ suotu€p

JI '8ur1se dtu uo 'af,uo pue lsuourep lnoqe sBuFIl dreutproerlxapue dueur aru plol dlSurp;orre aq lspueq ,tu le uorlJnrlsur

Jo asJnoJ e luamJapun ';lasurq Surdldde dlsnonplsse pue 'ssalorda,lv\ LIJIr{'I 'aurrlrop anJl aql ol Jlastun{ paqlell€ 'uorleluelar s}Iapeu Surneq pue 'anrldacap pue ssal{ilo,,vr se pauopueqe spJeMJaUe

aq saJrlJerd prr8eru asar{l :sruse}ueqd rruoruap ;o rolradsur paleqrurue sem dlear oqm 'enuelodosalN ur Tuoru e qllm pasJaluoJ I lng

isuotuap Jo sTool

InJreaJ aLIl plor{aq ralau deur I leql lue"r8 uaneaH - arn}eu leql }oSuraq e uaas Jalau aleq 1'qrcd umo du ro;g1uor1rn1ul ol sa^lasruaqlpalnlualpe oLIM aruos ruoJJ pJeaq I qJlr{,v\ passarddns aleq1 ';anaanoq 'qrnyq 'Surragns Jo alqeder palnlrlsuo) 'sarpoq Jo suearudq luatuqsrund o8rapun spaau lsnur daql aroJaraql 'dpoq aLIl uIraJJns louuer dpoq e Jo alqpsap sr leLI] Suraq e arurs 'parodrorul JIyo alqedeJur aq plnom d".Il luaruqsrund e'alrl Hll,vr pal{srund

"q ileqssuoruap aql ]eql 'urrryle qJIqM'sprom s,rnornes aql ruoJJ qlnr1 Jraql

Jo papensrad rue ]nq 7'suearruor{d pue :sup}aJ3 aq} aTrl 'sarposdeqr3urd1 3urra11n lou ure 1 'sluarualels asaql Suoleru ur teql 'sFI]Jo palnsse ag 'sasealf,ur asuas poo8 rno 'aJuenpe sa8e se'II 'ranam.oq'llarvr sr1, 1sr Surdes aq+ se 'dqlotulJ 'uaru aJe arnl se 3uo1 os 's8u1q+dueru Jo luerou8r Suraq rno ur dllarrou ou sr araql - 'NVIfVUHI

'alqedpd pue Iearodror are suourep auros ler{l 'lJe! Ialou e sr s1{l'paapur 'atu o1 ro; la8palmoDl Jo suorssa)Je Ialou asal{t dq,'(sdes

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damonibus inesse, aasaae spermntica et aitalia aasa quidem eis, inquit me,

hujusmodi nulla insunt, superflui autem seu excrementi nescio quidemittunt hoc mihi asserenti credito. t

But, said I, if they derive nourishment, they must derive it as we do?Marcus [for that was his name], replied, some derive it by inhalation,as for instance a spirit resident in lungs and nerves, and some frommoisture, but not as we do, with the mouth, but as sponges andtestaceous2 fishes do, by drawing nourishment from the extraneousmoisture lying around them, and they afterwards void [give out] aspermatic substance, but they do not all resemble each other in thisparticular, but only such descriptions of demons as are allied tomatter, such as the Lucifugus,3 and Aqueous, and Subterranean. Andare there many descriptions of demons, Marcus, I asked again?There are man/, said he, and of every possible variety of figure andconformation, so that the air is full of them, both that above and thataround us, the earth and the sea are full of them, and the lowestsubterranean depths. Then, said I, if it would not be troublesome,would you particularize each? It would be troublesome, said he, torecall to mind matters I have dislodged from thence, yet I cannotrefuse, when you command, and so saying he counted off manyspecies of demons, adding their names, their forms, and their haunts.

TIMOTHY. What's to hinder you then Thracian, enumeratingthem to us?

THRACIAN. I was not very solicitous, ffiy good sir, to retaineither the substance or arrangement of that conversation, nor can Inow recollect it. What possible benefit could I derive from an over-solicitude to retain their names, their, haunts, and in what particularthey resemble, and in what differ from each other? Therefore, I haveallowed such insipid matter to escape my memory, fect, I retain alittle out of a great deal, and whatever you are curious about, if youenquire of me you shall know it.

I About the eating of excrement.' Shellfish and others having a hard shell. -Ed.'Demons who "flee the light". -Ed.

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99

'qslrl eqlJo uneqcerde'I eql pue 6surle-l eqlJo sernr.ue-I eql srql sr 'f;en[ o'eQIq cluotu€p eql Jo sseuprervrr{ervr

pue sseues;e,ued eql quoJ ,rop€r{s o1 ,(11de 1{3noq1 se,Lr ';eq}o eql 01 lenbeun servr

qclqr!\ Jo euo fuerre 'seprs eeJql ,(q pepunoq se.4\ qclq^d 'e13ueu1 euelecs eql elrqa's8uteq u€unq lueserder o1 pesoddns eJoJeJagl se,r pue 'uorleuuoJuoc sll q lceg,redos elrnb lou pereprsuoc se^\'eprs lenbeun euo pue lenbe o.^rr1 ,(q pepunoq s€,^A r{crq,lrr

'e13ueu1 solecsosJ eqJ 'll fq peluese;der se pepre8er e;ervr s8ureq lerlseloc eql ecueq'ecuellecxe Jo urelque eql peJeprsuoc se,l 'seprs lenbe eeJr{l ,{q pepunoq s€,r qclq^\'e13ueu1 lerelelrnbe eql

- ropeeJ qsrlSug eJeru eqt q fpelncrged eroru lrecuoc

srql ureldxe o1 ,ftessocou oq ,{eur 11 're31n,t e}erelrllr eql lou eJe,^A suorurdo lngrcuegqcns pecerqtue oq,^d. esoql leql s,lAor.{s 1r 's1ue,re fie rc 1nq 'sueero8eqp{4 eq} uror;pe^IJep s€,^d uoqou srql flqeqord lsoru isern8g ro 'srueJoeql 'stuelqo-rd lecrrletuoeCo1 Sutueetu leJotu e Sutu8tss€ Jo ]lqeq eql ur e;e 'enerleq e,lA 'suercrleruegtetuu.repou rno Jo ,\\eJ 'popuelq ,,tlsnounc ere scrletueql€hl pue sclqlE ereH i

'pg-'1enbe se18ue o^\l pue seprs o,^dl qlr,^A elSuerrl y ,'pg-'lceJredurl eql Sullueserder eroJereql pue'seprs lenbeun eerql qlr.Lr elSuelrl V r

aloqe rre aql sluner{ suoruep Jo rapro slr{I 'snoau8l saryu8rs qJIqMaureu e 'an8uol JelnJeuJan snoJeqJeq s1tl uI Sur4eads ,'LunrJnlla-I[aql] pauor]uau aq ]srrJ pue 'suotuap 1o sarJads xrs JJo pa]unoJaq 'urelral sr s1t{} 'lou Jo uorurdo slql ;o dleal aJaM aq Jar{laqM

'aruallalxa ol Surqreordde ile le lou pue ,Jlasll r{lla,raJuerJen 1e Suraq se 'a18uerJl € auale)s aql dq paluasardar aJaM aglrlJruoruep aql leql 'pueq Jaqlo aql uo 'af,ueluadar uo uorleurJotaJ

Jo alqeder lad 'acroql Jraql ur JoJJa ol alqel aJnsearu aruosur Suraq se r'a18uerJl salaJsosr ar{} dq paluasardar aJaM s8uraq ueunq]slF{/\^ 'llna ol alqeullrul d11ntr;pp Ll}lrt pue /Jlas}l r{ll1w }ualsrsuo)Suraq se 'a18uerJl IeJalepnba al{t dq paluasardar arazvr JapJo IeqsalaJpue aurllp ar{};o s8uraq +eq} ro1 ,'a18uerr} aualeJs aq} dq paluasardarsem [apexas aq]] raqrunu tsrlJ slr{+ ler{l 'panrasqo ar{ spremra+Ie1pa1n14suor sem ualsds auepunu al{l lI o1 dlqeaar8e pue 'pasrrdruoraJe saJuelsrunJJD parodJo) IIe Jaqrunu leLI] uI asneJaq ,auepuntu

pue Iearodror ara1v\ [suoruep Jo uor]eJrJrsselJ plolxrs] apexas aqt ]eqlp1es aq 'deur lI se leql aq - sarpoq ol luatuq)e+le rraql;o aar8ap aqldq ro 'sllqer{ rraq} dq snua8 arr}ua aql Surpr^rpqns raq}aqm lou ,vrou>I

1 'suotuep to sanads xrs IIe ur aram araql 'pps aH - 'NVIfVUHI

.alaql aJe suoruepJo srapro dueu ,vror{ 'azrou>1 ol r{srm I relnrrued ur sHI - .AHIOI IIJ

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us, for the entire genus has been expelled from the regions adjacentto the moon, as a profane thing with us would be expelled from a

temple, but the second occupies the air contiguous to us, and iscalled by the proper name A€rial; the third is the Earthly, the fourththe Aqueous and Marine, the fifth the Subterranean, and the last theLucifugus, which can scarcely be considered sentient beings.

