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OVERCURRENT RELAY SETTING BY USING ADAPTIVE TECHNIQUE PARISA ESMAILI A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award from the degree of Master of Engineering (Electrical-Power) Faculty of Electrical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia JUNE 2014

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Page 1: OVERCURRENT RELAY SETTING BY USING ADAPTIVE … · dimana analisa kerosakan tidak dimasukkan lebih awal. Ini bermakna arus litar pintas diperlukan kerana kerosakan yang berlaku dalam

OVERCURRENT RELAY SETTING BY USING ADAPTIVE TECHNIQUE

PARISA ESMAILI

A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the

requirements for the award from the degree of

Master of Engineering (Electrical-Power)

Faculty o f Electrical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

JUNE 2014

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To my beloved family and specially my dears father, mother and sister

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In preparing this thesis, I was in contact with lots from people, researchers,

academicians, and practitioners. They have contributed towards my understanding

and thoughts. In particular, I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my main

thesis supervisor, Prof. Ir. Dr. Abdullah Asuhaimi bin Mohd Zin, for encouragement,

guidance, critics and friendship. Without his continued support and interest, this

thesis would not be as written.

I also like to express my apperception Librarians at UTM also deserve special

thanks for their assistance in supplying the relevant literatures.

My sincere appreciation also extends to all my colleagues and others who

have provided assistance at various occasions. Their views and tips are beneficial

indeed. Unfortunately, it is not possible to list all from them in this limited space. I

am grateful to all my family members.

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ABSTRACT

As cost-effective protection relays, Overcurrent (OC) relays are used as the

main protection equipment in distribution grids and backup protection for distance

relays in transmission and sub-transmission lines. Basically, two parameters are

considered as OC relays settings: pickup currents ( Ipick up ) and Time Setting

Multiplier (TSM). Hence, the objective in the coordination problem of OC relays is

to determine Ipick up and TSM of each relay. These methods can be classified into

two different approaches: Off-line and On-line coordination approaches. By

analyzing all faults, abnormal operating conditions, and system contingencies as

well-known as Off-line coordination techniques, several methods have been

developed to solve coordination problem of OC relays. However, the response of

relays would not be satisfactory in a condition which has not been included the

analysis earlier. Meaning that, required short circuit currents due to any fault that

occurred in grid cannot be adjusted to the coordination problem of OC relays.

Therefore, the risk of occurring mal-operation or miss-coordination becomes high. In

order to achieve a robust protection scheme, the OC relays settings must be updated

regarding to any change which results into new topology of the grid. In this thesis, a

reliable protection scheme is achieved by implementing the proposed adaptive

protection algorithm. For this purpose, the idea of employing the Thevenin

equivalent circuit is utilized to check the power grid operation for any change

continuously. By applying the proposed technique, the accurate settings of

overcurrent relays in distribution network are determined. As a result, the proposed

adaptive protection algorithm can avoid the unnecessary blackouts in distribution

network and provide reliable and sensitive protection scheme.

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ABSTRAK

Untuk perlindungan geganti yang efekttif, geganti arus lebihan (OC)

digunakan sebagai alat perlindungan utama dalam grid agihan dan perlindungan

sokongan untuk geganti jarak dalam penghantaran dan sub-talian penghantaran. Pada

dasarnya, dua parameter yang dianggap sebagai tetapan geganti arus lebihan iaitu :

