orbital characteristics of extra-solar planets

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Orbital Characteristics of Extra-Solar Planets. The difference from our own Solar system. Discovery of new binaries (and brown dwarfs and massive planets ) with the relativistic beaming effect. In the solar system:. Giant planets far away (>5 AU) Circular orbits - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 1Orbital Characteristics of Extra-Solar PlanetsDiscovery of new binaries (and brown dwarfs and massive planets ) with the relativistic beaming effect

The difference from our own Solar systemT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 2

Giant planets far away (>5 AU)Circular orbitsPlanetary orbits aligned with the Solar spin (Obliquity < 7 deg)In the solar system:

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 3

The main paradigm for planetary formation:Accretion discT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 451 PegMayor & Queloz 1995

The new era: Precision ~10 m/sT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 5Earth

JupiterNeptuneRVT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 6Planets discovered by RVMass distribution

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 7Giant planets far awayCircular orbitsOrbits aligned with Solar spinPlanets discovered by RVPeriod distribution

Close-in giant planetsT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 8

MigrationT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 9HD80606(Naef et al. 2001)e=0.93P=112 daysmsini=4MJup

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 10

Giant planets far awayCircular orbitsOrbits aligned with Solar spinT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 11Transits

The inclination (i) must be very close to 90

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 12T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 13T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 14

The first known observation of a transit of Venus was made byJeremiah Horrocksfrom his home atCarr HouseinMuch Hoole, nearPrestoninEngland, on 4 December 1639 (24 November under theJulian calendarthen in use in England). His friend,William Crabtree, also observed this transit fromBroughton, nearManchester.Transit of VenusT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 15HD 209458Mazeh et al., 2000

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 16HD 209458Phase consistent with the radial velocitiesCharbonneau, Brown, Latham & Mayor 2000 Henry, Marcy, Butler & Vogt 2000

Depth: ~1.5%Duration: ~2.5 hours

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 17HD209458Brown, Charbonneau, Gilliland, Noyes & Burrows, 2001,

HST photometryT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 18

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 19

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 20

HAT-P-2 May 2007T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 21

Orbit of planetTransiting planetsStellar Spin-Planetary orbit relative inclination(obliquity)T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 22

Orbit of planetSpin-orbit relative inclinationStellar Spin-Planetary orbit relative inclination(obliquity)T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 23

The Rossiter-McLaughlin effectGaudi & Winn 2007:

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 24

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 25

Obliquity of extrasolar planetsWinn, Fabrycky, Albrecht, Johnson, 2010:T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 26

Winn et al. 2009HAT-P-7

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 27Giant planets far awayCircular orbitsOrbits aligned with Solar spin

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 28

MigrationMigration ?Highly eccentric orbits &Spin-orbit MISalignment T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 29

Migration ?Highly eccentric orbits &Spin-orbit MISalignment Planet-planet interactione.g., Juric & Tremaine 2008Stars around the center of our galaxyOort cloudT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 30

A French CNES mission with European partners & Brazil27cm telescope with polar orbitLaunched on 12 / 27 / 2006

The CoRoT missionT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 31

First detected by alarm mode 153 transits, all ~ seen when superimposed Short period : P= 0.8536 days >> transit depth : F/F = 0.035%=350 ppm compatible with Rpl = 1.8R

CoRoT-7b: first super earth transiting planet

d=150pc3131T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 32CoRoT-7b SynchronizationT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 33

The Kepler missionA NASA mission95 cm telescope with earth-trailing orbitLaunched on 07 / 03 / 2009

~170,000 stars monitored for (3.5) 7 yrs

34T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 35PeriodMass(days)(Earth mass)10.34.3b13.013.5c22.76.1d40.08.4e46.72.3f118.43gKepler-11

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 37

Observations of Kepler-34Welsh et al., Nature481,475(26 January 2012)P=27.7958103+/-0.000001 dT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 38

Observations of Kepler-34.Welsh et al., Nature481,475(26 January 2012)T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 39

Observations of Kepler-34.Welsh et al., Nature481,475(26 January 2012)P=27.7958103+/-0.000001 d

Circumbinary planetT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 41

Kepler-47T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 42

Kepler-47T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 43Kepler-47

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 44Kepler-47

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 45

Giant planets far awayCircular orbitsPlanetary orbits aligned with the Solar spin (Obliquity ~ 7 deg)In the solar system:

One central starT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 46Grether & Lineweaver 2006The Brown-Dwarf Desert

in CoRoT and Kepler LightcurvesTsevi Mazeh & Simchon FaiglerTel Aviv University

BEaming, Ellipsoidal & Reflection effectsBEER algorithm to discover short-period binariesT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 48

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 49

Leob & Gaudi 2003

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 50Beaming effect in binaries

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 51

Heating (and reflection) effect T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 52

Ellipsoidal effectT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 53

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 54

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 55

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 56

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 57

S. Faigler, T. Mazeh, S. Quinn, D. Latham, L. Tal-OrT. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 58

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 59

T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 60

Grether & Lineweaver 2006~150,000 Kepler stars~150,000 CoRoT starsthe desert will become a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water.we will make the Brown dwarf desert a pool of BEER..

Brown Dwarf Desert60T. Mazeh, Leuven: Extrasolar planets 61Thank you

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