All these species of demons are haters of God, and enemies of man,and they say, that the Aqueous and Subterranean are worse than themerely bad, but that the Lucifugus are eminently malicious andmischievous, for these, said he, not merely impair men's intellects,byfantasies and illusions, but destroy them with the same alacrity as wewould the most savage wild beast. The Aqueous suffocate in thewater all that approach them; the Subterranean and Lucifugus, ifthey can only insinuate themselves into the lungs of those they meet,seize and choke them, rendering them epileptic and insane; theA€rial and Earthly, with art and cunning stealthily approach anddeceive men's minds, impelling them to unlawful and unnaturallusts.

But how, said I, or what doing [what], do they accomplish this? Is itby lording it over us, and leading us about wherever they please, as

if we were so many slaves? Not by lording it over us, says Marcus,but by leading us into reminiscences, for when we are in animaginative spirit, approaching by virtue of their spiritual nature,they whisper descriptions of sensual delights and pleasures, not thatthey actually emit distinct sounds, but they insinuate a sort ofmurmur, that serves with them the place of words. But it isimpossible, said I, they could utter words without sound?

It is not impossible, said he, as you will perceive, if you only reflect,that when one is speaking to another at a distance, he must speak ina high k"y, but if he be near, he need barely murmur, and whisperinto the ear of his auditor [istener], and if one could approach thevery essence of the soul, there would be no occasion for any soundwhatever,but any word we pleased would reach its destination by unoiseless path; a faculty which they say is possessed by disembodiedspirits, for they bold communication with each other in a noiseless

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luer8 pefe-euo eql ,{q tulq 01 uenr8 s€,tt U ',$rlrqrsrrrur poJJoJuoc }eruleq s(olnld z'0IT,'602 '^ 6Z

{ooq ''y laltstdflLsap!"tDy,;":,t":;i:,::#{":x:i;:,,#::;#

ur o4 e>1o ds,{1 qe qord oq^^) o, n,,n,o "tffiil1

ilt fr Tillll#.:Hil,"- fi :l',t;pe^elsue osoql Jo uorlrpuoc eql ueeq e^eq lsnl'u peqcleJ,r ^/v\oH .('sn uodn ep€tu eq

tqSru {ce}l€ ue regenb l€rllA uro4 IIel o} elqrssodul se,l l1,, 'sr(es uercerqJ se '1eq}

os ilnos srq olur soJrsap erndur Sur.redsrqn 'uoruep IeIJQV u€ Jo >lrol\ aql se./v\ srql

fueqtl 'uorleur8etur luerrrud e go sercuer8el {qtlg eql qlr.^A peluneq eg o} 'pe,(oldrue,(lsnoulsnpur peoq og] Jo spueq eql Surdeel lou ruo4 euo selt isuoursp ourJeINro snoenbv eql Jo ouo '(q ;epun pe11nd se,^A eq fueqll 'eroru ou esrr o] {urs pue'druerc glr^\ pezros ,(peppns eq ol Surqleq el!q/!\ euo s€,{a isuourep u€eueue}qns Jo

sn8tgrcnl orll Jo euo fq peuorsecco s€^\ {leep srq [ueq1] 'duep-e1oqc Surlequr fq'1cur1xe ,(lueppns eueoeq oJII pue 'llen e Surlurs [ur] pe8e8ue euo ereA 'sseullnJ

pu€ 'qlpeerq 'q1dep 'r{}3ue1 s}l II€ ur ,,'suorusp Jo eurJlcop ogl,, poepur sr sn{J I

(uodar daql se) ro; 'lrrrds ueauoreqf aql Jo rauueu aqt rarye Surrnfur'a1qura1 dran pue snora8uep daql are lad 'Suruunr Jo alqederurale pue 'llm Jo ap4red e lou aner{ suotuep ;o uo4drJ)sap Jar{to aql

'spunu s,uaru ur uorloruruof, e alEaJJ daql 'd1a11qns paurJal lsoru ar{}pue UeJ) qllm 7'1aur1aq s,olnld Suruuop 't{eta. sn{} uI roy €urlerado-oJ suorle;rdsrad urrem pulJ daql uarlm dlenadsa pue 'slnorueIeJnleuun pue auesur ol alrJxa daql 'suorlelplll dq suorssed Jaseqaql Sursnor 'ool 'sarurlatuos €urdaals pue Suqeuvr Llloq 's1q8r1appnsuas Jo suorleluasardar Surpn4qo 'sarnseald Jo uorlJalloJaJaql Sulnrnar 'suBISap 8uqsa88ns 'alqnoJl Jo Ieap lsel e aruanbasuo)ur sn uorseJJo pue 'lrrrds 1eturue Jno olul uaql lrodsuerl'aseald daqt sruJoJ Janaleqm pue'srnoloJ pue saJuereadde Surrunsse'suotuap ar{l osp snql 1(srorrrur ur anJasqo deu alvr se) 'tua{}Surrrraral Jo alqeder slra[qo ol uaql sJnusueJl pue 'sruro; pue sJnoloJsaurquroJ ar{ 'saurqs uns aq} uar{lvr laraqdsoule aq} ur suaddeqleqm raprsuoJ dpo nod ;r '1urod sn{} uo }enop ou aner{ paau no1

,'sn uodn aperu aq deur TJene ue Jauenb leqzvrruort ra^oJsrp ol alqrssodurr sI ll leql os 'll Surnrar.rad rno lnoqllM'sn qlrnt uorleJrunururoJ ploq suoruep aq1 derr,r. aures aql ul 'Jauueru

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the Charonean spirit 1 destroys every thing that comes in its way,whether beast, man, or bird; in the same way these demonsterrifically destroy everyone they fall in with, injuring them in bodyand mind, and subverting their natural habits; sometimes theydestroy not merely men, but even irrational animals, in the fire, inthe water, or by casting them over precipices.2

TIMOTHY. But what can be their object in entering irrationalanimals? For this happened to the swine, at Gargasa 3 (as the SacredWritings attest). I am not surprised if, being hostile to men, theyinjure them; but what is the sense of their entering irrationalanimals?a

THRACIAN. Marcus said that it was not from any motive ofhatred, nor from any hostile intention, that they pounced upon somebeasts, but from a vehement desire for animal heat; for, as theyinhabit the most profound depths, which are cold to the last degree,and destitute of moisture, they are excessively cold; being contractedand pained in consequence, they naturally long for a moist andvivifying heat to revel in, and spring into irrational animals, and

I Associated with caves and the Underworld. -Ed.2 A reference to Christ driving out demons in Gadarenes, which subsequentlylodged in swine, and which then conveniently threw themselves over a precipice. -Ed.

' Presumably Gerasene or Gadarenes . See Mark 5:l-20: "And they came over untothe other side of the sea [of Galilee], into the country of the Gadarenes. And whenhe fJesus] was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs aman with an unclean spirit. Who had his dwelling among the tombs; and no mancould bind him, not [even] with chains ...neither could any man tame him...And allthe devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter intothem. And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, andentered into the swine: and [then] the herd ran violently down a steep place into thesea...and were choked in the sea." -Ed.o The point of choosing to enter into irrational animals was that they feared Jesuswould cast them into water, in the same way Solomon had used water to controldemons. Luke 8:31: "And they [the demons] besought him fJesus] that he would notcommand them to go out into the deep". But Jesus tricked them, by allowing themto enter into the herd of 2000 swine, and then compelling the animals to throwthemselves into the sea, thereby neatly accomplishing what the demons had mostfeared. -Ed.

