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Chapter 34. Pacific Rim Countries. Pacific Rim Timeline. East Asia in the Postwar Settlements. Korea divided Russian, American zone Taiwan Chinese occupation Chiang Kai-shek Reoccupation of some areas Japan occupied by United States. Madame Chiang Kai- Shek. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Pacific Rim Countries

Pacific Rim CountriesChapter 34Pacific Rim Timeline

East Asia in the Postwar SettlementsKorea dividedRussian, American zoneTaiwanChinese occupationChiang Kai-shekReoccupation of some areasJapan occupied by United States

Madame Chiang Kai-Shek

New Divisions and the End of EmpiresPostwar decolonizationU.S. loses PhilippinesDutch: IndonesiaBritish: MalayaChiang, Kuomintangdriven to Taiwan

The Pacific Rim Area by 1960

Japanese RecoveryAmerican occupationends, 1952Democratizationwomen get the voteunions encouragedShintoism disestablishedland redistributionnew constitutionmodified, 1963Liberal Democratic Party, Conservative political party that monopolized Japanese governments from 1955 into the 1990s.

Korea: Intervention and WarNorth- Democratic Peoples Republic of KoreacommunistKim Il-Sung, to 1994South- Republic of Korea (ROK)Syngman Rheeparliamentary governmentKorean WarNorth invades South, 1950U.S. leads UN effortChina supports North1953, armistice (Pork Chop Hill)

Emerging Stability in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and SingaporeTaiwanKuomintang retreats to TaiwanU.S. SupportHong KongBritish colonyChinese control, 1997SingaporeIndependence, 1965Lee Kuan Yew: Authoritarian ruler of Singapore for three decades from 1959; presided over major economic development.

Japan, IncorporatedJapan's Distinctive Political and Cultural StyleLiberal Democrat Party, 1955-1993corruption raises questionsCultural continuityYukio Mishima (pen name: Kimitoke Hiraoka)nationalist, committed seppuku 1970The Economic SurgeCompany unionscooperation between management, laborWomentraditional attitudesPopular cultureWestern influencePolitical change

The Pacific Rim: New Japans?Follow Japanese model- Tigers?The Korean MiracleSouth KoreaChung-hee, 1961-(Assassinated) 1979 military loses powermore open press, political actionnew companiesHyundai: Major Korean industrial giant; typical of firms producing Koreas economic miracle. Advances in Taiwan and the City-StatesTaiwanrapid economic growthmore contact with China, other neighborsDeath of Chiang Kai-shek, 1978gap narrows between China and TaiwanSingaporesimilar to TaiwanLee Kuan Yewauthoritarian rulereturned to China, 1997Confucianism important in economic developmentbenefit from Japanese influenceIndonesia, Thailand, Malaysia follow

Mao's China and BeyondChiang Kai-shekJapanese invasionallies with CommunistsKuomintang's position lessenedpartly due to military defeatCommunism popularMao gaining power by 1945Defeat of Japan1949 Communists ascendantThe Communists Come to PowerSecession movementsInner Mongolia, TibetKorean WarChina supports divisionVietnamsupport liberationAlliance with Soviet Unioncollapses by late 1950sborder disputespost-Stalin changesWar with IndiaEconomic Growth? & Social JusticeLand reformFirst five-year plan, 1953Mass Line approach, 1955 - Economic policy of Mao Zedong inaugurated in 1955Led to formation of agricultural cooperatives that then became farming collectives in 1956; peasants lost land gained a few years earlier.Purge of intellectuals, 1957The Great Leap Backward, 1958 (Great Leap Forward)Economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958small scale industrialization projects integrated into peasant communitiesled to economic disaster and ended in 1960.famineended by 1960Mao no longer state chairman 1960 still head of Central Committeereplaced by pragmatists- Led by Zhou Enlai, with Liu Shaoui, Deng Xiaoping all opposed the Great Leap ForwardWanted to restore state direction and market incentives at the local level.

"Women Hold Up Half of the Heavens"Madame Mao Jiang Qing (Actress: Lan Ping) not supportive of women's rightsCommunist promisinglegal equalitywork outside the home opportunities increaseMao's Last Campaign and the Fall of the Gang of FourCultural Revolution, 1965 Zhou Enlaiinto seclusionLiu ShaoquikilledDeng Xiaoping Imprisonedended, 1968Mao dies, September 1976 Gang of Four - failed coup d'tat, October 1976Jiang Qingopposed by Dengdefeated by pragmatistsimprisoned for life in 1978 Pragmatists were more open to the West and capitalism

Colonialism and Revolution in VietnamFrenchinterest since 1600shope to convert to CatholicismTayson peasant rebellion, 1770sPeasant revolution in southern Vietnamtoppled the Nguyen and the Trinh dynasties.French back Nguyen Anh (Gia Long)Unification, new capital at HueMinh Mang- second ruler of united Vietnam (1802-1841); emphasized Confucianism & persecution of Vietnamese CatholicsFrench intervene, 1840sVietnam, Cambodia, Laos taken over by 1890sNguyen government, puppetsFrench takeoverdiscredits emperor, bureaucracy, Confucianism

Vietnam: Divisions in the Nguyen and French PeriodsVietnamese Nationalism:Bourgeois Dead Ends and Communist SurvivalFrench influenceWestern-educated middle classVietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD)Middle-class revolutionary organization during the 1920sCommitted to violent overthrow of French colonialism; crushed by the French, 1929Communist Party of Vietnam: The primary nationalist party after the defeat of the VNQDD in 1929; led from 1920s by Ho Chi Minhaided by CominternJapan occupies Vietnam, 1941The War of Liberation against the FrenchViet Minh = Communist Vietnamese movement; fought the Japanese during Word War II and the French afterwards.Communist-dominated resistanceVo Nguyen Giap, Communist military commander proclaims independence, 1945only in NorthIndochina War French defeated at Dien Bien Phu, 19541954 Geneva Accords, promises elections, split

The War of Liberation Against the United StatesCommunists v. United StatesSouthNgo Dinh Diem, first President of South Vietnam (19551963).fights communists (Viet Cong)Northsupports Viet CongUnited Statessupports military overthrow of Diem withdraws, 1970sCommuniststake South Vietnam 1975 After Victory: The Struggle to Rebuild VietnamDifficultiesU.S. blocks international aidreprisalsEconomy more open in 1980sbetter relations with U.S.

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