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    Organizational Behaviour20-9 OVERVIEW study material (Intermediate+Final)

    This summary can be used alongside:Organisational Behaviour (4th edition)

    BEDRIJFSKUNDE+ECONOMIE BACHELOR JAAR 1

    * 8 3 0 4 7 6 4 *

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    Contents:Intermedia e:Chapter A: Organisational behaviour in the pastChapter B: Personality and self-conceptChapter C: Personal characteristicsChapter D: Perceive and communiealeChapter E: MotivationFinal:Chapter F Motivation theoriesChapter G Group dynamicsChapter H TeamworkChapter I Organisational elimateChapter J lntercultural differencesChapter K Decision-making processChapter L Power and politicsChapter M LeadershipChapter N ChangeChapter 0 CSP

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    Overview study material: Organizational Behaviour

    Chapter A: Organisational behaviour in the pastOrganisational behaviour observes the interactions and ha bits of people and organisations. lttries to imprave the organisations effectiveness.Pfeffer found evidence that 'people-centred practices' are strongly associated with higherprofits and significantly lower employee turnover. Seven people-centred practices insuccessful companies:

    1. Job security: eliminate fear of losing a job2. Careful hiring: emphasis on good fit with company culture3. Power to the people: decentralisation and self-managed teams4. Generous pay for performance5. Lots of training6. Less emphasis on status: to build a 'we' feeling7. Trust-building: through the sharing of critica I information

    HistoryClassic social theoryRational-system viewHuman relations viewSymbolic interactionism - postmodernismConflict-critica! view

    Marx, Drukheim, WeberTaylor, Fayol, Barnard, SimonMayo, Follett, McGregorWeickMarx

    Rational-system viewTaylorHe is the faunder of scientific management. This is an approach to management in which alltasks in organisations are analysed, routinized, divided and standardised in depth, insteadofusing rules of thumb. Th s leads to more efficiency due to the increasing pace of workingbecause of the divided subtasks. Consequences: Higher output Standardisation Control and predictability The routine of the tasks allowed the replacement of skilied workers by non-skilied

    workers Thinking is for managers, workers only work Optimisation of the tools for each workerFayolHe is the faunder of 'management'. lntroduced five basic management tasks:

    1. Planning: predicting a course of action to meet the planned goals.2. Organising: allocating materials + organising people. Authority, discipline, controL3. Leading: giving directions + orders to employees. Convince + influence + motivateothers to make them accomplish the goals.4. Co-ordinating: harmonise different departments to one unit, working for the generalinterest of the company.5. Controlling: to what extent the goals were met+ orders are followed. Carried out by

    an independent + competent employee.To execute those basic tasks, tourteen management principles should be obeyed:

    1. Division of Iabour2. Authority and responsibility3. Discipline4. Unity of cammand5. Unity of direction

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    6. Subordination of individual interest to the general interest7. Fair remuneration of persennel8. Centralisation9. Hierarchy10. Order11. Equity12. Stability of tenure of personnel: low turnover13.1nitiative by every employee14. Unity among the employees

    Six skilis a manager should possess:1. Physical qualities2. Mental qualities3. Moral qualities4. General education5. Specific education6. Experience

    BernardBuild his theory on general principles of co-operative systems. He describes individuals asseparate beings but not totally independent, freedom is bounded by biologica! and physicallimitations. Effectiveness wil! increase by co-operative actions, necessary elements: Willingness to co-operate A common purpose Communication about the actions Specialisation Incentives Authority Decision-making

    SirnonCategorised under the rational-system view because of his rational approach to the workingof organisations and he tried to apply principles of the hard science to social sciences (ad-ministrative -7 decision-making processes). Organisation is characterised by communication,relationships and decision-making processes. How to motivate employees: Loyalty of the employee to the organisation: commitment, identify himself Training Coercion: psychological manipulations to convince the worker into being motivated.Humans have psychological and sociallimitations in thinking rationally, bounded rationality.Human relations viewHuman Relations MovementEstablished because unions wanted better working conditions and researchers wanted moreattention to the hu man factor within an organisation.MayoHe did research to the attention that was given to employees at Western Electric's Haw-thorne plant. Outcomes of this research: There is no correlation between working conditionsand the employee output. Motivation was stimulated by status and the influence of mutualadjustments within the workgroup.

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    Overview study material : Organizational Behaviour

    FollettShe stressed the importance of human relations in organisations, particularly the imprave-ment of the relationship between management and employees. Employees were the keyparts, paying attention to their needs was the way to imprave productivity. Follett's view onmanagement was the integration of the individual and the organisation. She focussed oninterestand needs of the workers and managers. Six concepts of Follett's work:1. Dynamism: dynamic social relations2. Empowerment: a self-developed capacity, nota pre-existing thing. Power-over: coercive power Power-with: co-active power.3. Participation: co-ordination of the contribution of each individual -7 unit. Clear com-munication, openness, explicitness.4. Leadership: Communication, vision sharing. lnspires others to innovate and achievegoals.5. Conflict: Shows differences between people, neither good nor bad. Solution: integra-tion.6. Experience

    McGregorHe formulated two different approaches regarding the human nature, see Table 1.4Symbolic interact ionism- postmodernismSymbolic interactionismFocus on individual behaviour and interactions on micro-level. Subjective interpretations:World is created by communication. Explains why people can have different reactions andmake different decisions in the same situations.PostmodernismA very subjective and situation orientated 'theory'. Postmodernism makes it impossible todevelop general applicable theories of this world.Conflict-critical viewConflict theorySocial structures and relations within organisations are based on conflicts between groupsand social classes. This is in contrast with the rational-view.Critica/ theoryThere is no general idea, but the concept is a being opposed to functionalism and capitalism.Morgan presents eight metaphorical lenses for visualizing an organisation as:Positive

    1. Machines: orderly relationships, clearly defined logical system with subsystems, pre-dictability and controllability.2. Organisms: adaption to environment, open system that transfarms inputs into outputs,dealing with survival.3. Brains: having information-processing capacity, strategy formulation, planning proc-esses and management, self-regulation of dispersed intelligence.4. Cultures: constructed beliets and interpretations, subjective reality, own language,shared values, norms and mental models.

    Negative5. Politica/ systems: competition, conflict, influencing, power, politicking, own goals vs.organisational goals.6. Physical prisons: being controlled mentally, constrained thinking, unconsciously get-ting trapped in web of own creation.

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    7. Flux and transformation: self-producing system, mutual causality, dialeetic change.8. lnstruments of domination: ugly face, external domination of environment and hu-mans, dominating own people.

    Modern theoretica/ perspectives on organisations: Ecological approach: take a look at whole population within one branch because or-ganisations react in the same way very aften if they are operating in the same envi-ronment. lnstitutional approach: see the nature of an organisation as given. Organisations copyothers. lnterpretive approach: organisations are structured socially -7 subjective. Organisation learning: adaptive learning + knowledge development. Resource dependence: the extent to which organisations are dependent of the envi-ronment. Try to secure resources. Transaction cast: managers should reconsider on every decision the cast effective-ness of their actions.

    Theory + Research + Practice = he most complete information for better understanding andmanaging organisational behaviour.Four ways to obtain data in a valid way:

    1. Observation: recording the number of times a specified behaviour is exhibited.2. Questionnaires: ask respondents fortheir opinions or feelings about work-related is-sues.3. Interviews: rely on face-to-face or telephone interactions, ask respondents questions

    of interest.4.