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69

('ZES1 '[q8rnq]urpg[uot]1tpe 'T,gt ''l 'lo^ 'lacaa"tg lo sarymfb4uy lary "to 'o)ao",rg otSoloaoqc.ryfs,reltod [uqof]) ,,epeep eql tuor; 3ur,u1 eq} Suru;ecuoc e;rnbur .(eql op fq16 epogJIoI{} olun >lees uolleu e }ou lleqs 'qcptuo}s aq} urorg >1eeds lerll 'spro,l ur€A Jeilnleql esoql 'quee eql Jo 1no >1eeds leql pue 'flleq rreql ur sr qceeds esoq^\ esoql olun>1ees 'nor{ olun ,(es '{eql JL, '}1 erreq |u8on1dag eql s€ 'sfes fqeresl] seresl suos;edpessessod qcns ol uorsnlle ur sl lI '(suourep eql ol pelnqrrpe osle s€^\ oru€u r{clq^\)

IroqruW.ttsoSSal rogollrdronl"l,a peueu osle erelr .(eq1 'serpoq rrog] urqU,tl elods rope8pol reqlre slurds eql esn€ceq pue isuourep qlr^\ pessassod 'a'r 'ltoldayuoutlDplroruLrlrnorirng pellec ere^\ eseq] iceruouep oql Jo sraqwaw aW lo asn

Sut4out'sellesrueql re^\sue eql pacunouord rc !sdt1 raql .to san8uot "t1ary 3u1noul sD

qcnu os lou pue 'sselqceeds Surureruer olpll!\ eql IIe ,(eq1 'suos;ed pessessod aq1;oslseerq ro sorlloq ogl Jo 1no elods ro 'rueql go pelnbul oq,K esoql ol re^\su€ plnoqs,{eq1 teqlr po}elcrp pue 'uaql urqlr.^& pe8pol qclq,K 'suoruep 8ur,{seqdord q1r.r,r

pessessod eJe^\ sra)uDwoaqt Jo uos euo,,-:eloqe oql uo lq8rl elqeJeprsuoc s,rorq]qclqr\\ e8essed e seq 'sra)Ltotttroau Jo spuH lueJeJJrp eerr{} eq1 Eurqrrcsep ';el1o4

,

dq lnq passassodqp aq raraJtns e uer rou lyap pue qtunp dlarrdordlear8 Wlzrn paleu8rsap sI ]r uoseal qJrqm ro1 /lseaq pllrl.r. alqelJerlurlsoru aql ueql ;oordal Jo peaJp aloru ou seq ll 'rulr{1v\ Ieuor}eJJr

'{q paurarro8 Suraq '1ra11a1ur to pro^ap dp1o1 pue Ieuorlerrr sr

lr asne)aq'tnq lrazwod leJnleu s,JaJatJns aql ile salnJsqo pue slunlq lI'ssassod dllanas ueJ lr auodue pue 'drp pue ploJ dlanrssatxa aJoJaJaLIl

sI pue 'sraqlo ar{l ueq} Lluea ol pa1le aroru sr sanads lsel sFI}roy lpeap JaJatJns aql sa^eal lsorule pue 'atueralln sF{ sdols 'tualsdsaloqm slr{ Jo uorlexelal e suorse)Jo }1 'uosrad e ssassod dlaurlsapuelJuoruap sn?n{tcn1 e JI }nq lraqruau umo srl{ aram ll JI se 1 nn{{nsaql lo an8uoq aq4 Bwsn 'urFI q8norqt sleads pue 'passassod uosradaql suolsrp pue salelr8e aq 'auo slresse uoruep ueaueJJalens e uaqM

'suorloru Jral{l 8u4rn4sqo pue 'sar11nre;JIaLII Surrnfut pue 'suosrad s,uaru 8ur1e1r8e Jrar{l Jo asneJ aq} sl I{JITIzvr

'sarpoq rraql Jo TInq ar{} dq pareldsrp pue paurfuor lrrrds aLI} pue'pa33o1t Suraq saprsar lrrrds 1eturue aLIl q)rqm ul sarod aql ';eordnilerus ou uorserro daql tuaql olur pasryq ual{rvr pue 11p ;o prua8uorlsoru Suraq se 'uelu;o ]et{l o1 dllenadsa 1nq'a.rnleu rraql o1 prua8uorSuraq se 'sleurrue Jo aJnlsrotu ar{t o} sallasruaql qJel}e dpe131nq '3un{Jro)s pue SununsuoJ [sl lt] asneraq 'prone daql arrJ ruorJspaarord leql ]ear{ ar{l /pueq rar{to ar{l uo tslrd pue sqleq o}q a8unld

snllasd laeqrrl/{

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divine power, procurable by prayer and fasti.g.t

"BrJt, Marcus," said I, "physicians would persuade us to be ofanother way of thinking, for they assert that such affections are notproduced by demons, but are occasioned by an excess or deficiencyof humours, or by a disordered state of the animal spirits, andaccordingly they endeavour to cure them by medicine or dieteticalregimen, but not by incantations or purifications."

Marcus replied - "It is not at all surprising if physicians make such

an assertion, for they understand nothing but what is perceived bythe senses, their whole attention being devoted to the body.Lethargies, Syncopes,2 cases of hypochondriasm, delirium, whichthey can remove by vomits, or evacuations, or unguents,3 it is quitecorrect to say that there are the effects of disordered humours; butenthusiasms, and madness, and possessions, with which when one isseized he is incapable of making any use of his judgment, his tongue,his imagination, his senses, it is quite another thing [that] moves andexcites them, and speaks what the person seized is unconscious ofuttering, though occasionally be prophesies something." With whatpropriety [I ask] can these effects be called the disorderedmovements of matter?

TIMOTHY. - How now, Thracian! do you yourself assent to whatMarcus says?

THRACIAN. Most undoubtedly, Timothy; for how could I dootherwise, when I recollect what the holy Gospels relate concerningpersons possessed with dremons, and what befell the man of Corinthat Paul's command,a and how many wonderful things are related ofthem by the [Church] Fathers; and moreover saw with my own eyes,

and heard with my own ears, their doings at Elason; for a man in

' Our Lord says, in reference to the expulsion of dremons, "This kind goeth notforth but by prayer and fasting." To this declaration allusion is here evidently made.

' Loss of consciousness, fainting. -Ed.

' F.o* this we learn that the application of unguents to the sick, referred to by theApostle James, was not a religious, but a purely medical application.a Paul commanded that the man of Corith who had committed incest should beexcommun-icated. -Ed.

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tt

'pE-'{eo1K

uorssed pellec ere snsel Jo uorxurcruc relseg eql reue lsnl pu€ eroJeq lsnf s^€p e{J ,'pE-'epeuolsBJ solr€J ,(q pegoder secuerredxe cruetueqs eql ol r€lrurs z

'pE-'po8 uns eqJ r

ru1rl >IJnrls sJamollo1 dru Jo auo uaqm 'pue 'au p1o1 aq s8urql asaqJ

'Surqldue 1sa33nso] pasodsrp ru1{ passassod oLIM uoruap aql sr '+\ arlsap dllear8p1nor{s Jlasrun{ aq q8notll lou 'suerlsrrqf dq paleraual L{Jmu os 'depuor+JalJnsay aql pue e TaaM uoISSed uo lnq lpaqsr,rra. u4r{ passassod

or{,vr uoruap aql se /sarup r{Jns le pue 's8ulql qJns Sutlradsa.rdpo 1nq ']rlpard ppor aq luaruoru luasard arll ol dn auq ler{} uorC

z'qJeruols sH olur leorql sF{ uMoppue 'turq spJemo] dg uaner Jo uos p pallaJrad aq rlJlt{zvr Suotue uoJJ'suotuep

'o lsorl E aas ol ru1q palqeua 'luan8un uIeUaJ e LIIIM sada

srq Surluroue pue 'qlnoru sn{ olut 8ut}}lds 'qratl uleual e Jo a>le1red

ol u4r{ Sursner 'urelunour e o} lq8ru dq -H Sur8uuq 'or{rvr 'uerrr;ypuoqe8en ureual e q8norql sarqrerd leJeluoruap Jo a8pa1,,r,r.ou1

aql ol aruoJ peq aq leql ples aq roy 'qlnrl ar{l passatuor 'dlrssaoauJruo)el e Japun Surrnoqel '+a,{ 'larlas ar{} aSlnnrp ol r{sllvr }oup1p ar{ q8noql 'ag iLrc rrlaqdord aqt H}Irr,r' paUIS ag o} atue) ar{ ,rnot{

urF{ paTse I 'u4r{ puaqarddn p1p I uar{zvr 't{}3ua1 lV 's}reJ aq} aru plo}oJJ pue ol ssed ol pasn or{M .,(uetu pue 'uorlednrro pue 'luarupodap'lradse dru 'oo1 'paquosap aH 'sa8elpn Surrnoqq8rau aql ol se dlroaql tuory reJ se auo8 ralau peq I q8noql 'parapn aq suoqupard r{JnS

,,'+l r{s[druoJJe ol suoJJa snoro8rn pue ,(ueru aTeru aq q8noV] lou -lI op lou 11eqs aq'tunquezf,go+ Jauoslrd e;;o aru drrer o+ snolxue dranaq aq q8noql '1nq luosrad ler{t ,{q papuaqardde aq ileqs srar{}o dueurpue Jlasdur lpaqsr1oqe aJrAJas rno Jo sarralsdtu aql pue 'palnras.radaq IIIM drqs.rorvr Jno Jo sarralsdu aqt ruor{lvr ,{q'sn 1surc8e }uasaq IIIM Ienpwpur ue leql lreJ aql Jo .,(uedruor luasard aqt asrrdde I,,

