Oral Wound Healing (Larjava/Oral Wound Healing) || Front Matter

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<ul><li><p>Oral Wound HealingCell Biology and Clinical Management</p><p>Edited by</p><p>Hannu LarjavaProfessor and Chair, Division of PeriodonticsFaculty of DentistryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverBC, Canada</p><p>A John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd., Publication</p><p>Larjava_ffirs.indd iiiLarjava_ffirs.indd iii 2/3/2012 12:50:13 PM2/3/2012 12:50:13 PM</p></li><li><p>This edition fi rst published 2012 by John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc 2012 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc</p><p>Wiley-Blackwell is an imprint of John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc formed by the merger of Wileys global Scientifi c, Technical and Medical business with Blackwell Publishing.</p><p>Registered Offi ceJohn Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK</p><p>Editorial Offi ces2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014-8300, USAThe Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK</p><p>For details of our global editorial offi ces, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.</p><p>Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specifi c clients, is granted by Blackwell Publishing, provided that the base fee is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payments has been arranged. The fee codes for users of the Transactional Reporting Service are ISBN-13: 978-0-8138-0481-1/2007.</p><p>Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Oral wound healing : cell biology and clinical management / edited by Hannu Larjava. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8138-0481-1 (hardcover : alk. paper)I. Larjava, Hannu.[DNLM: 1. Periodontal Diseasesrehabilitation. 2. Mouthinjuries. 3. Oral Surgical Proceduresrehabilitation. 4. Wound Healing. WU 240] 617.632dc23</p><p>2011042663</p><p>A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.</p><p>Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.</p><p>Set in 10/12pt Times by SPi Publisher Services, Pondicherry, India</p><p>1 2012</p><p>Larjava_ffirs.indd ivLarjava_ffirs.indd iv 2/3/2012 12:50:13 PM2/3/2012 12:50:13 PM</p></li><li><p> Contents </p><p>Contributors xiii</p><p>Preface xvii</p><p>1 Oral Wound Healing: An Overview 1 Hannu Larjava</p><p>Clotting and inflammation (chapters 2, 3 and 4) 1Re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation (chapters 5 and 6) 2Angiogenesis (chapter 7) 3Healing of extraction sockets (chapter 8) 4Flap design for periodontal wound healing (chapter 9) 4Regeneration of periodontal tissues (chapters 10 and 11) 5Osteointegration and soft tissue healing around </p><p>dental implants (chapter 12) 6The pulp healing process (chapter 13) 7Dermal wound healing and burn wounds (chapter 14) 7Healing of large dentofacial defects (chapter 15) 8References 9</p><p>2 Hemostasis, Coagulation and Complications 11 Carol Oakley and Hannu Larjava</p><p>Introduction 11Primary hemostasis 12Secondary hemostasis and the coagulation system 13Tertiary hemostasis 16Tissue factor 16Von willebrand factor 17Other coagulation factors 17Cell-centric model of hemostasis: from initiation to propagation 18The procoagulant membrane 20Membrane particles 22Endothelium and hemostasis 22Pro- and anticoagulant functions 22Platelets 24Coagulation and wound healing 26Limitations of the waterfall cascade model and screening laboratory tests 26Implications for laboratory tests 27</p><p>Larjava_ftoc.indd vLarjava_ftoc.indd v 2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM</p></li><li><p>vi Contents</p><p>Pre-surgical evaluation to prevent bleeding problems 27 Medical history 27 Diet and herbal supplements 29 Clinical examination 29 Presurgical planning 30 Control of intra-operative/primary bleeding 30 Post-operative/secondary bleeding 31Conclusions 32References 32</p><p>3 Inflammation and Wound Healing 39 Anna Turabelidze and Luisa Ann DiPietro</p><p>Introduction 39The innate immune response in wounds 39Inflammatory cell infiltration into wounds 40Inflammatory cell function in wounds 41 Neutrophils 41 Mast cells 42 Macrophages 43 T lymphocytes 43 Gamma delta T-cells or dentritic epidermal T-cells (DETCs) 44Cytokines and chemokines in wounds 44 Interleukin-1 (IL-1) 45 Interleukin-6 (IL-6) 45 Interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8) 45 Tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) 46 Macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 or CCL2) 46 Interferon inducible protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10) 46 Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1 or CXCL12) 46 Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b) 47Inflammation in oral mucosal wounds 47Inflammation in fetal wounds 48Role of inflammation in keloids 49Inflammation and diabetic wounds 49Conclusions 50References 50</p><p>4 Specialized Pro-resolving Lipid Derived Fatty Acid Mediators: