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  • University of the Philippines Los Baos

    COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

    BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

    JAYME PAOLO DUGAY LACISTE Name of Student

    OPTIMIZATION OF FORMULATION FOR BREAKFAST CEREAL

    SNACK USING ADLAI (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) PINEAPPLE (Anonas comosus L.), AND CARROTS (Daucus carota S.)

    Thesis Title

    DR. LERJUN M. PEAFLOR Thesis Adviser

    ___________________

    Date of Submission

    Permission is given to the following people to access to this thesis:

    Available to the general public NO

    Available only after consultation with author/thesis adviser YES

    Available only those to bound by confidentiality agreement YES

    Students Signature: _____________

    Signature of thesis adviser: ____________

  • OPTIMIZATION OF FORMULATION FOR BREAKFAST CEREAL SNACK

    USING ADLAI (Coix lacryma-jobi L.), PINEAPPLE (Anonas comosus L.), AND

    CARROTS (Daucus carota S.)

    JAYME PAOLO DUGAY LACISTE

    SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES LOS BANOS IN PARTIAL

    FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR

    GRADUATION WITH THE DEGREE OF

    BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

    AUGUST 2015

  • UPLBCA Form No. 30

    Revised 2003

    UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES LOS BAOS

    College, Laguna

    UNDERGRADUATE THESIS MANUSCRIPT

    FST 200

    Name of Student: JAYME PAOLO DUGAY LACISTE

    Degree Program: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

    Thesis Title: OPTIMIZATION OF FORMULATION FOR BREAKFAST

    CEREAL SNACK USING ADLAI (Coix lacryma-jobi L.)

    PINEAPPLE (Anonas comosus L.) AND CARROTS (Daucus

    carota S.)

    APPROVED DR. LERJUN M. PEAFLOR____ __________________, 2015

    Thesis Adviser

    APPROVED DR. LOTIS E. MOPERA________ ___________________, 2015

    Director, FSC

    APPROVED DR. ENRICO P. SUPANGCO____ ___________________, 2015 College Dean

    RECORDED DR. MARIA CYNTHIA R. OLIVEROS ________________,2015

    College Secretary

  • iv

    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

    The author was born on July 23, 1989 in Metro Manila. He is the second child

    among three children of Engr. Jaime B. Laciste Jr. and Rosario D. Laciste. He started his

    pre-school education in Christ Child School. He obtained his primary education in Saints

    Peter and Paul Early Childhood Center. He obtained his secondary education in Santa

    Rosa Science and Technology High School. He entered the university 2nd semester of

    2006-2007.

    The author has an innate liking for mechanical things and has trained in TESDA

    for welding and fabrication and automotive troubleshooting.

    The author hopes that all of his knowledge obtained from different disciplines of

    learning like the technical aspects of vocational courses and the theoretical aspects of a

    college education may be used and merge in order to accomplish his tasks in the open

    world.

    JAYME PAOLO LACISTE

  • v

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The author would like to give thanks to the following for the completion of this

    thesis manuscript;

    To the Lord Almighty for giving me the fuel to continue despite all the

    disappointments, hardships and struggles.

    For my family, my mother and my father for providing me financial, emotional

    and moral support to finish this course. My sisters Angelica and Regina for supporting

    me and being able to help me to finish this thesis. For my Tita Divina Russo for the

    financial aid and egging me to dream despite hard times.

    For my thesis adviser. Ser Lerjun for pushing me to finish this manuscript and for personally overseeing the development of this manuscript and keeping an eye not

    only for the accomplishment of my results but on the technical inputs to make my thesis

    much easier.

    For the Food Science Cluster Faculty and Staff. Special thanks to mam Ara

    Algar for letting me use the equipment for analysis. Tita Dory and Tita Fe for letting me

    use the laboratory for analysis. Special thanks to Mang Emong, Mang Buns, Mang Jun

    and Kuya Viven for their technical knowledge and expertise in guiding me to use the

    different equipment while doing my thesis.