- ples ar{'tu}I punore pa+e4ruraql Jo apnllllntu aql palJallor Surneg 'lasdtu Sururaruor ,vray

e lou patJrpard 's8urql raqlo ls8uoue 'pue r'snqoqd Jo slsarrd aql

Jo rauueu at{} rage salrero Surranrlap Jo }lqeq aql uI sem a)e1d 1eq+

snllasd laeqrrl/{

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on the cheek, "you," said he, "fot this one blow shall receive many;and you," satd he, turning to me, "shall, suffer great calamities inyour person, for the demons are fearfully incensed against you forsubverting their service, and will involve you in harassing dangers,such as you cannot by any possibility escape, unless some powersuperior to that of demons extricate you.1 These things the pollutedwretch predicted, as if uttering oracles from the Delphic Tripod; forthey all happened, and I have been almost undone by the numerousdangers which beset me; from which my Saviour alone wonderfullyrescued me; but who that has seen the oracle in which demons playupon wind instruments,2 will say that madness in all its forms are

t Thi, is just the oracular style. There was always some proviso attached to oracularresponses, or some ambiguity in them, which was calculated to save the oracle'scredit. Thus when Crcsus applied to Apollo's oracle at Delphos, to know whether heshould march against Cyrus, he received for answer -

"CrGSLts Halym penetrans, magnam pervertet opum vim.""lf Crcesus cross the river Halys, he shall overturn a great empire."

The event proved fto be] his own overthrow. The same ambiguity attends thefamous reply of the same oracle to Pyrrhus: -

"Aio te Aacida, Romanos vincere possum.""I do pronounce that Rome Pynhus shall overcome."

Which may be interpreted to mean, either that Rome should overcome Pyrrhus, orthat Pyrrhus should overcome Rome. It is in much the same prudential spirit ourhero of Elason here adds, "unless some power superior to the dremons extricateyou."2 This is a passage on which we confess ourselves utterly unable to throw any light;we scarcely dare to hazard a conjecture. It strikes us, however, that a verysuccessful imposture might be played off by means of A,olian harps. Perhaps it is tosomething of that nature allusion is made. We may observe, by the way, it is a greatmistake to suppose that oracles ceased universally on the coming of Christ (as whatis here mentioned proves). Though daily declining, they continued long after, as thelaws of the Emperors Theodosius 1378-395 and 408-450 C.E.l, Gratian 1407 C.E.l,and Valerian 1253-260 C.E.] against such as consulted them clearly evince. It wouldbe more proper to say that wherever the power of Christ was brought to bear uponthem they ceased, and eventually died out. Their cessation is attested by Strabo,Juvenal, Lucan, and others. Plutarch accounts for it by saying that the benefits ofthe Gods are not eternal, as themselves, or that the genii who presided over oraclesare subject to death; whilst Athanasius tells the Pagans they have been witnessesthemselves thatthe sign of the cross puts the dremons to flight, silences oracles, and

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EL

'slrqcnEuelcerr.IJ eqlJo ecJnos eql flpelnde; se,tr erueuuv se luecgru8rs eq ,{eu srql ,

1ue11e8 ,(1.re1ncrged sr'1uoru € ruo4 Sunuoc 'pue'1snf sr lr se ewospueq se 'xes eql ol lueurlduoc € sr 'pellrrupe oq lsntu ll 'slr{J r

'su€rlsrJrlJ eql pu€ 'sueerncrdg eqlJo serlellqnseq] Jo pl€.r;e fgerqc ere,l.r salcero oql }eql s,{es uercnT 'sroqlo pue 'xrleg snrlnur4'snr1uepru4 'snr1ue1ce1 'snrqouJv ,(q peuuguoc sr qcrql\ 'slueulueqcue seledrssrp

rnoq lellt ol dn ranau peq aqs qSnoql 'an8uo1 ueruaurrv aql ur alodsar{s asneJaq lnq'aJuarrnJJo dJeulpJo ue sem Jaq qtIM }eq} JoJ '[zuat1r{lla,r. pauodsueJl se1w ar{s asneJaq lou 'paze'ure aJaM aM 'daalse

lseJ IIaJ 'auo1 pFull e ur Suoleads 'pue 'ralo IIe Tooqs pue paq)norJaJnleaJJ rood aqt sF{l uodn 'raq aTrJ}s o} paualealq} 'uorssed e

ul JI se 'pue 'sursruoxa snl Wyw leJaqrl aJoru sem Jau8raro; ar{} uaqm

1nq lyrrds lea.r8 Wlrr,r ulFI paler[aq] 'paq aql uo Surueal 'pue 'ploqdran sem ar{s }srIJ lan8uol arues aql q rury o1 paqdar ueruom aL{J

7'(ueruaruJv ue sem aq asne)aq'+eq+ uoquaur 1) lan8uol umosltl uI qrmu ral{ paprerqdn pue 'pr1e^ur aql HtIm ftaue aQ o+ pa]raJJe

'paq aql aprsaq umeJp pJoMS sn{ r{}Izvr Surpuels 'or{rvr 'antl TJepdran e ol lurnq-uns pue palrurrm ul{s sH IIII,vr 'ueru papeaq-ppqp1o dran e pallJlay 1'(sanua8rxa Suqaaru ur ralap dpelnr4red pue'sluarpadxa SuualoJsrp ur prnb dran sr xas aql roy) Jalazwoq'uaruomaruos 'aseJ e aleradsap os uI op o+ lerlm Surrwou>l 1ou 'dlrxaldradJo alels e ur aram lnq 'pps aqs leqm puaqardruoJ srapuelsdqaql ppo) Jou lauo1 Surrnturntu zvrol e ur 'an8uol snoJeqJeq

Jo Uos e paJa+lnu 'uaro8 paq Jaq 8uuea1 'pue 'r{1+ue?eleJlxapaneJ pue 'lll dran se;'vr 'luaruaurJuoJ Jar{ ur 'ar{S 'saseasrp

Jo dlarren e Hllzrt palrrlJte 'ool 'se1v\ aqs lasranrad dlSurpaarxalnq 'uorlrsodsrp poo8 e Jo alor{uw arp uo sem oqm 'ueruome ol palrreru raqlorq rapla ue peq I 'poor{asleJ e 3ur1a1 yo alqederursI 'llqeq Jrlseuour ar{l paunsse 'saprsaq'seq oqan pue 'aru aTrl uetuplo uV 'alelar Ileqs 1 'rrdo1 luasard ar{l ol sodorde alrnb sr }r se 'qrHrvr'ralrereqc sll ur snoJlsuoru pue snoluagod dlalnlosqe se,vr ler{,vrrr,r.es I [lun 'uorurdo rraql Jo tsrrJ sem I Jted dtu rog 23u1ql Jo Uossn{} puelsrapun ile }e }ouu€J dueu uworl roy '8uo1uF{} ;o de.rrt snl} Joare suerJrsdqd leql 'uelJerqJ 'pasr.rdrns ile le lou rue I - 'AHIOI IIJ

cralleru Jo sluaua^our paleqr^ aql lnq

snllasd Iaer{rrN

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so much as seen an Armenian, and understood nothing but herconnubial and domestic duties.l On her recovery I asked what shehad undergone, and if she could recall to mind anything that hadoccurred; she said she saw a sort of darksome spectre, resembling awoman/ with the hair dishevelled, springing upon her; that in herterror she had fallen on the bed, and from that time had norecollection of what has occurred. She spoke thus on her recovery.Ever since that event a sort of bond of ambiguity keeps me perplexed,as to how the demon which harassed this woman could seemfeminine, for we may well question whether the distinction of sexprevails amongst the demons as amongst the creatures of earth; and,

t How is a fact of the nature here recorded to be accounted for but on preternaturalprinciples? We do not mean to contend for the truth of the particular fact hererecorded, but doubtless this, if a supposed case, was similar to other real cases thatmight have been adduced; else Psellus would not have introduced it in his Dialogue.Very pertinent to our present purpose is the following from Calmet's Dictionary:-"Some efforts that seem to be supernatural may be effects of heated imagination, ofmelancholy blood, of tricks and contrivance; but if a person suddenly should speakand understand languages he never learned, talk of sublime matters he never studied,discover things secret and unknown; should he lift up himself in the air withoutvisible assistance , act and speak in a manner very different from his natural temperand condition, and all this without any inducement from interest, passion, or othernatural motive; if all these circumstances, or the greater part of them, concur in thesame possession, can there be any room to suspect that it is not real? There have,then, been possessions in which all those circumstances concurred; there have,therefore, been real ones, but especially those which the Gospel declare as such."(Calmet's Dictlionary]. Artficle]. Dremon.) To much the same pulpose is thefollowing, from the Encyclopaedia Britannica:-"All that Revelation makes known,all that human reason can conjecture, concerning the existence of various orders ofspiritual beings, good and bad, is perfectly consistent with, and even favourable to,the doctrine of drmoniacal possession. It was generally believed throughout theancient heathen world; it was equally well known to the Jews, and equally respectedby them; it is mentioned in the New Testament in such language, and suchnarratives are related concerning it, that the Gospels cannot well be regarded in anyother light than as pieces of imposture, and Jesus Christ must be considered a. aman who dishonestly took advantage of the weakness and ignorance of hiscontemporaries, if this doctrine be nothing but a vulgar error. It teaches nothinginconsistent with the general conduct of Providence; it is not the coution ofphilosophy, but the pride of reason, that suggests objections against this doctrine."(Encyllopaedial Britlannicaf, p. 58. editfion] Edin[burgh], I 823.)