Arus Ambilan (PS) dan Masa Tetapan Pengganda (TSM). Oleh itu, objektif dalam

masalah penyelarasan daripada geganti arus lebihan ialah untuk menentukan Masa

Tetapan Pengganda bagi setiap geganti. Kaedah-kaedah ini boleh diklasifikasikan

pada dua pendekatan yang berbeza iaitu: Penyelarasan talian tertutup dan talian

terbuka. Dengan menganalisa semua kerosakan, keadaan operasi yang tidak normal,

dan sistem luar jangkaan yang dikenali sebagai teknik penyelarasan talian tertutup,

beberapa kaedah telah dicapai bagi menyelesaikan masalah penyelarasan geganti

arus lebihan. Walaubagaimanapun, keadaan tindak balas geganti kurang memuaskn,

dimana analisa kerosakan tidak dimasukkan lebih awal. Ini bermakna arus litar pintas

diperlukan kerana kerosakan yang berlaku dalam grid tidak dapat diselaraskan

dengan masalah penyelarasan geganti arus lebihan (OC). Oleh itu, risiko untuk

berlakunya ‘mal-operasi’ atau ‘miss-penyelarasan’ menjadi tinggi. Untuk mencapai

satu skim perlindungan teguh, tetapan geganti arus lebihan mestilah dikemaskini

berdasarkan sebarang perubahan kepada keputusan baru topologi grid. Dalam tesis

ini, skim perlindungan yang boleh dipercayai dicapai dengan melaksanakan

algoritma perlindungan penyesuaian yang telah dicadangkan. Bagi tujuan ini, idea

bagi menggunakan Litar Setara Thevenin digunakan untuk menyemak operasi kuasa

grid bagi apa-apa perubahan secara berterusan. Dengan menggunakan teknik yang

dicadangkan, tetapan tepat geganti arus lebihan dalam rangkaian agihan ditentukan.

Hasilnya, algoritma perlindungan penyesuaian yang dicadangkan boleh mengelakkan

kerosakan dalam pengedaran rangkaian dan menyediakan skim perlindungan yang

boleh dipercayai dan sensitif.

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CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

DECLARATION ii

DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

ABSTRACT v

ABSTRAK vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

LIST OF FIGURES xi

LIST OF TABLES xiv

LIAT OF ABBREVIATION xvi

LIST OF APPENDIX xvii

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Overview 1

1.2 Problem Background 2

1.3 Objective of Study 4

1.4 Scope of Study 4

1.5 Research Significant 5

1.6 Thesis Outline 5

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6

2.1 Introduction 6

2.2 Overcurrent Relays 7

2.2.1 Types of Overcurrent Relays 7

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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2.2.1.1 Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays (Define

Current Relay) 7

2.2.1.2 Define Time Overcurrent Relay (DT

Relays) 8

2.2.1.3 Inverse Time Overcurrent Relay

(IDMT Relay) 8

2.2.1.4 Main and Backup Protection Zones 10

2.3 Off-line Coordination 12

2.3.1 Conventional Approaches 12

2.3.2 Optimization Approaches 13

2.3.2.1 Linear Programming Techniques 14

2.3.2.2 Intelligence Based Optimization Methods 15

2.3.2.2.1 Genetic Algorithm 16

2.3.2.2.2 Particle Swarm Optimization 17

2.4 On-line Coordination 19

2.5 Adaptive Protection Scheme 22

2.6 Summary 24

3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 25

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 Research Frame Work 26

3.3 Case study: IEEE-14 Bus Test System 27

3.4 Proposed Adaptive Protection Algorithm 28

3.5 Operating Scenario for IEEE-14 Bus Power Grid 29

3.6 Thevenin Equivalent Circuit of Power Grid 32

3.7 Distribution System and Overcurrent Protection Scheme 36

3.7.2 The 230/20 kV Test Radial Distribution System

Configuration 36

3.8 Short Circuit Current Level Calculation 37

3.9 Normal Inverse Time Overcurrent Relay Setting

Procedure 38

3.10 Summary 39

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4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 40

