paris peace conference, 1919 the treaty of versailles

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WOODROW WILSON THE FOURTEEN POINTS WOODROW WILSON'S FOURTEEN POINTS WERE FIRST OUTLINED IN A SPEECH WILSON GAVE TO THE AMERICAN CONGRESS IN JANUARY WILSON'S FOURTEEN POINTS BECAME THE BASIS FOR A PEACE PROGRAM AND IT WAS ON THE BACK OF THE FOURTEEN POINTS THAT GERMANY AND HER ALLIES AGREED TO AN ARMISTICE IN NOVEMBER 1918.

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PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE, 1919 THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES THE BIG (4) THREE WOODROW WILSON GEORGES CLEMENCEAU DAVID LLOYD GEORGE (VITTORIO ORLANDO) GERMANY WAS NOT INVITED TO ATTEND AND RUSSIA WAS UNABLE TO BECAUSE OF ITS CIVIL WAR WOODROW WILSON THE FOURTEEN POINTS WOODROW WILSON'S FOURTEEN POINTS WERE FIRST OUTLINED IN A SPEECH WILSON GAVE TO THE AMERICAN CONGRESS IN JANUARY WILSON'S FOURTEEN POINTS BECAME THE BASIS FOR A PEACE PROGRAM AND IT WAS ON THE BACK OF THE FOURTEEN POINTS THAT GERMANY AND HER ALLIES AGREED TO AN ARMISTICE IN NOVEMBER 1918. THE FOURTEEN POINTS 1. NO MORE SECRET AGREEMENTS ("OPEN COVENANTS OPENLY ARRIVED AT"). 2. FREE NAVIGATION OF ALL SEAS. 3. AN END TO ALL ECONOMIC BARRIERS BETWEEN COUNTRIES. 4. COUNTRIES TO REDUCE WEAPON NUMBERS. 5. ALL DECISIONS REGARDING THE COLONIES SHOULD BE IMPARTIAL (FAIR) 6. THE GERMAN ARMY IS TO BE REMOVED FROM RUSSIA. RUSSIA SHOULD BE LEFT TO DEVELOP HER OWN POLITICAL SET-UP. 7. BELGIUM SHOULD BE INDEPENDENT LIKE BEFORE THE WAR. 14 POINTS CONTINUED 8. FRANCE SHOULD BE FULLY LIBERATED AND ALLOWED TO RECOVER ALSACE-LORRAINE 9. ALL ITALIANS ARE TO BE ALLOWED TO LIVE IN ITALY. ITALY'S BORDERS ARE TO "ALONG CLEARLY RECOGNIZABLE LINES OF NATIONALITY." 10. SELF-DETERMINATION SHOULD BE ALLOWED FOR ALL THOSE LIVING IN AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 11. SELF-DETERMINATION AND GUARANTEES OF INDEPENDENCE SHOULD BE ALLOWED FOR THE BALKAN STATES. 12. THE TURKISH PEOPLE SHOULD BE GOVERNED BY THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT. NON-TURKS IN THE OLD TURKISH EMPIRE SHOULD GOVERN THEMSELVES. 13. AN INDEPENDENT POLAND SHOULD BE CREATED WHICH SHOULD HAVE ACCESS TO THE SEA. 14. A LEAGUE OF NATIONS SHOULD BE SET UP TO GUARANTEE THE POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL INDEPENDENCE OF ALL STATES. DAVID LLOYD GEORGE KNOWN AS THE MIDDLE MAN HELPED TO MAKE COMPROMISES, HAD A SIMPLE PLATFORM: PUBLICLY HANG THE KAISER MAKE GERMANY PAY LOOKING FOR PUBLIC POLITICAL SUPPORT, HIS VIEWS WERE AS STATED ABOVEBRITISH PUBLIC WANTED REVENGE.SO HE HAD TO FOLLOW THAT MOODBUT.. PRIVATELY WANTED TO BE REASONABLEPUNISH GERMANY BUT NOT TO THE POINT THAT SHE WOULD BE LEFT DESTITUTE. GEORGES CLEMENCEAU THIS WAS THE SECOND TIME GERMANY ATTACKED FRANCE; THE FRENCH PUBLIC IS FURIOUS WANTED TO ELIMINATE ANY FURTHER CHANCE OF THREAT CRUSH AND PUNISH THE FRENCH SUFFERED THE MOST AND HE WANTED REVENGE AND SECURITY AGAINST FUTURE GERMAN ATTACKS, HE WANTED THE GERMANS TO BE STRIPPED OF ALL WEAPONS AND HE ALSO WANTED REPARATIONS (VAST PAYMENTS) TO COVER THE COST OF WAR. HE ALSO WANTED A SEPARATE RHINELAND (THE LAND ALONG THE BANK OF THE RHINE RIVER IN CENTRAL EUROPE BETWEEN FRANCE AND BELGIUM) AS A BUFFER STATE BETWEEN FRANCE AND GERMANY. GERMAN TROOPS WERE BANNED FROM ALL TERRITORY WEST OF THE RHINE AND WITHIN 50 KILOMETERS EAST OF THE RHINE. FINAL DECISION FOR GERMANY LOST ALL OF