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9L

'pE- 'cr8etu urpJo/y\s uorr ue Jo esn eql o1 lqSreA puel ,{eu leql pue 'uoJI ree3: slurds }€q} uor}rpeJl€ osle sr eJeqJ 'pJolr\s e .(q 1nc Sureq JeeJ ol 'secuelsruncJrc e[uos Jepun '1eerofuoc,(lluercggns Sureq suoru*p le eEed snorne;d e uo slulq uele snllesd 'suotusp

ro slr.rrds ueleeJq] o1 suercr8eu ,{q pesn }ueturu}sur ue uaeq 3uo1 seq proly\s erIJ r

luauroru auo ale pue /aseald daql aJueJeadde ranaleqM olur aJnsealdJrar{} o1 SurproJJe pauJoJsueJl aJE suosrad asoqM /suolu€p ar{} r{ll^,rfl lI osp sm{} lpaluasa.rd are sa)ueJeadde paryISJaAIp 's1se1q leuJa}xadq paqrn1slp are spnolo at{l uaqm 1nq lsuoruep Jo sarpoq aql Vtlrr,rsr lr os1e snql 'leturue Jaqlo auros ro 'sluadJas to Jaqloue 1e 'sreaq

Jo rar{loue }e 'uaul Jo alrLIM auo aruereadde aq} 8ul}IqF{xa spnolJ aqlalJasqo deru auo se roy lurro; drana Jo aJnleu a{l o} alqepounrroJJeaJe 'alqrxag pue alrlJnp dran ale q)Ir{llt 'sarpoq f,ruour€paldurs aq+ teq+ rot lpalrun aram daqt r{Jlr{zvr Vlla,r. salnlearJ ar{l

Jo asoql {llzvr arues aql aJaM suorssed Frurue Jraql teqt lnq 'aptualro aleru raq+la dlprnleu sem uoruep Jo sarcads ou leql pps aH'sasJnoJsrp ,snJJeIz{ ol uorseJJo aneS q)lq1yl Ja}}eru aq+ SurraprsuoJaJ'[;o urelduror nod] dlrn8rque ]o puoq sF{} asool ol }dua}Je uala IIIM I'd1prr;pp yo Surqlaruos sr aJaql alaqm osle sarurlaruos +nq /paruroyrad

dpsea dran sr leqm ur dlararu lou 'puar;y srq a8rlqo ol ]q8no auo'snuo8rluy [3ur;] o1 SurproJJe 'aJurs 1nq lduetu dq uoqe]uasardarsrur

Jo sra]]etu aperu are pupl sFIl Jo sBuFI+ teq+ MouT I sE

dlenadsa pue 'aruaps ur JaAo ssed ol JaqleJ lq8no I leqm ureldxa o1

Surldualle ul 1 'paranorsrp lad ser{ auo ou leqm ro; SurqJJeas ur nod'sra1yr1 yo rred e uraas deu a,.vr preJle ure I lnq 'uorlsanb ur sJalleuraql roJ suosear rapuar o1 'dqlolulr 'qslrvr pForIS I - 'NVIfvuHr

'a8payvrouT Ierrrolsn{Jo Ieap lear8 e parrnbJe aleq pue 'sluarJue aql Jo sJuaruquas ar{lr{llzvr palurenbre dlq8noror{+ are nod se 'proge o} uosrad lualadurorlsoru aq1 nod {u1ql I r{Jlr{lvr 'uorsensrad arrnbar 1 s}urod asaq} uodnldlSurpaarxa arrl xald.rad slqnop asaql r4proms e ruorJ raJJns 'ure1sJou {JnJ}s aq Jaqllau ueJ r{Jnlzvr'uoruap e ueJ zvror{ ro; lproans pa>Ieue JeaJ pue 'sleaJr{l s,JaurJeqJ aLIl le qJnoJJ plnoqs ll dqm osle puel[an8uol] rer;dg ro [uersra4] rrsrad ar{} ur sraqlo pue /aappr{J ar{+

uI auros '1aar3 aqt ul >1eads suotuap auros ler{l aAIaJuoJ dlpreq uera,vr roC 2an8uol ueruarurv aql doldua lr plnoJ MorI 'are1d lxau aql ul

snllasd laeqrrl^tr

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contracted into a less bulk, the next stretched out into a greater length.

The same thing we see exemplified in lubricous animals in thebowels of the earth, owing to the softness and pliability of theirnature, which are not merely altered in respect of size, but also inrespect of appearance; and that in a variety of ways; the body ofdemons likewise is accommodative in both particulars: not only is itpeculiarly yielding, and takes the impression of objects, but, becauseit is aerial, it is susceptible of all kinds of hues, as is the atmosphere;such is the body of demons, owing to the imaginative energyinherent in it, and which extends to it the appearance of colours; for,as when we are panic-struck, we first are pale, and afterwards blush,according as the mind is variously affected, owing to the soulextending such affections [emotions] to the body, we may wellsuppose it is just the same way with the demons, for they fromwithin can send out to their bodies the semblance of colours; forwhich reason each, when metamorphosed into that appearancewhich is agreeable, extending over the surface of his body theappearance of colour, sometimes appears as a man, sometimes ismetamorphosed as a woman, and, changing those forms, it retainsneither constantly, for its appearance is not substantial, butresembles what occurs in the atmosphere, or water, in which you nosooner infuse a colour, or delineate a form, than straightway itdissolves and is dispelled.

We may perceive that the demons are liable to similar affections, forin them colour, and figure, and all appearance whatever isevanescent. In these things Marcus, as I conjecture, said what wasprobable; and from this time forward let not the question harass you,whether the distinction of sex exists in demons on account of thegenital member appearing in them, for these, whether male or female,are not constant nor habitual; therefore consider that the demonwhich so much harassed the woman in confinement seemed like awoman, not because it was really and habitually feminine; butbecause, it presented the appearance of a woman.

TIMOTHY. But how comes it Thracian, that it does not assumenow one form, and now another, like the other demons, but is

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LL

'{uoru e a{ll ua{ods r

- :suorJeJaprsuoJ SurzvrolloJ aql ruoJt'rauraanoq

'1sa;ruetu aq IIIM lI 'dn realJ +ou p1p snJretrAl lurod e sem ler{llan8uol ueruaurrv aq+ ur Sur4eads uourep aql o1 lcadsar rlllm lnq,'arnseald Jo aJII e ro; paldepe +saq sr qrrqm ler{} parunsse dlerryeu1r 'turo; s1r Sur8ueqr 'sarnlsrour arndun ur 8ur1q81"p pue 'uourapsnorlrJsel e Suraq JoJ 'aurunuay pareadde luauaurFuoJ uI ueurozrn ar{}

passerer{ }er{} uoruap aql p 'paxaldrad ile le aq lou plnoqs nod 1ng

'anuquor dlluelsuoo daq] asaql ur '1q8r1ap daql suroJ ralaleqmuI lnq'sturoy Jraql Sur8ueqJ Jo alqederut are 'paqlrJsap dpearle asot{}

ol tcadsal LIIIM uorlrsod alelparuJalul ue Surddnrto 'auaual puesnoanby aql luosrad ;o dlrplesra^ pue dppqerld Jo passassod Suraq

1ou 'sacuereadde p4rads snoJaurnu Jo alqedecul aJe daql ro; 'sturol;o dlarren e aurnsse lou op daql lr8nprnl pue ueauerralqns aql aleruat{} ruorJ }uara1Jrp dran 1}ra[qo alqeur8etur drana ol spua]xa ]eql auo