    For AMDP for letting me fabricate my tools for the experiment. Special thanks to

    Kuya Eugene for being there to fabricate things that I needed in the experiment and

    happily doing so.

    For Tita Odette, Tita Wena and the staff of the directors office for all the help in formatting this manuscript.

    The author would also like to thank the following for a fruitful college life;

    Special thanks to Samahang Room 111 and its constituents. Datu, Oliver,

    Alexis, Jet, Rudolph, Xavier, Jem, Kennedy Pogi, Jem pwet, Edzel, Marlon etc. The Friendship that was developed inside our home, the New Dorm for keeping me company

    in times of need, trials or just simply there because Im bored.

    Special thanks to Allan and Kim, Pola, Iane for keeping me company, The former VegaSoc which shared my hobbies, sentiments and my interests.

    For my thesis mates and others, Fonzy, Bart, Mikee etc. for keeping me

    company in the laboratory to fight the lonesomeness I sometimes feel while doing tests.

    And again, for Our Father, God Almighty for everything

  • vi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    LIBRARY FORM i

    UPLB CA Form No. 30 ii

    TITLE PAGE iii

    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH iv

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

    LIST OF TABLES viii

    LIST OF FIGURES ix

    LIST OF APPENDICES xi

    ABSTRACT xii

    INTRODUCTION 1

    Objectives of the study 3

    Scope and limitations of the study. 3

    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 4

    Adlai: Biographical description, proximate analysis 4

    and cultivation

    Nutritional components of pineapple and carrots by-products 6

    Micronutrient malnutrition 8

    Recommended nutritional intake and

    upper level intake of commercial cereals 9

    Extrusion 10

    Effect of extrusion to different food components 13

    Breakfast cereals snacks 17

    MATERIALS AND METHODS 20

    Materials 20

    Methods 20

    Preparation of sample powders 20

    Preparation of the breakfast cereal snack 20

    Preparation of samples 21

    Mixing 22

    Extrusion 23

    Physical attributes 25

    Chemical analysis 25

    Sensory evaluation 25

    Statistical Analysis 26

    Experimental analysis 27

    Optimization of formulation for breakfast cereal snack 28

    Verification 30

  • vii

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 31

    Moisture content of raw materials 31

    Effect of independent variables on the formulation 31

    of pineapple-carrot-adlai cereals

    Physical Properties 33

    Bulk Density 33

    Extruded cereal moisture content 35

    Water Absorptivity Index 36

    Chemical Analysis 38

    Breakfast cereal final moisture content 38

    Crude fat 40

    Ash content 41

    Crude protein 43

    Carbohydrate content 47

    Sensory Evaluation 48

    Appearance 48

    Flavor 50

    Aftertaste 51

    Texture 53

    General acceptability

    Optimization 59

    Verification 59

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 61

    RECOMMENDATIONS 62

    REFERENCES 64

    APPENDICES 68

  • viii

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table Title Page

    Number

    1 Proximate analysis of polished adlai and adlai flour 5

    2 Proximate analysis of pineapple, pineapple (air-oven dried) 7 and carrots

    3 Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): Tolerable upper 10

    intake levels

    4 Nutritional effects of dietary fiber extrusion 15

    5 Sales of breakfast cereals by category: volume 18

    2007-2012.

    6 Design matrix of a full factorial, two factor-three level 28

    experimental design

    7 Independent variables used in acceptability test 28

    8 Moisture content of raw materials 31

    9 Effect of independent variables on the physico-chemical 32

    composition of the sample.

    10 Effect of independent variables on the sensory score 33

    11 Predicted and experimental responses at optimum 57

    combination

  • ix

    Figure LIST OF FIGURES Page

    number

    1 Adlai crop 5

    2 Varieties of adlai 6

    3 Changes in raw materials in an extrusion 11

    cooking process

    4 Process flowchart for breakfast cereals 21

    5 Powdered samples 22

    6 Mixed powder 22

    7 Piston-type extruder 23

    8 Cabinet dryer 24

    9 Breakfast cereal sn