overweight and obesity

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Overweight and Obesity. Theresa Staley Jordan Knoepfel. Key Facts. Obesity has doubled since 1980 More than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight in 2011 65% of world’s population live in overweight countries - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and ObesityTheresa StaleyJordan KnoepfelKey FactsObesity has doubled since 1980More than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight in 201165% of worlds population live in overweight countries35% of adults aged 20+ were overweight in 2008 (11% were obese)In 2008, over 1.4 billion adults 20+ were overweight (500 million were obese)Upper Map: OverweightLower Map: Obese

Why Is This A Growing Trend?Many low and middle income countries are facing a double burden of diseaseExposure to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods (lower in cost but lower in nutrient quality)Children are more vulnerable to inadequate prenatal, infant and young child nutrition

Predictions (2030)2.16 billion overweight individuals, 1.12 million obese (with adjusting for secular trends)If trends continue, by 2030 up to 57.8% of the worlds adult population (3.3 billion people) will be overweight or obese)

WHO (World Health Organization)ResponseAdopted by the World Health Assembly in 2004Developed a global strategy on diet, physical activity and healthGovernmental InvolvementPublic AwarenessPromotion of healthy foodsNational Dietary GuidelinesNational Physical Activity Guidelines

Why This Population? Key issue due to its growing frequencyWill continue to grow if modern society doesnt make changesIt is preventableThrough study, it is possible to combat obesity making diseases less frequent

Population Characteristics 120 overweight and mildly obese men and women ages 40-65 years oldLive in Durham, North Carolina or surrounding areaSedentary lifestyle, BMI of 25-35, non-diabetic, non-hypertensiveLDL levels between 130-190 mg/dL, HDL levels less than 40 mg/dL for men and 45 mg/dL for women (dyslipidemia) No individuals with metabolic diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, or coronary heart disease were allowedResearch GoalTo determine what amount of daily exercise for adults should be recommended for weight loss, maintenance, and general overall health

Research TestingSubjects were randomized into three different groups based upon intensityGroup one exercise- high amount at vigorous intensity, 20 miles a week at 65-80% of VO2maxGroup two exercise- low amount of vigorous intensity, 12 miles a week at 65-80% of VO2maxGroup three exercise- low amount of moderate intensity, 12 miles a week at 40-55% of VO2maxGroup one was to expend 23 kcal/kg of body weight a week. Groups two and three were to expend 14 kcal/kg per weekData CollectionDietary evaluations conducted to ensure subjects maintained caloric intakeHeight measurement, two baseline weight measurements, and two end body weight measurements were administered to avoid daily fluctuationsBody composition was taken using the sum of four skinfolds (abdominal waist, minimal waist, hips, thigh circumference)

Test ResultsThere is a relationship between exercise and the variables of body weight, composition, skinfold, and circumferenceGroup one showed greater results than the other two groups regarding weight change, lean body mass percent, fat mass, skinfolds, and hip circumferenceExercise duration has a greater effect than intensity!Minimal level of walking six miles a week or exercise of same caloric expenditure should be baseline for adultsExercise Effects on Body Weight/Mass

Exercise Effects on Percent Skinfold Measurements

Exercise Effects on Circumferences

Exercise Prescription

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