'uorleur8eurr alrsJnJsrp dran p

'o passassod aJe IerJ?V pue parddurg

aLIl se auros 'uraql ls8uotue roy lpar;rsJalrp dllear8 ale suolrep Josanads ar{l osp rauueru arues aql uI '[uor1e]luaruqe;o asodrnd a18urs

ar{t roJ uorleur8erm aql Sursnraxa lne 'oB o1 lq8no daqt raqllqmro 'paarord daql araqm 'anea1 daql aloq aL{} uaql ;o due Sumtoullou 'pa1rr,4sar dlSurpaarxa ft1nre; sFIt aleq 'srurom pue saIIJ

rllpt 's1eu8 pue lsraurvro rrar{l ro '1e1s Jraq} 'arnlsed +e suoruedurorJraql ['aruelsul JoJ se] dllnceJ alrleur8eun ar{l aslJraxa qJrqan's8ulqtaruos ol lnq spualxa q4{,vr 'uorleur8erur Jo Uos paulluoJ aJour e qlIM'1ros leql Jo slerurue pue 'uaxo 'sas.ro11 'rlgea sHl uo pue 'punoJepue 'uaneaq ur qloq 's1ra[qo alqrsuas ile lsorup o+ spua+xa r{Jlr{zvr

auo 'uorleur8eurr alrsJnJsrp aJour e r{llzra. pag€ sr sJamod puorlerpue pnlJallalur r{llzw pamopua Suraq 'uelu 'urar{} ls8uoue se rwou

'sleurrue punoduroJ legotu ls8uotue se'leuorleJJr ale auros JoJ'uraqlls8uorue dlrs;arrrp lear8 e sr aJaql JelnJrlred slql ut leqt uorleurlJurpue ramod aures aql lou aleq suoruap ile ]eql p1es aq 'uosea.ralqeqordrur lou e pauSrsse snrretr tr 'ool slr{} roc 'NVIfvuHJ

ZluaruaurJuoJ ur uaurorvr dq uaas are dpo uJoJ alerua1 aql Josuotuep 1eq1 'duetu tuoJJ pJear{ a^eq I JoJ 'turo; sttl} ul uaas sderr,rp

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It is impossible to ascertain the peculiar tongue of each particulardemon, whether [for instance,] such a demon speak in the Hebrew,or Greek, or Syriac, or other barbarous tongue; indeed, [I may ask,]what absolute need have they of a voice, who usually holdintercourse without one? [as I already observed,] but as in the case ofthe angels t of the nations, different angels being appointed over

I This is speaking very particularly on a subject respecting which we knowlittle or nothing, "secret things belong unto God, but the things that arerevealed," &c. We are not under any necessity for supposing, that angelicbeings understand each [other], but a single language, they may have anintuitive perception of all languages, and hold intercourse with each other,in a manner, of which we cannot form the most remote conception, it is idleto speculate on such a subject. Most that can be safely affirmed respectingthem, may be comprised within a few words - that they are innumerable

- that they are God's executive - that they are vastly superior to us inmight and intelligence - and are employed doing good offices to the pious.With respect to the manner and circumstances of their appearance, wecannot do better than cite what Calmet says on this subject:- "Thediscovery of angels has usually been after they had delivered their message,and always for the purpose of a sign, in confirmation of the faith of theparty whom they had addressed; it is evident that the angel who appearedto Manoah, was taken by both Manoah and his wife for a prophet only, tillafter he had delivered his message, he took leave "wonderfullyi' toconvince them of his extraordinary nature; thus the angel that wrestled withJacob, at last put the hollow of his thigh out or joint, a token that he was nomere man. The angel that spoke to Zacharias, rendered him dumb atoken beyond the power of mere mary (e.g. an impostor speaking falsely inthe name of God,) to produce: and so of others." Sometimes angels did notreveal themselves fully, they gave as it were, obscure and very indistinct,though powerful intimations of their presence. When angels werecommissioned to appear to certain persons only, others who were incompany with those persons had revelations, which indicated anextraordinary occurrence; although the appearance was not to them, yetthey seemed to have felt the effects of it, as Danfiel] x., 7 - "I, Daniel, alonesaw the vision; the men that were with me saw not the vision; but a greatquaking fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselaes." Paul's vision wasvery similar in its effects, see Acfs ix, 7 , xxli, 9, and xxvi, 14, also that seen bythe guards at the sepulchre, on the occasion of our Lord's Resurrection,

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6L

aruarrnrro ue qrns leql eapr aql arueualunoJ ,,'r"Tno;nTt"rl:t:ffit;i,TJirTJia^eq aruos dqaraql ro; 'sra8ue4s ur€ualua ol ppa8rol ]ou ag,, 'uorlegoqxarrlolsody aql lou saop 'rasrm aq] aq dlpraua8 arl,r. uer zvtorl ('sprqrol Surqlouse pue 'pasoddns aq lsnru se) 'd1a1a1dtuor lr arunsse daql JI lnq 1ga1 uerarw lq8no roJ aJuereadde uerunq ar{} atunsse uauo deru daql 'saruaS{la}ulIeqsalaoJ se u,vrou>1 sallasruaq] aTeru o] suolseJ)o relnrrl.red uosrapro per{ a^eq daql +eql Suqlnupe ur dllnrlJJlp ou a^er{ uer azvt 'pur>1uetu

Jo af,rlras pue arer aql ur pa8e8ua dlqrsrzrut Suraq sla8uy 'IIIAXx lma4)qqu11t1

paqrledsap dlensn are oLIM sla8ue aq] pue 'saceld ueaueJJatqnspue sassdqe o1 Iessrursrp e Surreay dlqeuo4sanbun 'ra11etu ol pallleare lellt asor{I '[so3o1] SoAoy auIAIC[ aql ]o aureu alqlrral aq] p1e

sI{ ol slle) 'raanod aurlrq aq} uo Surdlar pue /poD ;o drqsrom ar{l ol

qasrunl slJrppe se ra+Jereqr dloq e r{Jns ssalun 'paleraq[ aq ueJ ruaq]dq passeJer{ auo ou pue '8ur4nqa.r uosrad aLI} qsm8urlsrp uer 'tuaqla{nqal auo Jr 'arua8qlalur Jo arer{s 1sa3.re1 ar{} Sulssassod paapur

[suourep] pugy aql 'ra]leru ol parfie are se qrns dlercadsa lng'aurarlxa aql q dlprezra.oJ pue 'ploq aJe suourap Jo sarcads snorJelar{} 'palJasqo tuaq} aloural ol aq pue 'sntJel4tr o+ aurur passardxa

1 tuat{l uo s}qnop rnod prear{ I aroJaq lslurod asalll uo paxaldraduaaq seq oq1vr 'dqtorulr uosrad dpo aql lou are no^ - 'NVIfvuHJ

eJooledaa>1 pue 'rea1 qll^ qrnorr daql leql /qrns ruory Sur.rayyns ;o alqederpasoddns aq o+ daql are leqM ZproMS e pue slearql rea; daql ler{l ?oalqedec d".Il are Sur.ra;Jns leqm 1nq luenerql os ll ag - 'AHIOI IIJ

'an8uolre8prr aql aJaM 1l JI se [,sueruaturv aLI]l an8uol rraql asn ol ra;ard'araqmasla oB ol uaddeq daql p 'sueruauJv aql ls8uoure suoruepaq+ 'ool Jauueru aures aql ur 'suotlelueJur ueqdtlSy Jo suearudq qceb tdde o+ parnpur aram d".{l sue4dd8i7 aql Suotue }silr{zw'aappq3 ur pa>Io^a araM saapFLIJ aql Vlluvl sraqlo lnq 'strola11ur salJero para^rlap $IaarD aql wyvr uat{} to atuos uosear TIJIqMro; 'suourap ar{} r{llzvr ,{ettt aures aq} sl lI ler{l 'apnpuor dlqeuoseaJderu a,vr lsuorleu anrlradsar rrarn Jo an8uol aql qJea asn daql'raq+o qJea Vllzu, alelJosse lsntu slaBue luaJaJJrp 'suoqeu luaJatpp

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against them, when one threatens them with these, [the angels,] andtheir being conveyed away to such places, and calls over them, thedesignation of the angels appointed to this office, 1 are afraid, andthrown into great perturbation; so that from being deranged, theycannot discern who it is that threatens.

TIMOTHY. But what advantage, did he say, resulted from theservice of the A€rial demons?