THEIR OVERSEAS COLONIES.MANDATES AIR FORCE AND NAVIES WERE DISBANDED/DESTROYED ARMY WAS LIMITED TO 100,000 MAX.FOR BORDER CONTROL AND INTERNAL CONTROL ONLY BILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO PAY IN REPARATIONS FOR ALL CIVILIAN PROPERTY DAMAGES ALSACE AND LORAINE RETURNED TO FRANCE GERMANY CANNOT BUILD FORTIFICATIONS ALONG THE RHINE RIVER GERMANY FORBIDDEN TO UNITE WITH AUSTRIA MUST ACCEPT THE BLAME THAT THEY CAUSED THE WAR: WAR GUILT CLAUSE THERE WAS CLOSE TO 500 ARTICLES ALL TOGETHER AND THERE WAS NO DISCUSSION FOR GERMANY GERMANY HAS A NEW GOVERNMENT NOW THAT KAISER HAS LEFT IN DISGRACE. HE SERIOUSLY THINKS ABOUT REFUSING TO AGREE TO THESE UNACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS BUT DOES NOT DARE..GERMANY HAS LIST MOST OF ITS LAND AND POWERS. WAR GUILT CLAUSE GERMANY, AS SHE WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR STARTING THE WAR AS STATED IN CLAUSE 231, AND THEREFORE RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL THE WAR DAMAGE CAUSED BY THE FIRST WORLD WAR. SHE HAD TO PAY REPARATIONS, THE BULK OF WHICH WOULD GO TO FRANCE AND BELGIUM TO PAY FOR THE DAMAGE DONE TO THE INFRASTRUCTURE OF BOTH COUNTRIES BY THE WAR. (REPARATIONS WOULD BE USED TO PAY FOR THE DAMAGE TO BE REPAIRED) PAYMENT COULD BE IN KIND OR CASH. THE FIGURE WAS NOT SET AT VERSAILLES - IT WAS TO BE DETERMINED LATER. THE GERMANS WERE TOLD TO WRITE A BLANK CHECK WHICH THE ALLIES WOULD CASH WHEN IT SUITED THEM. THE AMOUNT OF MONEY WAS SO LARGE THAT IT WAS WELL BEYOND GERMANYS ABILITY TO PAY. THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS CREATED TO PREVENT FURTHER WAR; THE THREE MAIN TASKS WERE: PERSUADE COUNTRIES TO TALK ABOUT THEIR DISPUTES BEFORE GOING TO WAR. OTHER COUNTRIES WERE TO STEP IN WITH TROOPS TO RESOLVE ANY WARS THAT BEGAN. TO GOVERN FORMER COLONIES OF GERMANY AND TURKEY UNTIL THEY COULD BECOME INDEPENDENT. PROBLEMS WITH THE LEAGUE IT WAS WEAK, NOT ORGANIZED WELL UNITED STATES REFUSED TO JOIN, RUSSIA AND GERMANY WERE NOT ALLOWED TO JOIN COUNTRIES THAT WERE MEMBERS OF THE LEAGUE REFUSED TO SEND TROOPS TO RESOLVE WARS. (CANT BLAME THEM!) TREATY EFFECTS GERMANY GERMANS ARE FURIOUS WITH THE DIKTAT (DICTATED PEACE) ESPECIALLY UPSET WITH THE WAR GUILT CLAUSE. GERMANS NOW OWE A LOT OF MONEY TO OTHER COUNTRIES; THIS REDUCES THE VALUE OF THE DEUTSCH MARK DRAMATICALLY. TREATY EFFECTS AUSTRIA HUNGARY USED TO BE LARGE AND POWER AND NOW SMALL AND WEAKBREAKING INTO REPUBLICS EUROPE POLAND, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, HUNGARY BECOME NEW COUNTRIES YUGOSLAVIA IS A NEW COUNTRYFORMERLY SERBIA, BOSNIA, AND HERZEGOVINA TREATY EFFECTS RUSSIA FINLAND, ESTONIA, LATVIA, AND LITHUANIA ARE ALL NEW COUNTRIES RUSSIA ALSO LOST LARGE AREAS OF LAND TO POLAND, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, RUMANIA WHY DID RUSSIA LOSE SO MUCH IF IT WAS AN ALLYPEOPLE IN THE NEW COUNTRIES WANTED INDEPENDENCE.OPENLY THEY HOPED THAT THIS WOULD AVOID FUTURE NATIONALISM CONFLICTS..BUT SECRETLY THE HOPE WAS THAT THIS WOULD PREVENT COMMUNISM FROM SPREADING. FINAL RESULT NO ONE IS HAPPY GERMANY, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AND TURKEY ARE NOT HAPPY WITH LOSES AND HARSHNESS ITALIANS WERE NOT HAPPY: THEY WANTED MORE LAND FRANCE NOT HAPPY: THEY FELT LIKE GERMANY WAS NOT PUNISHED ENOUGH AMERICANS WERE AFRAID THE PUNISHMENTS HAD BEEN TOO HARSH SO DOES NOT EVEN SIGN THE TREATY

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