Wiring the Circuitry of Effector Immune Homeostasis 57</p><p> Gabrielle Fredman and Charles N. Serhan</p><p>Inflammation: the cardinal signs 57Complete resolution and tissue homeostasis is the ideal </p><p>outcome of acute inflammation 58Lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins: semper vigilantes </p><p>of anti-inflammation and pro-resolution 60 Lipoxins 62 Resolvins 62</p><p>Larjava_ftoc.indd viLarjava_ftoc.indd vi 2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM</p></li><li><p> Contents vii</p><p> Protectins 65 Maresins 65Resolution of inflammation is an actively regulated </p><p>process in vivo 66Resolvins and protectins are protective in experimental </p><p>models of inflammatory diseases 67Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators in oral medicine: </p><p>restoration of tissue homeostasis in experimental periodontitis 70Resolution and wound healing 72Anti-inflammation vs. Pro-resolution 72 Resolution toxicity 73Clinical implications and the development of stable analogs 74Conclusions 74Acknowledgments 75References 75</p><p>5 Re-epithelialization of Wounds 81 Leeni Koivisto, Lari Hkkinen and Hannu Larjava </p><p>Introduction 81Keratinocytes form a protective barrier between an organism </p><p>and its environment 81Keratinocytes are activated rapidly to restore the epithelial </p><p>barrier after wounding 82Many different factors contribute to re-epithelialization 84 Keratinocytes become exposed to novel extracellular </p><p>matrix molecules in wounds 85 Integrins are signaling molecules that mediate cell adhesion </p><p>to extracellular matrix and cell migration 87 Cytokines and growth factors are important mediators </p><p>of wound healing 95 Serine proteases and matrix metalloproteinases modulate </p><p>extracellular matrix and generate biologically active molecules 102 Levels of divalent cations in the wound fluid affect </p><p>re-epithelialization 105 Wound-induced electrical field directs re-epithelialization 106Final stages of re-epithelialization 106Failure to re-epithelialize: chronic wounds 107Conclusions 107References 108</p><p>6 Granulation Tissue Formation and Remodeling 125 Lari Hkkinen, Hannu Larjava and Leeni Koivisto</p><p>Introduction 125Overview of connective tissue response to wounding 126Wound healing stages 129Origin and identity of wound fibroblasts 129Granulation tissue formation 134</p><p>Larjava_ftoc.indd viiLarjava_ftoc.indd vii 2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM</p></li><li><p>viii Contents</p><p> Activation of connective tissue cells 135 Cell proliferation 138 Cell migration 141 Matrix deposition and wound contraction 144 Transforming growth factor-b 149Connective tissue remodeling 151 Downregulation of cell proliferation and cellularity 152 ECM degradation 152 ECM reorganization and increased stability by collagen </p><p>cross-linking 154 Downregulation of ECM production 155Re-emergence of quiescent fibroblast phenotype 156Specific features of oral mucosal wound healing 157Conclusions 159Acknowledgments 159References 159</p><p>7 Angiogenesis and Wound Healing: Basic Discoveries, Clinical Implications and Therapeutic Opportunities 175</p><p> Peter J. Polverini</p><p>Introduction 175How blood vessels develop 175Early mechanistic insights into the angiogenic response: </p><p>from solid tumors to chronic inflammation and wound healing 177The role of other inflammatory cells in angiogenesis 179Matrix molecules 180Vascular endothelial growth factor and the modern era </p><p>of angiogenesis research 181Signaling networks of potential importance in wound </p><p>neovascularization 182Inhibitors of angiogenesis: important counterweights in wound </p><p>neovascularization 184The role of aberrant wound angiogenesis inthe pathogenesis </p><p>of diabetes mellitus 186Conclusions 187References 188</p><p>8 Wound Healing of Extraction Sockets 195 Roberto Farina and Leonardo Trombelli</p><p>Healing of extraction sockets 195 Histological aspects 195 Clinical aspects 199Factors influencing the healing of extraction sockets 202 Smoking 202 Flapless tooth extraction 202 Location of the edentulous site 202</p><p>Larjava_ftoc.indd viiiLarjava_ftoc.indd viii 2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM</p></li><li><p> Contents ix</p><p> Single versus multiple extractions 203 Chlorhexidine mouth rinse following tooth extraction 203Healing of extraction sockets following immediate implant placement 203 Histological aspects 204 Clinical aspects 204 Healing determinants of extraction sockets after immediate </p><p>implant placement 206Does the use of reconstructive technologies alter the healing </p><p>of extraction sockets? 