THRACIAN. He did not say, my good friend, that any goodresulted from those proceedings; indeed the things themselvesproclaim in a barefaced manner that they are made up of vanity,imposture, and a groundless imagination, however fiery meteors,such as are usually called falling stars, descend from them on theirworshippers, which the madmen have the hardihood to call visionsof God, though they have no truth, nor certainty, nor stability aboutthem, (for what [creature] of a luminous character, could belong tothe darkened demons,) and though they are but ridiculous tricks oftheirs,2 [could] such things as are effected by optical illusions, or by

t Here the doctrine that demons can be constrained by invoking their correspondingangel is set out. The angels appointed to this office are listed in grimoires, where itis made clear that the invocation of the correct angel to control a specific demon isone of the methods used. See Skinner & Rankine, The Goetia of Dr Rudd, GoldenHoard, Singapore, 2007 . -Ed.t There seems [to be] here an imitation of what took place on the initiation of anindividual, at the Eleusinian Mysteries; we are the more confirmed in this opinion,from this Monk Marcus being designated in a previous part of the work tel"eoqqeTlonlnlq ltelestes epoptesl, an initiated inspector, the very technical phrase appliedto one initiated in the greater mysteries - a yeff having elapsed after one had beeninitiated in the minor mysteries, (in which state he was called pDornq lmustesf); onthe sacrifice of a sow to Ceres, he was admitted to the greater mysteries, the sacredrites of which, some few excepted, (to which none but the priests were conscious,)were frankly revealed to him; whence he was called sqopog fephorosl or rnoTrrrlq

lepoptesl,i.e., Inspector [of the rites], (fJustin] Poll[ard], Antiqfuitesl, vol. I, [page]451.) Upon complying with certain rites, strange and amazing objects presentedthemselves; sometimes the places they were in seemed to shake around them;sometimes [they] appeared bright and resplendent with light, and radiant fire, andthen again covered with blackness and horror, sometimes [accompanied by] thunderand lightning, sometimes frightful voices and bellowings, some-times terrible

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I8

'pil-'E3g Lvz-982 tlrnq BrrpuexelvJo esnoqlqSrl luercue egJ r'uoqrnlur a'1 'nli\oLo0 pellec se1\\

'slq8rs qcns le lueserd Sureq rrer{l :sro}elceds Surlqtuerl eql pepuno}se suot}r-redde

d.l^ uosear aql sl sn{} luolleredas to }uatuour dran aql q paurcd 1r sr

1ad 'qraads ueql raltrms salrun luds aqt qBnoLIl +nq lrua{} sareldsrpdpoq pllos auros uaqm 'ralean ro Jre Jo saprped aql aTII 'salrunde,,vqq8re4s 'papwp uaqm sllll 'aloqrvr apetu ralau ro 'dllnrlJJlp r{}la,r

are daql 'paplllp are daqt uaqm seaJar{M leql 'ranamoq 'aruaray;rpsl{l r{}lzvr 'sarpoq p[os Jo Jauueru ar{l Jaue paured sr lI 'asuas

;o sueSro Jo uorlua^ralul aql lnoqllM 'qrno1 Jo asuas aql Jo alqedecsr pue 'sreaq pue saas 'll Jo ]red drana ur uoqnlrlsuoJ anrlrsuase Jo pue'1r.rrds raqlaSolp Suraq uoruap e osp 11r.rrds ar{} }o panrrdapasneraq 'Suuayyns Jo alqederul sl ll 'peap ro patJassrp uaqm roJ

'lrrrds r{}la,r uorun sll Jo anurl dq lnq 'JIaslI Jo anurl dq paured Suraq

;o alqedeJ lou sr dpoq punoduroJ e JoJ'lrrrds olur lrrrds Jo uorssrururraq+ uorJ spaaJord ured aql 'uoFJaJJe raqlo due ra;yns ro 'paqsar;arro paured nq alJau aql rar{laqm 'aro;araq1 'ua{l ur +ualaqur lrrrdsar{l }nq 'uoqesuas ;o dlpreJ ar{l r{}lrr,r. paMopua sr [qrU^] due ;oalJau Jo auoq aLIl lou sr lr leq] 'lJeI ar{l Jo luerou8r aq plnor{s nod'aqp1es 'pazeute tue I Zsarpoq punoduor ol s8uolaq uoqesuas 1o dlpte;ar{} roJ 'punodruoJ Jou pllos }ou pue 'lrrrds are daq} se 'aq ler{+ ueJ'l ples 'rvroq lng 'uosrad aq] uo palJrlJJe 1v\olq lnyrazvrod u f,q, pauredag ol se os '>pnrls aq plnor daql ler{} 'prcs snf,retrAl - 'NVIfVUHI

e>lJnJls Suraq;o alqedel aq ol se 'arnleu e qJns Jo aJe suotuep Josalpoq aqt raqlaqm 'lI zvroDl o1 3uo1 I roJ 'sp{} arrr IIaJ - 'AHJOI III

'uorlrprad tuor; palednuerua are Inos pue dpoq rnod qloq ruoqrw dq'poD ol sTuel{} uJn}al pue 'uor}elles rnod dpu8etu ol alqeuoseas sr

lr rwou'Surdaarvr JoJ aruq Jalll; e asoor{J uer nod'pps ruH'SurlosuorI pue 'srea1 ;o poolJ e paqs snt{} alods Surneq snJreIN 'eas aqlJo ssau{rep aql ladsrp o1 pareld 1'soreq4 € aTII V}roy Sururqs 'qlnrl JoVled aql dq [uorlenlrs snolrrad dru uory] aru palerrr]xa nod 1ou peq'alqelrnaur uaaq per{ uoqrprad ,{tu pue 'paleunsel 1da>1 sem I 'luaruoruluasa;d aql ol dn lad 'uor8rlar s1r{l uopueqe ol Surlelrparu sempue 'aturs 3uo1 paJanoJsrp ueru paqJlaJm 1 s8ulql asaql lsrolelradsaql uo Sursodtur dq dlpar lng asnoln)errtu paller [aq] sueaur [qrns]

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it fears and dreads the points of iron instruments 1 - and exorcists,well aware of their aversion, when they do not wish the demons toapproach a specific place, set darts and swords erect, and providecertain other things, either diverting them from that spot by theirantipathies, or alluring them to another by their attachments. Inthese particulars, Marcus' explanation respecting the demons, in myjudgment, seemed probable.

TIMOTHY. But did he tell you this Thracian? Did he tell youwhether the demons were gifted with foreknowledge?

THRACIAN. - Yes, but not a causal or intelligent, nor experimentalforeknowledge, but merely conjectural, for which reason it mostgenerally fails, so that they scarcely ever utter a particle of truth.

TIMOTHY. Can't you describe to me, the nature of thatforeknowledge, which is inherent in them?

THRACIAN. - I would describe it, if time permitted me, but now'tis time to return home, for as you see, the air around ishazy, andcharged with rain, and if we sit here in the open air, we will be wetthrough-and-through.

TIMOTHY. - Friend, consider what you do, leaving your discourseunfinished.

THRACIAN. - Don't be uneasy, my best friend, for please God, thefirst opportunity you and I meet agatr:.,I will make good whatever iswanting, and, that in the Syracusan style.2

t Iron rather than any other metal has this effect. -Ed.2 Literally beyond the decimes of the Syracusans.

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€8

'pE-'uerrolslq qcrnqc ueroqln-I uerrue9 e (SStI-8691) rureqsol4l zuero'I uueqof z'pE-'€uFI3 ol errdrug

uetuou oql uro4 ,(1eprm peeJds qclq^\ uor8rle; crlsouD uerueJl crlsrlenp e 'uor8r1eruee€qcruentr eq] pepunoJ 'uolfqeg Jo o^rleu e ('g'C 9LT,-017) seue14i ro ruelN r

ar{l dq paqsrn8upslp ar{ qrrqm pue 'qastu}I poD dq *H o+ pa}etrrpsem 'ples aLI 'I{JITIM ladso8 e ,{q areld rraql paqddns aroJarar{}aq lsuoqrrJ pue salqeJ qsranaf vllzvr paqs{laqua pue ',uaru InJue pueSuru8rsap dq palelodralur pue paldnrror aram'palrasse aq's1adso3rnoJ aql pue 'ssaul.rec Jo aJurrd aql Jo >Iro1v\ ar{} }uarue}sal ploar{l paJunouord aq 'ralrerer{J papua}ard srq sl{} Jo anprn dg

'qlnrl

11e o]ur ruar{l aprn8 pue }JnJlsur o} sem oqm 'a1a1cere4 pasrtuordar{l Jlasurq Sununouue dq 'ranamor{ 'd11nrr;yp drana pa}unoruJnsaq lsuorlerryrler8 luaJouur lsoru aq+ tnq 'saruaSlnpul Fnsuas dlaratu1ou (uraql paller aq se 'lralg aq1) sraaa.olloJ spl Jo rapro raq8rq aq+ o+

Suptq+Iord '1eruap-Jlas snoro8rr lsoru ar{} paqlnsard aq se dlenadsaarour aql 'rualsds rrlselueJ snl o1 [qrrnqr] dpoq uerlsrnl3 aql ruorJsues4red JaAo ure8 plnoJ aq ,vroq sn r{sruolse detu }I 'paplruo alaqaJe qJrqM sralleur duetu saqddns lI leql ldatxa '>Fo,nn sItI] uI tuaq+