4.1 Introduction 40

4.2 The Thevenin Equivalent Impedances under Normal

Operating Condition 41

4.2.1 Load Flow Analysis 43

4.2.3 Sampling Procedure under Normal Operating

Condition 45

4.3 The Thevenin Equivalent Impedances after loads

Connection 48

4.3.1 Sampling Procedure after Loads Connection 49

4.4 The Thevenin Equivalent Circuit after Compensators

Connection 53

4.5 The Thevenin Equivalent Circuit under Unexpected

Change 54

4.5.1 Sampling Procedure when G8 is taken out of use 55

4.6 Overcurrent Relays setting in Radial Distribution System 59

4.7 Short Circuit Current Calculation under Normal

Operating Condition 60

4.7.1 Overcurrent Relay Setting under Normal

Operating Condition 61

4.8 Short Circuit level and Overcurrent Relays Settings after

Loads Connection 63

4.8.1 Short Circuit level and Overcurrent Relays

Settings after G8 Disconnection 65

4.9 Results Discussion 67

4.9.1 Different Values o f the Thevenin Equivalent

Impedances 67

4.9.2 Affected Short Circuit Currents 69

4.9.3 Proposed Adaptive Overcurrent Relays Settings 70

4.10 Summary 71

5 CONCLUSIONAND FUTURE WORK 72

5.1 Conclusion 72

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5.2 Future Work: Protection Issues in Microgrids 73

5.2.1 Active Distribution Networks 74

5.2.2 Implementing of Adaptive Protection Approaches

as a Solution in Microgrids Protection Issues 75

REFERENCES

Appendix A-B

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81-98

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE

2.1 Values of a and K determine the degree of inverse in

the IDM curves 10

4.1 Initial values of voltage, impedance, line and

load currents in pu 44

4.2 Voltage on buses 2, 3,4,5,7 and 9 during sampling

under normal operating condition in pu 45

4.3 Currents from buses 2, 3 and 5 into the bus 4 during

sampling under normal operating condition in pu 46

4.4 Currents from bus 4 into the buses 7 and 9 during

Sampling under normal operating condition in pu 46

4.5 Load current, and load impedance during sampling

under normal operating condition in pu 47

4.6 Voltage on Buses 2, 3,4,5,7 and 9 during sampling after

loads connection in pu 50

4.7 Currents from buses 2 and 5 into the bus 4 during

sampling after loads connection in pu 50

4.8 Currents from bus 4 into the buses 3,7and 9 during

sampling after loads connection in pu 51

4.9 Load and line currents during sampling after Loads

connection in pu 51

4.10 Load impedance during sampling after loads connection

in pu 52

4.11 Voltage on buses 2, 3,4,5,7 and 9 during sampling after

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G8 disconnection in pu 56

4.12 Currents from bus 2 and 5 into the bus 4 during

sampling after G8 disconnection in pu 56

4.13 Currents from bus 4 into the bus 3,7and 9 during

sampling after G8 disconnection in pu 57

4.14 Load and line currents during sampling after G8

disconnection in pu 57

4.15 Load impedance during sampling after G8

disconnection in pu 58

4.16 CT Ratio, nominal and short circuit currents for

breakers under normal operating condition 61

4.17 Overcurrent relay setting data under normal operating

condition 63

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FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE

2.1 Definite current relay operating characteristics 8

2.2 Definite time relay operating characteristic 9

2.3 Inverse time minimum time relay operating

characteristic 9

2.4 IEC standard based characteristic curves 10

2.5 Primary and backup protection zone of OC relays 11

2.6 Traditional and modern configuration of overcurrent

relay: 20

2.7 Modern power systems configuration 21

2.8 Summaries of the proposed Off-line coordination

techniques 22

3.1 Research frame work 27

3.2 The single-line diagram of the IEEE-14 bus test system 28

3.3 The proposed adaptive algorithm to monitor the voltage

on the bus 4 31

3.4 Continuously changing operating condition of the grid 32

3.5 Per-phase equivalent circuit of the power grid for a line

led to a bus 33

3.6 Typical configuration of radial distribution systems 36

3.7 The 230/20 kV test radial distribution system

configuration 37

3.8 Equivalent circuit of power system under fault occurred

at LV side 37

LIST OF FIGURES

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4.1 simulated IEEE-14 bus test system in POWERWORLD 41