211 Graft materials 211 Barrier membranes 215 Bioactive agents 216 Combination of different reconstructive technologies 217Conclusions 223References 223</p><p> 9 Flap Designs for Periodontal Healing 229 Leonardo Trombelli and Roberto Farina</p><p>Flap management, wound stability and periodontal regeneration 229Flap designs to achieve primary closure 230 Techniques without preservation of the interdental </p><p>supracrestal soft tissues and with double flap elevation 230 Techniques with preservation of the interdental supracrestal </p><p>soft tissues and with double flap elevation 231 Techniques with preservation of the interdental supracrestal </p><p>soft tissues and with a single flap elevation: the Single Flap Approach 233</p><p>Surgical treatment of periodontal intraosseous defects: technical hints 237</p><p>Conclusions 240References 241</p><p>10 Periodontal Regeneration: Experimental Observations Clinical Consequences 243</p><p> Ulf M.E. Wikesj, Cristiano Susin, Jaebum Lee, Douglas P. Dickinson and Giuseppe Polimeni</p><p>Introduction 243Wound healing 244Periodontal wound healing 245Periodontal regeneration new attachment 247Wound stability 248Space provision 251Wound closure for primary intention healing 256Conclusions 256Acknowledgment 257References 257</p><p>Larjava_ftoc.indd ixLarjava_ftoc.indd ix 2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM2/14/2012 5:31:55 PM</p></li><li><p>x Contents</p><p>11 Biological Agents and Cell Therapies in Periodontal Regeneration 261 Hannu Larjava, Yi Yang, Edward Putnins, Jyrki Heino </p><p>and Lari Hkkinen</p><p>Introduction 261Adjunct growth factors in periodontal wound repair 261PDGF and IGF-1 in periodontal regeneration 262Platelet-rich plasma in periodontal therapy 265FGF-2 in periodontal regeneration 265Growth and differentiation factor-5 in periodontal regeneration 266Other growth factors in periodontal regeneration 267Bioactive collagen-derived peptide in periodontal </p><p>regeneration (PepGen P-15) 267Enamel matrix proteins in periodontal regeneration and </p><p>wound healing 269Stem cells in periodontal wound healing 273Conclusions 275References 275</p><p>12 Wound Healing Around Dental Implants 287 Cristina Cunha Villar, Guy Huynh-Ba, Michael P. Mills </p><p>and David L. Cochran</p><p>Introduction 287Historical development 287Titanium the metal of choice 290Healing following implant placement 291Peri-implant soft tissue healing 291Implant/peri-implant mucosa interface 292Peri-implant hard tissue healing 294From healing to clinical application 296Implant stability testing 297 Destructive methods 297 Non-destructive methods 298Wound healing and loading protocols 302Conclusions 303References 304</p><p>13 The Pulp Healing Process: From Generation to Regeneration 313 Stphane Simon, Anthony J. Smith, Philip J. Lumley,</p><p>Paul R. Cooper, and Ariane Berdal</p><p>From generation to regeneration 313 The dentinepulp complex 314 The odontoblast: a key cell for regenerative endodontics 316 Pulpal responses to injury 320At the molecular level 323 Reparative dentinogenesis and pulp capping 324Conclusion 328References 328</p><p>Larjava_ftoc.indd xLarjava_ftoc.indd x 2/14/2012 5:31:56 PM2/14/2012 5:31:56 PM</p></li><li><p> Contents xi</p><p>14 Dermal Wound Healing and Burn Wounds 333 Anthony Papp</p><p>Introduction 333Burn injury 333Skin anatomy 334 Epidermis 334 Dermis 335 Skin vasculature 335 Skin appendages and subcutaneous fat 336Burn depth 336 Epidermal burns 337 Dermal burns 337 Full thickness burns 338Wound healing 338Treatment 340 Conservative treatment 340 Surgical treatment 341Special features in perioral burns 342Conclusions 343References 344</p><p>15 Healing of Large Dentofacial Defects 347 George K.B. Sndor, Robert P. Carmichael, Leena P. Ylikontiola, </p><p>Ahmed Jan, Marc G. DuVal and Cameron M.L. Clokie</p><p>Introduction 347The need for bone 349Bone healing 349 Primary bone healing 349 Secondary bone healing 349 Gap osseous healing and bone grafts 350 Growth factors 350 Blood supply and the soft tissue envelope 351 Vasculoendothelial growth factor (VEGF) effects 351 Angiogenesis 352Surgical maneuvers to induce and promote healing of </p><p>large defects 355 Periosteal healing 355 Tent pole procedures 355 Sinus lifting/lateral ridge augmentation 359 Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) 371 Distraction osteogenesis 372 The distracting dental implant 377 Guidance of implant placement 378 Tissue engineering with growth factors BMPs and VEGF 378 Tissue engineering with stem cells and growth factors 381 The field of tissue engineering 381 Sources of stem cells 381 Stimulating stem cells 381</p><p>Larjava_ftoc.indd xiLarjava_ftoc.indd xi 2/14/2012 5:31:56 PM2/14/2012 5:31:56 PM</p></li><li><p>xii Contents</p><p> Manipulating the construct 382 Future directions 382Specifically difficult wounds 383 Maxillectomy cavities 383 Wound infections necrotizing fasciitis 387Conclusions 391References 392</p><p>Index 397</p><p>Larjava_ftoc.indd xiiLarjava_ftoc.indd xii 2/14/2012 5:31:56 PM2/14/2012 5:31:56 PM</p></li><li><p>Editor</p><p>Hannu Larjava, DDS, PhD, Dip PerioProfessor and Chair, Division of PeriodonticsFaculty of DentistryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver, BC, Canada</p><p>Contributors</p><p>Ariane Berdal, DDS, MPhil, DScCentre de Recherche des CordeliersPhysiologie Orale Molc...</p></li></ul>