Jo palelar sr ler{lra. tuor} Surqlou ur ratpp I LIrplM 'saurrllop rerlnradslr{ Jo }uarua}e1s 3uo1 e sarrrS ruraqsolN ,,']qtle! uer}srJrl) aLIl r{ll1v\

dqdosopqd uer8el4 ar{l pualq o1 ldua}}e o} q8noua snonldurnsardsem aq pue 'paurano8un pue luepunpal ]nq 'aruqqns puesnoro8rrr sew,,7'turaqsol4i sr{es,,'snrua8 sII{,,'aJuar)s lef,nuouoJlseur pasral dlq8noroql sem pue 'suorleu Surrnoqq8rau aql pueersJad ur paruaalsa sue asoql IIe ul palJnJlsur sem aH r'Jaqdosopqduer8eyq e [se] dleur8rro dn pauels 'uersra4 e qulq dq 'sner{rruelNro 'saue141 'drnluac prlrll aq] ur lras JrlsouD aql Jo dlrroqlnepue lrpaD ar{l Jo MorLIuaAo aql uo - 'a+?qrnT a4+ pua sauaw

.SEION

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On the Operation of Demons

title of Erteng.l He rejected the Acts of the Apostles, and, though heacknowledged the Epistles that are attributed to St. Paul to be theproduction of that divine Apostle, yet he looked upon them asconsiderably corrupted and falsified in a variety of passages. -

Euchite, or Massalian, (the former being the Greek, the latterthe Hebrew, name), signifying tprayung-men', was a sort of generalepithet for persons distinguished for gravity of manner, and wasapplied in the east with much the same latitude of signification asBeghard and Lollard were afterwards employed in the west, andPuritan in still more modern times; so that many truly piouscharacters, who dared to oppose the mummery and superstition ofthe dark ages, were loaded with the opprobrious epithet Euchite, incommon with those who held most revolting sentiments, and who,from very different motives, opposed the existing orders of things.

Manicheans were also called by this designation. It was nottill toward the close of the fourth century that the Euchite madetheir appearance as a distinct religious body, their name beingderived from their habit of continual prayer; they were founded bycertain monks of Mesopotamia; their doctrine, according to Mosheim,was as follows:-

"They imagined that the mind of every man was inhabited byan eail demon, whom it was impossible to expel by any other meansthan by constant prayer and singing of hymns." To this leading tenetthey added other enormous opinions, evidently derived from thesource whence the Manicheans derived their errors, viz. the tenets ofthe oriental philosophy.z

rThe book referred to is the Ardahang or Ariang which was one of Mani's holybooks, and contained many paintings. -Ed.2 The four other notes which appeared here in the first edition have in this editionbeen moved to the page to which they referred to facilitate ease of reading. -Ed.

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urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

SoLoynrg rrartorlrcg oueLdErrE dag

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urnuoruap auor+eJado nas erSJaua ap sanSoFrp

runuoruec auorleJado ac

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L8

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'9002

'prm;ag 'sde11-selorlN 'rauunlg uaqdalS dq uoqlpa zwaN

'srsuauouaJJ preJaD '{q ficuutuoa) pJllttouotlsy {gleddr;8y f,q frcuautoaD {O

lsquanuy at4l lo yc8ayg aLIl {O :4t8a1rt1{o p+aqtv

lsnue8urpn Sroaf dq syndg qcng lo amwN a41 uO :a3o8as1

loueqy ap ralad ,{q squawa1T lau&ury n uonua4dagleddrr8y ,tqsaruouta"La) Tac8uyg n 'fr4dosollttcl y1nctg {g

:sapnllul

]I 'BL6I 'uopuol /sralls{qnd UPISV uol}Ipa alIuIISf,€; lsrlC'fi4doso1n4cl ilm)O lo 4oog Lllmo J ''J 'H 'eddrt3y

.€66T,1ned lS'ud11ama11 'uosdJ pleuoq dq p"ltpE '[qruarC uL{of rq] a>1earg

saue{ dq palelsuerl 'frr4doso1tt'lcl ilm)O {o s4oog aa.tllf ''J 'H 'eddrr8y

[qlnD uanals dq palelsuerl 'uqaq 3roa3 iq pallpg]'9002'tIUoM a{eT 'sIqI 'uqauatqV lo 4o0g atg 'suttoM Jo rueqerqv

'fi4doso1ttlcl tUn)O to 4oogLI+moJ eddu8y aas'sluaLual7 1uc8a1yt1 to ulnutDfiaH 'ap ra1a4 'oueqy

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Bidez, J., Michel PseIIus Epitre sur Ia Chrysopde. Catalogue desManuscripts Alchemiques Grecs, volume vI, Brussels , 1928,pages 97-131.

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Butler, Professor Elizabeth, Ritual Magic. Pennsylvania StateUniversity Press, 1998.

D'Este, Sorita & David Rankine, Heknte Liminal Rites: A Study of therituals, magic and symbols of the torch-bearing Triple Goddess ofthe Crossroads, Avalonia, London, 2009.

Duffy, John, 'Reactions of Two Byzantine Intellectuals to the Theoryand Practice of Magic: Michael Psellos and Michael Italikos'in Byzantine Magic edited by Henry Maguire, DumbartonOaks, Washington, 1995.

Empedocles, The Poem of Empedocles. Translated by Brad Inwood,University of Toronto Press, Toronto,2001.

Fanger, Claire ["d], Conjuring Spirits: Texts and Traditions of MedieaalRitual Magic. Pennsylvania State University Press & SuttonPublishing, 1998.

Farone, Christoper & obbink, Dirk ["d], Magika Hiern: Ancient GreekMagic and Religion, oxford university Press, New york, 1991.

Gautier, P., 'Le De Demonibus du Pseudo-Psellos' in Reuue desEtudes Byzantines, volume 38, 1980, pages 105-194.

Greenfield, Richard, Trnditions of Belief in Late Byzantine Demonology,Hakkert, Amsterdam, 1988.

Iamblichus, On the Egyptian, Chaldeaen and Assyrian Mysteries.Thomas Taylor and Alexander Wilder translations edited bySteve Ronan, Chthonios, Hastings, 1989.

Karr, Don. Sepher Raziel: Liber Salomonis, Volume 6, Sourceworks ofCeremonial Magic, Golden Hoard Press, singapore,20'r.0.

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On the Operation of Demons

Skinner, Stephen, Complete Magician's Tables, Golden Hoard Press,London & Singapore, 2006; second edition Llewellyn,Woodbury,2007.

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Skinner, Stephen & Rankine, Davrd, Keys to the Gaternay of Magic,Volume 2, Sourceworks of Ceremonial Magic, Golden HoardPress, London, 2005.

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Snipes, K, 'An Unedited Treatise of Michael Psellos on theIconography of Angels and on the Religious FestivalsCelebrated on Each Duy of the Week' in Gonimos: Neoplatonicand Byzantine Studies Presented to Leendert G. Westerlink at 75,

edited J. Duffy & j. Peradotto, Buffalo, 1988, pages 189-205.

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Woodhouse, C. M., George Gemistos Plethon: The Last of the Hellenes.Clarendon Press, Oxford ,1986.

90

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On the Operation of Demons

Erteng ........84Euchite .....21, 22, 35, 36, 51.-53,

57-59,73,93,94Fabricius ............ ......13Ficino, Marsilio ........:............. 11

Gadarenes ........... ..... 68

Galatia .......20Gargasa ..... 68

Cnosti ........57Gnostic 11,21,83Goetia 2,3,80,90Grimoire............ 2, 11,, 12, 18, 80Guazzo, Maria.... .....23Hades ........59Hermes Trismegistus ............ 11

Hermetica............ ......11Hermogenes......... ......44Hesiod ..........44, 45,91.Holy Guardian Angel ........... 18

Homer 14, 42, 43, 44,91,Horace .56, 67Hume, David.... .......46Iliad ...1.4, 42, 43, 44,91.Isaac I Komnenos................... 13

Italikos, Michael LL, 15, 88jason ..........17jesus..... 1,6, 46, 68,7'1,,74

Julian, Emperor...................... 59

Julius Africanus ..................... 11

Keroularios, Michael ............14Kestoi..... .....11Komnene, Anna ......35Lactantius.......... ......72Lemures ....65Leprechaun........ ...... 65Litterati ......57

Logos ........79Lollard ......84Lucifer ......62Lucifugus ............ ....... 64,66, 67Lycambes.......... ......56Macedonia......... 20,21.Magic, Graeco-Egyptian ...... 12Maguire, Henry ..1'1,, \5,17,88,

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Mani..... ..2'1,,5L,83,84Manicheans........ 83,84Marcus ..5,23,24,25, 49, 64, 66,

68,70,75-77,79-81, g7

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Mosheim ..... 35, 83,84Motte, Houdart de la ............43Neoplatonist 11,,12, 45Nephilim 40,49New Testament............ 38, 57 , 74

Nicholson Museum .......... 7,26Nicholson, Sir Charles ....7,24-

26,33Obolensky, Dimitri ......... 36, 89OId Testament ....... 19, 20, 22, 83Palaeologan........ .....22Paraclete............ ...... 83Paul, St .... 17,20, 46, 61., 63,70,

78,84,87Pavlikianis......... ......21Peers, Glen .............. 19Peri Hermeneias .......14Pharisee .......16, 46, 57

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