simulator under normal operating condition

4.2 Power flow direction to/ from Bus 4 under normal

operating condition in POWERWORD simulator 42

4.3 Workspace of power flow analysis in POWERWORLD

simulator 43

4.4 Simulated IEEE-14 bus test system in POWERWORLD

simulator after loads connection

Simulator after Loads Connection 48

4.5 Power flow direction to/ from the bus 4 after

loads connection in POWERWORLD simulator 49

4.6 Simulated IEEE-14 bus test system in POWERWORLD

simulator after compensation 53

4.7 Simulated IEEE-14 bus test system in POWERWORLD

after G8 disconnection 54

4.8 Power flow direction to/ from the bus 4 after

G8 disconnection in POWERWORLD simulator 55

4.9 Connection of 230/20 kV-distribution system to the

IEEE-14 bus power grid 59

4.10 Simulated 14-bus test system and its connected radial

distribution network after load connection 64

4.11 CT Ratio, nominal and short circuit currents for

breakers after loads connection 64

4.12 Overcurrent relay setting data after loads connection 65

4.13 Simulated 14-bus test system and its connected radial

distribution network after G8 disconnection 66

4.14 CT Ratio, nominal and short circuit currents for

breakers when G8 disconnected 66

4.15 Overcurrent relay setting data when G8 disconnected 67

4.16 Different values o f the Thevenin impedance under

continuously changing operating condition of the grid 68

4.17 Different short circuit levels under different operating

conditions 69

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5.1 Active distribution networks configuration 74

5.2 Simulated 230/20 active distribution network in

POWERWORLD simulator 75

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LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX NO. TITLE PAGE

A IEEE-14 Bus Test System Data 81

B MATLAB Codes 83

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LIST OF ABREVIATIONS

OC - Overcurrent

TSM - Time Setting Multiplier

PS - Plug Setting

LP - Linear Programming

MINLP - Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming

SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

HV - High Voltage

IDMT - Inverse Define Minimum Time

DT - Define Time

NLP - Non-Linear Programming

IBFS - Initial Basic Feasible Solution

GA - Genetic Algorithm

POS - Particle Swarm Optimization

CGA - Continuous Genetic Algorithm

OF - Objective Function

NM - Nelder-Mean

DUT - Dominant Utilization Topology

ILP - Interval Linear Programming

DG - Distributed Generation

LV - Low Voltage

CIT - Coordination Time Interval

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview

In the presence of increasing industrial developments and consequently

growing energy consumption, importance of accessing to reliable electricity widely

has been attention [1]. In addition to reliability, it is compulsory to generate

sufficient amount of electric power to transmit on a continuous basis where systems

efficiency depends on continuous electricity accessing [2]. To achieve this,

protection system associated with the power system must be able to identify and

compensate any effects or fails in the system which leads to long term blackouts [3].

Otherwise, more delays required to restore the system to its normal operating in case

of blackout or damage to equipments which is costly. Furthermore, utilization of the

suitable protective equipment is fundamentally important in terms of safety and

minimizing damages on the electrical devices. To achieve this, protective relays such

as overcurrent relays must promptly clear any fault with disconnecting as few

components as possible.

As cost-effective protective relays, overcurrent relays (OC) have been

employed in distribution system. Usually, these relays are the main protection

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devices in distribution grids and backups for distance relays in transmission and sub­

transmission lines [4]. Basically, two parameters are considered as OC relays

settings: pickup currents ( Ip iCk -U p ) and Time Setting Multiplier (TSM). Hence, the

objective in the coordination problem of OC relays is to determine Ipick - u p and TSM

of each relay [5]. In order to prevent any mal-operation or miss-coordination,

overcurrent relays must adjust with accurate values of pick up current and time dial

setting.

1.2 Problem Background

Several methods that have been developed to solve coordination problem of

OC relays can be classified into two different approaches: Off-line and On-line

coordination approaches. Traditionally, conventional approaches have been applied

to solve coordination problem of OC relays [10-16]. Since these approaches

encountered with problems for complex and interconnected networks, optimization

techniques introduced to overcome the mentioned problems [17-18]. These

optimization techniques can be divided into linear and non-linear techniques. In

linear techniques, pickup currents assumed to be known. Thus, the Linear

Programming (LP) is employed only to minimize operating time [19-22]. Since,

overcurrent relays coordination problem is a Mixed Integer Non- Linear

Programming (MINLP), LP techniques have limitations in term of low number of

restrictions. This leads to introduce non-linear technique or intelligence based

optimization methods. Considering the nonlinearity effects and integer variables in

problem formulation are the major benefits of the intelligent based optimization

methods [23-24]. Genetic algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

have been presented as two powerful tools in order to solve this complex

optimization problem [25-34].

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However the optimization techniques presented reliable performance in

order to solve coordination problem, these protection techniques are in relation to the

concept of pre-determinism which involves analysis of all faults, abnormal operating

conditions, and system contingencies. In protection scheme based on pre­

determinism concept, the response of relays would not be satisfactory in a condition

which has not been included the analysis earlier [4-9]. Meaning that, required short

circuit currents due to any fault that occurred in grid cannot be adjusted to the

coordination problem of OC relays. Therefore, the risk of occurring mal-operation or

miss-coordination becomes high.

In order to achieve a robust protection scheme, overcurrent relays must be

adjusted by new settings. For this purpose, microprocessor based relays have been

employed in order to introduce adaptive protection scheme [35-37]. In this manner, a

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system checked the system for

any alterations continuously. As mentioned above, in protection scheme based on

pre-determinism concept, the response of relays would not be satisfactory due to

uncertainties. Although, the proposed centralized adaptive protection approaches

have been provided good solution for this problem, the coordination process depends

on the monitoring performance of SCADA system.

In this thesis, a reliable protection scheme is achieved by implementing the

proposed adaptive protection algorithm. According to the proposed algorithm, new

setting for the overcurrent relays can be obtained regarding to any change in

topology of the grid. The method is an On-line technique and based on the Thevenin

equivalent circuit of the grid that seen from each bus. This provides a monitoring

capability which removes any dependency on SCADA system performance. In this

thesis, proper settings o f overcurrent relays that adjusted in a High Voltage (HV)

substation are determined by employing proposed adaptive protection algorithm.

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1.3 Objective of Study

The objectives of this study are as follow.

1. To obtain the Thevenin equivalent circuit parameters for the test system

2. To determine the required short circuit currents for accurate setting of

overcurrent relays in HV substation by applying obtained Thevenin

equivalent circuit parameters.

3. To propose new accurate setting of overcurrent relays in HV substation due

to any changes in grid topology (add/remove equipment).

1.4 Scope of Study

To achieve the research objectives, the following scopes will be covered:

1. Thevenin equivalent circuit is derived only for one bus.

2. IEEE 14-bus system is considered as case study.

3. MATLAB and POWERWORLD software are employed in this study.

4. Only HV substation relays are considered for finding accurate setting.

5. Changes in grid topology such as add new equipments or take out of use of

equipments are considered

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1.5 Research Significant

The main significant in this work is to propose accurate settings for OC relays

in order to solve coordination problem regarding to any change in grid topology.

1.6 Thesis Outline

This thesis is prepared in five chapters as follow.

Chapter 1: Describe on the problem background and statement, objectives, scopes

and significances of the study.

Chapter 2: Reviews some related works done by previous investigators on

conventional and optimization methods to solve the coordination problem of OC

relays.

Chapter 3: Specifies the research process employed in this thesis.

Chapter 4: First, the Thevenin equivalent circuit impedances are obtained for

test system under different operating conditions. Then, required short circuit current

levels are calculated by applying different values of the Thevenin impedances

regarding to each operating condition. Finally, the accurate settings o f each OC

relays in test radial distribution network are determined according to the different

values of short circuit current levels.

Chapter 5: Presents conclusion and future work.

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